Scholarly article on topic 'A experimental study of natural admixture effect on conventional concrete and high volume class F flyash blended concrete'

A experimental study of natural admixture effect on conventional concrete and high volume class F flyash blended concrete Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — T.S. Ramesh Babu, D. Neeraja

Abstract The present investigation is focused to introduce broiler hen egg as Natural Admixture (NAD) in concrete and study the effect of NAD on conventional concrete (CC) and class F fly ash (FA) blended concrete. Cement is replaced by FA at various levels (0%–55%) to its weight. Chemical composition of broiler hen egg ingredients was determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) after lyophilization. Broiler egg was added to concrete at various replacement dosages (0%–0.75%) in water by maintaining the constant liquid to binder ratio at 0.5. The compressive strength and spitting tensile strength of concrete was determined to optimize NAD dosage in FA blended concrete to get the desired strength of M 25 grade of CC. Studies revealed that 0.25% NAD dosage has very much significant effect on compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of all concrete mixes at all curing periods. Based on experimental results a new expression was developed and compared with CEB-FIP and ACI 363R predicted models for STS. The measured MOE was compared with ACI 363R, AASHTO LRFD/ACI318 predicted models. The C-65_FA-35 with 0.25% NAD dosage is concluded as optimum mix. As per cost analysis, C-45_FA-55 with 0.25% NAD was concluded as economical mix and can be recommended to use broiler hen egg as natural admixture.

Academic research paper on topic "A experimental study of natural admixture effect on conventional concrete and high volume class F flyash blended concrete"

CASE STUDIES IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Case Studies in Construction Materials

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cscm

A experimental study of natural admixture effect on conventional concrete and high volume class F flyash blended ^ concrete

T.S. Ramesh Babu*, D. Neeraja

School of Civil and Chemical Engineering (SCALE), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632 014, Tamilnadu, India

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ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

Article history: Received 17 August 2016 Available online 29 October 2016

Keywords: Natural admixture Lyophilization Class F fly ash Compressive strength Splitting tensile strength Modulus of elasticity Cost analysis

The present investigation is focused to introduce broiler hen egg as Natural Admixture (NAD) in concrete and study the effect of NAD on conventional concrete (CC) and class F fly ash (FA) blended concrete. Cement is replaced by FA at various levels (0%-55%) to its weight. Chemical composition of broiler hen egg ingredients was determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) after lyophilization. Broiler egg was added to concrete at various replacement dosages (0%-0.75%) in water by maintaining the constant liquid to binder ratio at 0.5. The compressive strength and spitting tensile strength of concrete was determined to optimize NAD dosage in FA blended concrete to get the desired strength of M 25 grade of CC. Studies revealed that 0.25% NAD dosage has very much significant effect on compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of all concrete mixes at all curing periods. Based on experimental results a new expression was developed and compared with CEB-FIP and ACI 363R predicted models for STS. The measured MOE was compared with ACI 363R, AASHTO LRFD/ACI318 predicted models. The C-65_FA-35 with 0.25% NAD dosage is concluded as optimum mix. As per cost analysis, C-45_FA-55 with 0.25% NAD was concluded as economical mix and can be recommended to use broiler hen egg as natural admixture.

© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction

In ancient period, the structures were constructed by using materials like lime, clay, mud, surkhi, wood, egg, jaggery, sugar, burnt coconut shells etc. Oral traditional sources tell us egg whites were used as ingredients of mortar, which were used to bind building materials for the ancient constructions. Egg whites were generally used as adhesive which is a compound that adheres or bonds two items. Historically, they were also used to produce paint binder [1]. Among the ancient admixtures, jaggery and egg were widely used. Michelle had a research on existing historical buildings by collecting mortar samples and proved that egg was used in building constructions [1]. After invention of cement by Joseph Aspdin in 1824, cement has been widely used in construction. The major drawback of cement usage is liberation of huge amount of green house gas (CO2) emissions into environment which causes global warming. Recently, various supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice husk ash etc., are being used as partial replacement of

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: rams134.reddy@gmail.com (T.S. R. Babu).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2016.09.003

2214-5095/© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/ 4.0/).

cement to reduce green house gas emissions. Several investigations are being done on historical constructions and concluded that lime, mud and surkhi were used as binders and starch, jaggery and egg were used as admixtures.

Jaya Sankar et al. used egg shell powder as partial replacement of cement in concrete and designed for M 20, M 25 & M 30 grade of concrete [2]. They concluded that the compressive strength and split tensile strength were decreased with the increasing replacement level of egg shell powder. Dhanalakshmi et al. also concluded that the compressive strength, workability and density of concrete were decreased with the increasing replacement of egg shell powder [3]. Hanifi Binici et al. concluded that replacement of egg shell powder in sand, the compressive strength and flexural strength of cement mortar were decreased. But it has higher resistance to radiation effect [4]. Ferhat and Ilhan concluded that class F fly ash can be replaced up to 55% to cement [5]. Siddique concluded that splitting tensile strength (STS) depends on compressive strength of concrete and age of concrete [6]. Guru Jawahar et al. concluded that the compressive strength of Class F fly ash blended concrete was increased due to pozzolanic reaction of class Fly ash [7].

Ramesh Babu and Neeraja [8] have concluded that the Natural Admixture (NAD) acts as accelerator to enhance the hydration of binder, when it added to binder. They were explained that the fresh properties of binder with and without NAD with standard consistency and initial setting time. At 0.25% NAD dosage the initial setting time of binder is less than that of without NAD and they were concluded that at this dosage the setting takes places very faster. The fresh properties of concrete were explained with workability of Conventional Concrete (CC) and Class C fly ash blended (FA) concrete was explained by slump cone test. They were concluded that, at 0.25% NAD the slump of concrete mixes were very less, because due to high viscosity of NAD the mix becomes homogenous and high bonding nature.

The mechanical properties of CC and FA blended concrete were explained and they were reported that 0.25% of NAD is concluded as optimum dosage [9]. And 25% Class C fly ash can be replaced with addition of 0.25% NAD to get designed strength.

Though various chemical admixtures are available for several purposes in concrete construction industry, the present study is mainly focused, to promote the usage of egg as admixture and determine the effect of egg on mechanical properties of concrete. Keeping in view of the importance of egg in respect to mechanical and durability properties of concrete, the main aim of research work is to use egg as natural admixture (NAD) and study the effect of NAD on compressive strength, Splitting Tensile Strength (STS) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) of conventional concrete (CC) and Class F fly ash blended (FA) concrete at different curing periods.

1.1. Lyophilization

Lyophilization or freeze drying is a drying process of solvent or suspended medium in which liquid will crystallize at low temperature. Drying of solvent can be done by air drying process. Chirife and Buera [10] concluded that air drying offers physical changes, chemical reactions and biochemical effects. In physical changes which include increasing or decreasing porosity and decreases bind water and microscopic structure damage. George and Datta, 2002 [11], Dincer 2003 [12] and Liu et al. [13] are concluded that lyophilization is widely used in food preservation, pharmaceuticals, medicine preservation, cosmetics and special chemicals and pigment preservations etc.

Lyophilization mainly consists of two phases; freezing and drying. During the freezing phase the products are freeze, so that the water is turned into ice. In drying phase the intracellular water is sublimated, so this water evaporates, it is caught up and resolidify on cold condenser plates at -60 °C to -70°C. The resultant product will be used for energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) to determine the chemical composition of NAD.

2. Experimental study

2.1. Experimental program

The main intension of the research work is to study the effect of natural admixture (NAD) on compressive strength, Splitting Tensile Strength (STS) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) of Conventional concrete (CC) and Class F fly ash (FA) blended concrete. The cement was replaced with Class F fly ash levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by its weight. Broiler hen egg was added to CC and FA mixes by mixing with water at various dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% to the weight of binder. The Binder (cement + fly ash) and liquid (water + NAD) ratio is kept constant at 0.5.

2.2. Material properties

2.2.1. Cement

Ultratech 53 grade Ordinary Portland cement was used confirming to IS 12269:1987 [14]. The physical and chemical properties of cement are showed in Tables 1 and 2.

2.2.2. Natural admixtures

Broiler hen eggs which were collected from local poultry forms nearby Chittoor, A.P, India used as natural admixture in this research work. White albumen and yellow yolk of broiler egg was thoroughly mixed and added to concrete.

Table 1

Physical properties of cement.

Particulars Test result Requirement as per IS:12269-1987

Physical properties

Specific gravity 3.15

Fineness (m2/kg) 315.4 Min. 225 m2/kg

Soundness

Lechatlier expansion (mm) 0.8 Max. 10 mm

Auto Clave expansion (%) 0.01 Max. 0.08%

Setting time (Minutes)

Initial 45 Min 30 mints

Final 230 Max. 600 mints

Table 2

Chemical properties of cement.

Particulars Test result Requirement as per IS:12269-1987

Chemical composition

% Silica (SiO2) 19.29

% Alumina (Al2O3) 5.75

% Iron oxide (Fe2O3) 4.78

% Lime (CaO) 62.81

% Magnesia (MgO) 0.84 Not more than 6.0%

% Sulphuric anhydride (SO3) 2.48 Max. 3.0% when C3A>5.0

Max. 2.5% when C3A < 5.0

% Chloride content 0.003 Max. 0.1%

Lime saturation factor CaO 0.92 0.80 to 1.02

0.7SO3/2.8SiO2 + 1.2Al2O3 + 0.65Fe2O3

Ratio of Alumina/Iron Oxide 1.21 Min. 0.66

2.2.3. Mineral admixture

Class F fly ash (FA) was used as an additive. The properties of Class F fly ash are showed in Table 3.

2.2.4. Coarse aggregate

20 mm and 10 mm crushed granite stones were used as coarse aggregate at 60:40 by weight proportions. The specific gravity and water absorption of the coarse aggregate were 2.6 and 0.3% respectively. The gradation curve of 20 mm and 10 mm aggregate are showed in Figs. 1 and 2.

2.2.5. Fine aggregate

Swarnamuki river sand was used as fine aggregate. The specific gravity and water absorption of the sand were 2.6 and 1% respectively. Sieve analysis of sand was conducted as per IS 383:1970 [15] and confirmed to zone - I sand [15]. The gradation curve of fine aggregate is showed in Fig. 3

Table 3

Properties of Class F fly ash.

Physical properties Test results

Specific gravity 2.13

pH 11.52

Moisture content 0.80%

Chemical properties

Element Weight%

CaO 5.98

SiO2 62.00

A№ 18.90

Fe2O3 4.90

MgO 1.99

Na2O 2.47

K2O 1.14

TiO2 1.09

Loss on ignition 1.56

Fig. 1. Grading curve of 20 mm coarse aggregate.

IS Sieve Size (mm)

Fig. 2. Grading curve of 10 mm coarse aggregate.

Fig. 3. Grading curve of fine aggregate.

Liquid form of broiler lien egg Amorphous form of egg sample

(Before lyopliilization) (After lyopkilization)

Fig. 4. Broiler hen egg samples before and after lyophilization.

2.2.6. Water

The Reverse Osmosis filtered water was used which satisfies water standards as per IS 456-2000 [16]. 3. Experimental procedure

3.1. Lyophilization

In this study, lyophilization of egg was carried out to know the chemical composition of egg. The objective of lyophilization was to freeze the liquid egg sample into amorphous or semi solid state to conduct EDAX. For that six samples were prepared with different specifications. Each sample of 15 ml was taken in a vial covered by paraffin film and needled holes were made on the top of the vial. The samples were frozen at -80 °C for 4h, and then the samples transferred to lyophilizer and were dried for 48 h. The dried samples after lyophilization are shown in Fig. 4

3.2. EDAX analysis

The lyophilized samples were used to carry out energy dispersive X-ray analysis EDAX to know the chemical composition of egg samples.

Table 4

Mix proportions of constituent materials.

Cement (Kgs) Fly Ash (Kgs) Fine aggregate Course aggregate Water (Lts) % of Egg Quantity of Egg (Lts)

C-100_FA-0 360 0 745 1150 180.00 0.00 0.00

179.10 0.25 0.90

178.20 0.50 1.80

177.30 0.75 2.70

C-75_FA-25 270 90 745 1150 180.00 0.00 0.00

179.10 0.25 0.90

178.20 0.50 1.80

177.30 0.75 2.70

C-65_FA35 234 126 745 1150 180.00 0.00 0.00

179.10 0.25 0.90

178.20 0.50 1.80

177.30 0.75 2.70

C-55_FA-45 198 162 745 1150 180.00 0.00 0.00

179.10 0.25 0.90

178.20 0.50 1.80

177.30 0.75 2.70

C-45_FA-55 162 198 745 1150 180.00 0.00 0.00

179.10 0.25 0.90

178.20 0.50 1.80

177.30 0.75 2.70

Ci Spectrum 12

Fig. 5. (a) EDAX spectrum of broiler egg white albumen. (b) EDAX spectrum of broiler egg yellow yolk. (c) EDAX spectrum of broiler egg mixed albumen and yolk.

Table 5

Chemical composition of broiler hen egg.

Chemical compound Atomic%

BW BY BWY

CaO 58.60 78.63 78.02

SiO2 30.38 20.90 19.85

Na 1.13 - 0.36

KCl 0.97 0.28 0.53

FeS2 1.02 - 0.61

80 " —_ ^hbw

■ IZZIBY

70 - ■ ^m BYW

Fig. 6. Chemical composition of broiler hen egg.

3.3. Mix design

M 25 grade of conventional concrete (CC) was designed as per IS 10262-2009 [17] and IS 456-2000 [16]. The desired strength of M 25 grade of CC was about 32 MPa after 28 days of curing. Class F fly ash blended mixes were prepared using the designed M 25 grade of CC by replacing the cement with FA at various levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by weight. In both CC and FA blended concrete, NAD was replaced in water at various dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% by maintaining constant liquid - binder ratio (0.5) which affects the compressive strength [16]. Here, liquid refers to water content with or without egg replacement and binder refers to cementitious content. The design mix proportions are shown in Table 4.

Table 6

Normal consistency of binder.

NAD Quantity C-100 _ FA-0 C-75 _ FA-25 C-65 _ FA-35 C-55 _ FA-45 C-45_FA-55

0.00% 29 31 32 33 34

0.25% 30a 33 34 36 37

0.50% 31 35 35 36 37

0.75% 32 35 35 37 38

1.00% 32 34 36 38 38

1.50% 31 33 35 37 37

a C-100_FA-0: C- represents cement percentage, FA represents Class F fly ash percentage. The normal consistency of mix C-100_FA-0 at 0.25% dosage of NAD is 30% i.e., 90 ml liquid (89.25 ml water and 0.75 ml NAD) for 300 gms of binder.

C-100 _ FA-0 C-75 _ FA-25 C-65 _ FA-35 C-55 _ FA-45 C-45_FA-55

Fig. 7. Normal Consistency of binder.

3.4. Testing fresh properties

3.4.1. Normal consistency and initial setting time of binder

As per ASTM C187-11 [18], the normal consistency of the paste was determined by Vicat needle penetration test for various paste proportions. Then initial setting times of these proportions were determined by using the normal consistency values as per ASTM C 191 [19].

3.4.2. Slump test

Neville [20] describes that internal energy is required to overcome the formation of voids in concrete. As per ACI Committee 116 [21], workability is defined as the property of concrete that exhibits homogeneity, mobility and finishablity of concrete. The workability of fresh concrete was determined by slump test as per ASTM C143 [22].

3.5. Compressive strength

The compressive strength (fck) of concrete mixes was calculated after 7, 28, 56 and 112 days of curing as per IS 516 [23]. Three cubes of size 150 mm and three cylinders of size 150 mm x 300 mm were cast and tested for compressive strength for each mix and curing period and the average of three samples was determined.

3.6. Splitting tensile strength

The splitting tensile strength of concrete mixes was calculated after 7, 28, 56 and 112 days of curing as per IS 5816 [24]. Three cylindrical specimens of size 150 mm x 300 mm were cast and tested for splitting tensile strength for each mix and curing period and the average of three samples was determined.

3.7. Unit weight

The unit weight of C-100_FA-0 and C-45_FA-55 with 0% and 0.25% NAD was calculated after 7, 28, 56 and 112 days of curing by considering the average of three cylindrical specimens of 150 mm x 300 mm before conducting the MOE tests.

3.8. Modulus of elasticity

The MOE of C-100_FA-0 and C-45_FA-55 with 0% and 0.25% NAD was calculated after 7,28,56 and 112 days of curing as per IS 516 [23]. The average of three cylindrical specimens of 150 mm x 300 mm was considered to calculate the MOE.

4. Results and discussion

4.1. EDAX analysis

Fig. 5 show elemental analysis of broiler hen egg samples. Chemical composition of average values of all samples shown in Table 5 and Fig. 6. From the results of broiler egg samples, it is observed that white albumen sample (BW) contains 58.60% of CaO and 30.38% of SiO2, yellow yolk sample (BY) contains 78.63% of CaO and 20.90% of SiO2 and mixed sample (BWY) contains 78.02% of CaO and 19.85% of SiO2.

4.2. Fresh properties of binder

4.2.1. Normal consistency and initial setting time of binder

Normal consistency of binder for all paste proportions are shown in Table 6 and Fig. 7. From the results, the normal consistency of binder has been increased with the increasing replacement levels of FA and NAD till 1.00% of NAD, thereby increasing the NAD the consistency has been decreased as shown in Fig. 7 for both all FA replacement levels. While conducting the normal consistency, the NAD offers resistance to penetrate the needle in to binder paste was observed up to 1.00% NAD that leads to increasing the consistency. There by increasing the NAD beyond 1.00% NAD replacement, the decreasing the consistency was observed. At greater than 1.00% of NAD, the fluidity formation of binder paste was observed. This is due to failure of NAD film over the binder particles.

Fig. 8 shows the initial setting time of binder paste for all the binder pastes. From the results the binder sets very fast at 0.25% NAD dosage for all FA replacement levels, than that of without NAD. There by increasing the NAD higher than 0.25% NAD the increasing the initial setting time was observed. It shows that at 0.25% NAD, it effectively involved to enhance the hydration that leads to faster setting of binder takes place was observed in all FA replacement levels. There by increasing the NAD dosage, the NAD film thickness increases on binder that leads to formation of barrier that causes to delay in the hydration.

^■C-100_FA-0

NAD dosage

Fig. 8. Initial setting time of binder.

4.2.2. Slump test

The slump values of all concrete mixes are shown in Fig. 9. From the results, at 0% NAD the slump increases with increase in FA replacement levels. Kemal Celik et al. reported that the slump values may be increases with increase in FA replacement levels, thereby workability can be increases. [25]. MegatJohari [26] also proved that the slump can be increased by increasing the FA quantity without changing the binder quantity and maintaining the constant water-cement ratio. Thereby increasing the NAD dosage from 0% to 0.25% drop down in slump was observed. This is due to maintaining the homogeneity of mix and faster setting taking place in between the ingredients leads to reduction in slump for all FA replacement levels. There by increasing the FA replacement level the increase in slump was observed at 0.25% NAD dosage. Again the increase in slump was observed by increasing the NAD dosage for all levels higher than 0.25% NAD dosage. The increase in NAD dosage leads to increasing the fluidity of mix.

The higher the NAD dosage the higher the slump was observed. At each FA replacement level, the increase in NAD dosage caused the reduction of slump value as shown in Fig. 9. This reduction is due to increase in the viscosity of mix and adhesion between the ingredients with the incorporation of NAD dosage. Adel Kaikea et al. [27] reported slump loss of concrete occurs due to the addition of viscous material. Hence, it can be said that the percentage of NAD dosage in CC and FA blended concrete mixes affects the workability of concrete. Jang et al. [28] reported that workability of fly ash blended concrete was increased by increase in fly ash replacement.

4.3. Hardened properties of concrete

4.3.1. Compressive strength

The compressive strength (fc) of concrete mixes is shown in Table 7 and in Fig. 10. The compressive strength values of CC have been significantly increased at 0.25% NAD replacement at all curing periods when compared to those of 0% NAD replaced mixes as shown in Table 7 and Fig. 10. The early age compressive strength of CC was increased from 20.67 MPa to 35.56 MPa after 7 days of curing itself with the incorporation of 0.25% NAD dosage. At 0.25% NAD, it is observed that CC attained more than the desired 28 days compressive strength at 7 days itself. The strength increments of the CC mixes from 0% to 0.25% of NAD dosages at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days were observed as 72.04%, 30.83%, 22.64% and 17.45% respectively. It is mainly due to the calcium content of egg ingredients (NAD) that accelerates the hydration in CC at all curing periods. Hence, it is to be pointed out that 0.25% of NAD dosage improved the bond strength and enhanced the compressive strength values

I IC-100 FA-0 ^M C-75_FA-25

0.00% 0.25% 0.50% 0.75%

Nad dosage (%)

Fig. 9. Slump of concrete.

Table 7

Compressive strength of concrete cubes (MPa).

NAD 0% 0.25% 0.50% 0.75%

C-100 _ FA-0

7 days 20.67 35.56 34.67 33.64

28 days 32.44 42.44 41.56 38.89

56 days 37.63 46.15 43.15 40.76

112 days 41.27 48.47 44.58 41.32

C-75 _ FA-25

7 days 19.78 22.22 23.56 22.49

28 days 31.13 36.22 35.67 33.78

56 days 38.97 44.36 41.06 38.47

112 days 45.32 49.32 45.25 42.07

C-65_ FA-35

7 days 17.89 20.89 20.09 18.98

28 days 29.65 35.45 34.89 31.78

56 days 40.32 46.52 42.49 39.72

112 days 49.07 56.07 47.69 44.89

C-55_ FA-45

7 days 16.67 20.44 18.22 15.56

28 days 27.12 34.22 31.56 30.89

56 days 37.05 44.32 41.32 38.49

112 days 44.23 52.22 48.44 44.22

C-45_ FA-55

7 days 14.89 19.23 17.45 14.96

28 days 26.06 32.13 30.94 30.05

56 days 34.01 42.12 39.41 36.78

112 days 39.02 49.63 46.94 42.65

of CC. But, further dosage of NAD after 0.25% decreased compressive strength of CC at all ages. Hence, it is concluded that 0.25% of NAD dosage can be taken as optimum dosage for conventional concrete mixes.

The increase in FA replacement from 25% to 55% in 0% NAD concrete mixes decreased the compressive strength values after 7 and 28 days of curing when compared to those of CC. The compressive strength values of FA blended mixes were higher for 0.25%-0.75% of NAD dosages as compared to those of 0% NAD mixes at all ages. It is mainly attributed to the enhanced reaction of Silica in fly ash and Calcium in NAD that leads to the formation of Calcium-Silicate-Hydroxide (C-S-H) gel. It is clearly seen that the influence of 0.25% NAD dosage was very much effective in all fly ash blended mixes. But, further increase in NAD dosage beyond 0.25% decreased the compressive strength of FA blended mixes at all ages. This is due to formation of air voids in concrete or lead to increase in entrained air or entrapped air content. Jang et al. [28] conformed that excess dosage of admixtures leads to decreasing the compressive strength.

The fly ash blended mixes attained higher compressive strength values at later ages due to pozzolanic action of class F fly ash [29-31 ]. After 28 days, the pozzolanic action of 35% FA replacement was very much significant in 0% NAD mixes when compared to other FA replacement levels. It is also observed that the concrete mixes with 35% FA and 0.25% NAD have attained higher compressive strength values (46.52 MPa and 56.07 MPa) at 56 and 112 days when compared to those of 0% NAD concrete mixes as shown in Table 7. 30% replacement of fly ash exhibited the highest compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and elastic modulus [32].

2 (x CaOSiO2) + y H2O ! 3 CaO 2 SiO2-3H2O + z Ca (OH) 2 (1)

(Egg) (Water)! C-S-H (gel)Where 'x' depends on chemical composition of feed, which is taken by hens. If x = 3 then y = 6 &z = 3;orifx = 2 then y = 4 & z = 1.

From the EDAX analysis Table 5 shows the chemical composition of broiler hen egg. The major elements are CaO and & SiO2 are in combined form (CaOSiO2). When the NAD mixed with water, it generates the hydration process, it leads to formation C-S-H (gel) and that tends to development of strength.

Whereas the egg shell consists of CaCO3, that is an inert insoluble precipitate and does not react with water. The CaCO3 mild base, so it reacts with strong acids and there after the egg shell will becomes a soft precipitate, if it separated from acid again it reacts with atmospheric CO2 and again converted into CaCO3. So it won't develop the strength and will act as filler [2-4].

Interestingly, it is observed that 55% FA blended mix attained the desired 28 days strength of M 25 grade of CC at 0.25% NAD dosage. After 7 and 28 days of curing, the compressive strength values of the C-45_FA-55 mix at 0.25% NAD were

comparable to those of M 25 grade of CC. The Ca(OH)2 (Calcium hydroxide) released from chemical reaction between NAD and water (i.e Eq. (1)), that will react with Silica present in fly ash develops pozzolanic action. Due to this the FA blended mixes gets higher strengths at ages than that of without NAD FA blended mixes. Due to pozzolanic action and the influence of NAD, the C-45_FA-55 mix at 0.25% NAD obtained higher values of compressive strength after 56 and 112 days of curing as compared to those of CC as shown in Fig. 11. Hence, from the results, it is concluded that the mix with 55% FA and 0.25% NAD can be recommended as cost effective sustainable M 25 grade of concrete. Ravida and Mehta concluded that the 40-50% weight of cement can be replaced by ASTM Class F or Class C fly ashes, and 180 days of curing is required to meet the designed strength of concrete without fly ash. The workability of high fly volume ash (50% FA) cement mixtures was very much good and specific consistency was greatly reduced with their water requirement [33,34]. Shaikh and Steve revealed that the volume of permeable voids, water sorptivity has been reduced in high volume fly ash concrete than that of conventional concrete [35]. Tarun Naik et al., concluded that the abrasion resistance is depends on compressive strength of concrete. The high volume FA concrete having lower water permeability than that of CC and it was superior to no fly ash concrete with respective to chloride ion permeability [36,37]. So it is concluded that the mix C-45_FA-55 can be recommended to encourage the sustainable materials with 0.25% NAD to get designed strength and also it will have more durability.

7 Days 28Days 56Days 112Days

Fig. 11. Compressive strength of concrete cubes C-100_FA-0 and C-45_FA-55.

Table 8 show the compressive strength of cylindrical specimens (f 'ck) at all ages. These also show the same trend of cube compressive strength. The ratio of compressive strength of cylinder and cube were presented in Table 8. The ratio (/,c/fc) vary from 0.77 to 0.82 and average of all samples was considered and taken as 0.8 [38,39].

4.3.2. Splitting tensile strength

The splitting tensile strength (STS) results of M 25 grade of CC and 55% fly ash blended concrete (C-45_FA-55) are shown in Table 9 and in Fig. 12. From the results, it is observed that after 7 and 28 days of curing, the STS values of the C-45_FA-55 mix at 0.25% NAD were comparable to those of M 25 grade of CC. Due to pozzolanic action and the influence of NAD, the C-45_FA-55 mix at 0.25% NAD obtained higher values of STS after 56 and 112 days of curing as compared to those of CC as shown in Fig. 12. It is mainly attributed to the pore refinement of the concrete which improves the interracial transition zone

Table 8

Comparison between Cylinder and cube compressive strength.

Cylinder (/ck') Cube (/ck) fk

C-100_FA-0 (0.00% NAD)

7 days 16.33 20.67 0.79

28Days 25.63 32.44 0.79

56Days 30.29 37.63 0.805

112Days 33.51 41.27 0.812

C-100_FA-0 (0.25% NAD)

7 days 28.98 35.56 0.815

28Days 34.59 42.44 0.815

56Days 37.89 46.15 0.821

112Days 40.18 48.47 0.829

C-45_FA-55 (0.00% NAD)

7 days 11.48 14.89 0.771

28Days 20.20 26.06 0.775

56Days 26.97 34.01 0.793

112Days 31.06 39.02 0.796

C-45_FA-55 (0.25% NAD)

7 days 15.04 19.23 0.782

28Days 25.22 32.13 0.785

56Days 34.29 42.12 0.814

112Days 40.75 49.63 0.821

Avg=0.80087

Table 9

Splitting tensile strength of concrete (MPa).

C-100_FA-0 C-45_FA-55

NAD 0.00% 0.25% 0.00% 0.25%

7 days 2.52 3.45 1.987 2.45

28Days 3.15 3.72 2.712 3.11

56Days 3.42 3.89 3.14 3.67

112Days 3.59 4.03 3.52 4.12

7 Days 28Days 56Days 112Days

Fig. 12. Splitting tensile strength of concrete cylinder.

(ITS). Parra et al. [40] concluded that the higher the fines or different super plasticizers affect the bonding between aggregate-paste, which will have higher effect on increment of tensile strength than that of compressive strength. The slower pozzolanic action on class F fly ash, the lesser the tensile strength of concrete at early days [41].

Fig. 13 shows the relationship between compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. From Figs. 12 and 13, it is observed that splitting tensile strength increases with increase in compressive strength. The increase in compressive strength leads to increase in splitting tensile strength [40]. The characteristics of interfacial transition zone tend to affect the flexural and tensile strength than that of compressive strength [41-43]. Studies revealed that though the STS is depends on the mix design, compressive strength, aggregate type and particle size distribution [43,44].

From the splitting tensile strength results the proposed equation for STS showed in Fig. 13. The CEB-FIP [45] and ACI363R [46] predicted equations for STS of concrete were showed in Table 10. The experimental values, determined values by proposed equation, CEB - FIP and ACI 363 R of STS were showed Table 11 and Fig. 14. From Table 11 it is seen that, CEB - FIP equation gives under estimated values for all the mixes at all ages. The ACI 363 R gives the reasonable values and also in acceptable range. But the ACI 363 R equation values are very less than that of experimental values at later ages. Whereas the predicted equation values are very nearer to experimental values and also the error percentage is also very less when compared to ACI 363 R values. Hence, it can be concluded that based on error percentage the predicted equation can be recommended to determine the approximate STS.

4.3.3. Unit weight or density of hardened concrete

The Density or unit weight of C-100_FA-0 (CC) and C-45_FA-55 (FA) with 0% and 0.25% NAD mixes were showed in Table 12. As it can be seen from Table 12, CC with 0.25% NAD attained higher density than that of without NAD at all ages. Decrease in density was observed with addition of fly ash at all curing periods with and without NAD when compared with CC. This is due to lower specific gravity of fly ash leads to reduction in density of fly ash mixes. But increase in density of FA was observed with addition of 0.25% NAD at all ages than that of FA without NAD. So that NAD also influencing to increase the

Fig. 13. Compressive strength (VS) Splitting tensile strength of CC and FA blended mix.

density of both CC and FA at 0.25% NAD dosages. ACI 237R-07 [47] stated that MOE is depends on unit weight of concrete, aggregate type and content. ACI 318 [48] or AASHTO LRFD [49] proposed empirical model for calculation MOE of concrete as a function of its unit weight and compressive strength. Noguchi et al. [50] presented an expression to determine MOE for conventional concrete by considering its unit weight and compressive strength as functions for concrete made with light weight, normal weight heavy weight aggregates.

The FA mix with 0.25% has attained the designed strength of M25 grade concrete at 28 days with less density. So that if FA mixes with 0.25% NAD used for construction, it leads to reduce the dead load on the structures.

4.3.4. Modulus of elasticity

The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of C-100_FA-0 (CC) and C-45_FA-55 (FA) with 0% and 0.25% NAD mixes are summarized in Table 13 and Fig. 15. It is noticed that MOE also follows the same trend as like compressive strength. CC with 0.25% NAD achieved higher MOE than that of FA mixes at 7, 28 and 56 days of curing. The FA mix with 0.25% NAD achieved lower MOE than that of CA with and without NAD up to 28 days of curing. After 28 days of curing the FA mix with 0.25% NAD achieved higher MOE than that of CC without NAD, but lower than that of CC mix with 0.25% NAD up to 56 days. Where after 56 days FA mix with 0.25% achieved higher MOE than that of CC with 0.25% NAD. This is because of due to continuation of pozzalanic action of FA mix, which also enhanced by NAD to develop higher MOE. Siddique [51] reported that the high volume Class F fly reduces the compressive, spitting tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity and abrasion resistance of the concrete. In normal concrete, the amount of micro cracks partially depends on the ratio of aggregate to cement (aggregate/ cement), the variability of the volume ratio of the aggregate to cement can also affect the mechanical properties of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFA) [52].

Table 10

Experssions for STS.

Code of practice

Expression for fsts (Mpa)

Range of concrete strength

f'c < 80MPa 21 MPa < fc < 83MPa

CEB-FIP (1990)

ACI 363R (ACI 1992) Proposed expression

0.59 x (fc)0' 0.43 x (fc)0'

fc is compressive strength of concrete cylinder.

Table 11

Comparison of experimental and predicted STS.

Comp. strength (fc) Experiment Proposed equation. CEB-FIP ACI 363R

C-100_FA-0 (0.00% NAD)

7 days 16.33 2.52 2.30 1.38 2.38

28Days 25.63 3.15 3.01 2.28 2.99

56Days 30.29 3.42 3.33 2.66 3.25

112Days 33.51 3.59 3.54 2.91 3.42

C-100_FA-0 (0.25% NAD)

7 days 28.98 3.45 3.24 2.56 3.18

28Days 34.59 3.72 3.60 2.99 3.47

56Days 37.89 3.89 3.81 3.24 3.63

112Days 40.18 4.03 3.94 3.40 3.74

C-45_FA-55 (0.00% NAD)

7 days 11.48 1.987 1.86 0.77 2.00

28Days 20.20 2.712 2.61 1.78 2.65

56Days 26.97 3.14 3.10 2.39 3.06

112Days 31.06 3.52 3.38 2.72 3.29

C-45_FA-55 (0.25% NAD)

7 days 15.04 2.45 2.19 1.23 2.29

28Days 25.22 3.11 2.98 2.24 2.96

56Days 34.29 3.67 3.59 2.97 3.45

112Days 40.75 4.12 3.98 3.44 3.77

fc is compressive strength of concrete cylinder.

The ACI363R [46], ACI 318[48] or AASHTO LRFD [49] and IS 456:2000[16] suggested empirical models were presented in Table 14. The MOE of experimental values, predicted ACI 363R, ACI 318 and IS 456:2000 are summarized in Table 15 and showed in Fig. 16. From Table 15, it is observed that ACI 363R empirical model predicted the very low values of MOE as compared with the experimental values at all the ages. Because, ACI 363R empirical model considering the compressive strength as a function to determine MOE it does not considering unit weight. The IS 456:2000 predicts the higher values of MOE than that of experimental values; it is also considering compressive strength only. Whereas ACI 318 or AASHTO LRFD predicts the lower values of MOE when compared with experimental values, but which is reasonable and very near to experimental values at all the ages, when compared with ACI 363R and IS 456:2000.

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Compressive strength (f ) (MPa)

Fig. 14. Comparison between predicted CEB & ACI.

Table 12

Unit weight of concrete (kg/m3).

NAD Quantity 7 days 28 days 56 days 112 days

C-100 FA-0

0.00% 2410.57 2425.29 2442.95 2445.12

0.25% 2452.96 2476.45 2479.12 2481.03

C-45 FA-55

0.00% 2351.45 2421.36 2429.17 2431.47

0.25% 2369.78 2449.67 2459.05 2461.86

Table 13

Modulus of Elasticity of concrete (GPa).

C-100_FA-0 C-45_FA-55

0.00% NAD 0.25% NAD 0.00% NAD 0.25% NAD

7 days 21.09 29.54 17.36 20.52

28Days 28.14 32.21 24.98 27.34

56Days 29.94 33.86 28.76 32.14

112Days 30.66 34.03 31.03 34.78

7 Days 28Days 56Days 112Days

Fig. 15. MOE of concrete.

Table 14

Expression for MOE.

Code of Practice Expression for Ec (MPa) Range of concrete strength

ACI 363R 3320p\ + 6900 No specified maximum strength

AASHTO LRFD/ACI 318 0.043 (к)1'5 + f 21MPa < fc < 83 MPa

IS 456:2000 5000f No specified maximum strength

Table 15

Comparison between measured and predicted MOE (GPa).

Compressive strength (fc) ACI-363R ACI-318 IS-456-2000 Experiment

11.48 18.15 16.61 19.29 17.36

15.04 19.77 19.24 21.93 20.52

16.33 20.32 20.57 22.73 21.09

20.2 21.82 23.02 25.52 24.98

25.22 23.57 26.18 28.34 27.34

25.63 23.71 26 28.48 28.14

26.97 24.14 26.74 29.16 28.76

28.98 24.77 28.12 29.82 29.54

30.29 25.17 28.58 30.67 29.94

31.06 25.4 28.73 31.23 31.03

33.51 26.12 30.1 32.12 30.66

34.29 26.34 30.7 32.45 32.14

34.59 26.43 31.17 32.57 32.21

37.89 27.34 32.67 33.97 33.86

40.18 27.95 33.68 34.81 34.03

40.75 28.09 33.53 35.22 34.78

Note: fc is the compressive strength of concrete cylinder.

For structural design point of view, the lower value makes the structure safe. So that, ACI 318 empirical model can be recommended to predict the approximate MOE for structural design by considering unit weight and compressive strength of concrete.

4.4. Cost analysis of M 25 grade of concrete mixes

Cost analysis of M 25 grade of CC and fly ash blended concrete (C-45_FA-55 with 0.25% NAD) is made as per standard schedule of rates (SSR) [53] and represented in Table 16. From the results, the material cost of M 25 grade of CC and C-45_FA-55 was about Rs. 3080 and Rs. 2030 respectively. Interestingly, it is observed that the material cost of C-45_FA-55 (0.25% NAD) was about 34% less than that of M 25 grade of CC. Hence, the C-45_FA-55 mix with 0.25% NAD can be considered as cost effective M 25 grade of concrete as 55% of cement has been saved by FA replacement with just 900 ml of NAD (approximately 18 eggs per m3 of concrete).

—[-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Compressive strength (f )

Fig. 16. MOE (vs) Compressive Strength.

Table 16

Cost analysis of C-100_FA-0 and C-45_FA-55 mixes.

C-100_FA-0 (0% NAD)

C-45_FA-55 (0.25% NAD)

Materials

Cement a

Rate (Rs) 320.00 72.00 610.00 1210.00 875.00 65.00

Quantity

0.52 0.48 0.32 0

Amount (Rs) 1900.00 0.00 317.20 580.80 280.00 0.00 3078.00

Quantity

Amount (Rs)

826.36

305.00

556.60

271.25

2029.23

a 1 bag of cement contains 50kgs.

b 1 egg is considered as 50 ml approximately. Its price is considered as Rs. 3.25/each.

5. Conclusions

The following conclusions have been drawn based on the investigation studied on the influence of natural admixture

(broiler hen egg) on mechanical properties of CC and FA blended concrete:

1. From EDAX results it is observed that broiler hen egg mixed sample contains 79.04% of CaO and 18.49% of SiO2. The CaO. SiO2 present in NAD was helped to strength enhancement in both CC and blended mixes.

2. The fresh properties of binder were studied and initial setting time of binder at 0.25% NAD is very less which shows that binder had rapid hardening at 0.25% NAD dosage for all mixes.

3. The workability of concrete was studied with slump values. The slump loss was observed at 0.25% NAD dosage, because setting time of ingredient was very less due that the lower slump was obtained.

4. The 0.25% NAD dosage has very much significant effect on mechanical properties of CC at all curing periods. This is primarily due to the incorporation of NAD that accelerates the hydration in CC.

5. It is observed that CC (0% FA) has attained the 28 days strength of M 25 grade of concrete at the age of 7 days itself with the incorporation of 0.25% NAD. Beyond 0.25% NAD dosage, all CC mixes exhibit lower mechanical properties as compared to those of 0.25% NAD replaced CC mixes.

6. It is clearly seen that the influence of 0.25% NAD dosage was very much effective in all fly ash blended mixes. But, further increase in NAD dosage beyond 0.25% decreased the compressive strength of FA blended mixes at all ages.

7. It is also observed that the concrete mixes with 35% FA and 0.25% NAD have attained higher compressive strength values at later ages concluded as optimum mix.

8. It is concluded that 55% FA blended mix attained the desired 28 days strength of M 25 grade of CC with 0.25% NAD dosage and can be considered as M 25 grade of FA blended concrete.

9. It is observed that after 7 and 28 days of curing, the STS values of the C-45_FA-55 mix at 0.25% NAD were comparable to those of M 25 grade of CC. Due to pozzolanic action and the influence of NAD, the C-45_FA-55 mix at 0.25% NAD obtained higher values of STS at later ages.

10. CEB-FIP model predicted very low values of STS and ACI363R predicted STS values are reasonable, but error percentage is high at designed period when compared with experimental values. The proposed equation having very less error percentage of STS when compared with ACI 363R and also it predicted STS are very close to experimental values. Hence, the proposed equation can be recommended to predict the STS of concrete in further.

11. It is observed that the material cost of C-45_FA-55 (0.25% NAD) was about 34% less than that of M 25 grade of CC and hence, it can be considered as cost effective sustainable concrete.

12. From the results, it is revealed that 0.25% NAD dosage can be considered as optimum dosage both in CC and Class F fly ash blended concrete.

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