Scholarly article on topic 'The Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Creative Behaviors in Educational Institutions'

The Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Creative Behaviors in Educational Institutions Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Information Sharing" / "Organizational Citizenship Behaviors" / "Creative Behaviors in Turkey"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Abdülkadir Akturan, Hülya Gündüz Çekmecelioğlu

Abstract Most of the organizations seek ways to survive in today's competitive environment. Employees need to be informed about their organisations and motivated to be able to show creative behaviors. Sharing needed information with employees empowers them and that allows them to show voluntary behaviors in favor of their organizations. OCB includes that voluntary behaviors. In this study, Information Sharing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors are examined in terms of Creative Behaviors. The survey of this study is conducted on 220 personnel of an educational institution in Turkey. The obtained data from the questionnars are analyzed through the SPSS statistical software.

Academic research paper on topic "The Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Creative Behaviors in Educational Institutions"


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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 (2016) 342 - 350

12th International Strategic Management Conference, ISMC 2016, 28-30 October 2016, Antalya,


The Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Creative Behaviors in Educational Institutions


_a'b Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, 41400, Turkey_


Most of the organizations seek ways to survive in today's competitive environment. Employees need to be informed about their organisations and motivated to be able to show creative behaviors. Sharing needed information with employees empowers them and that allows them to show voluntary behaviors in favor of their organizations. OCB includes that voluntary behaviors. In this study, Information Sharing and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors are examined in terms of Creative Behaviors. The survey of this study is conducted on 220 personnel of an educational institution in Turkey. The obtained data from the questionnars are analyzed through the SPSS statistical software.

© 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunder responsibilityof the organizing committeeofISMC2016.

Keywords : Information Sharing, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Creative Behaviors in Turkey. l.Introduction

Compared with other organizational factors, knowledge becomes gradually the most important factor of them. Knowledge is valuable when it is shared with other employees (Renzl, 2008 : 208). In today's dynamic global business environment, knowledge is seen as a source of strategic competitive advantage of the organizations (0'neill & Adya, 2007 : 1). There are many definitions for knowledge. Overall Tiwana defined Knowledge as "Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, cotextual information, expert insight and grounded intuition that provides an enviroment and framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information". It would be wrong to think of creativity without knowledge. Organizational succes and the basic requirement of being a leader in the market, is through the creation of consistent innovation (Demirel & Sekin, 2008 : 190). To be creative and innovative the employees need to work together and share voluntarily the needed knowledge. Organizational Citizenship Behavior has a very big influence on the employees performance and effectiveness (Yulianti, 2014 : 98). These performance and effectiveness includes creative behaviors through the OCB (Oldham and Cummings, 1996 : 610). Instead of organizing small improvements, organizations create innovative and creative ideas which make big differences in the business life to struggle to protect their assets (Yildirim, 2007:110). Creativity is problem-solving capacity, or the capacity to produce a new product that is acceptable in the business culture (Nickerson,1992: 392). Many businesses are aware of the importance of creativity, but they do not have enough knowledge and experience about how to improve it. Arthur Schawlow Nobel prize winner in physics, explained the difference between highly creative and less creative scientists when he was asked: "The labor of love aspect is important. The most successful scientists often are not the most talented. But they are the ones who are impelled by curiosity. They've got to know what the answer is". Amabile explained that with intrinsic motivation (Amabile, 1997:39) . Finkelstein find a very meaningful relationship between OCB and intrinsic motivation ; concerning to her, intrinsically motivated individuals engage in an

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1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISMC 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.042

activity, including OCB finding reward in the behavior itself (Finkelstein,2011:22). There are many definition for creativity. Amabile's creativity definition is mostly accepted than the other definitions in the literatur. She defined creativity as "creativity is simply the production of novel, appropriate ideas in any realm of human activity, from science, to the arts, to education, to business, to everyday life" (Amabile,1997:40) . Organ (1988: 4) defined organizational citizenship behaviors as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization." Employees exhibiting organizational citizenship behavior are expected to show more creative behavior and try to show more activities that will provide more benefit compared to other employees in favor of organizations they work for. Employees who easily access to the information they need and show OCB will be more creative compared with others. However, the relationship among, knowledge sharing, organizational citizenship behaviors and creative behaviors are not examined enough. In order for the employee to demonstrate creative behaviors , it seems necessary to build a culture of knowledge sharing and a work climate in which employee can exhibit OCB's. Thus, the purpose of this research is to examine and compare the effects of knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behaviors on creative behaviors in educational institutions..

2. Literature Review And Hypotheses

Organizational citizenship behavior is within the scope of research on organizational behavior. Organizational citizenship behavior, which emerged as an independent concept in the 1980s, has become the focus of attention today. The development of Knowledge - communication technologies, and the effects of globalization, has led to an inevitable transformation in institutional and social dimensions. This transformation is considered as "informatics revolution" or "knowledge society" today (Yildirim U., Oner §., 2004:1). In order to achieve superiority over the competition businesses want to keep Knowledge in their hands and to take advantage of as much of the knowledge technology in Knowledge society (Selvi O., 2012:1). It is stated that, the most important elements of knowledge sharing in organizations are individuals and individual information. Information can not be produced without the individuals in the organization. Unless sharing information among employees and groups in the organization, it is an undeniable truth that the organizational effectiveness will be limited (Karaaslan, et. al., 2009:136). By knowledge sharing it is concerned that the parties share knowledge without any coerce but only as a result of compromis (Yeniferi & Demirel, 2007: 222).

Today, there is a pressure on the organization; to be dynamic, proactive, effective and able to respond quickly to change, innovative and creative. To handle this pressure, OCB has risen to the forefront to be a successful organization (Lapierre ve Hackett, 2007: 539). Employees as organizational citizens will show creative behaviours when they get the information that they need. OCB and knowledge sharing play a very important role in business life effecting employees to show creative behaviours.

2.1.Knowledge Sharing

Knowledge has been commonly known as the major source for creating an organization's sustainable competitive advantage (Fang, Y.,et al.,2010:42). Collins and Hitt (2006:148) illustrated in their study that knowledge sharing is an accumulation of social capital for an organization as if there is an adequate social capital is available then the knowledge possessed by an individual can be shared efficiently and effectively in the organization. Nevertheless the willingness of the members to share their knowledge with other members based on the organizational structure and social relations in the organization ( Islam T. et al., 2012:795). The importance of organizational knowledge has supported several knowledge management activities that are intended to realize knowledge creation, retention and distribution (Bock, G.W., et al.,2010:99). In fact, the knowledge of human resources, customers, innovations and processes consist of managerial intellectual capital that will be incorporated into decisions (Shang, S.S.C., et al.,2009:99). However, the transition of knowledge across individuals and organizational boundaries, and into organizational practices relies heavily on individual employees' knowledge sharing behavior (Bock, G.W., et al., 2005:101). When individuals are psychologically attached and identified with an organization, they trust and interact with other organizational members and make it easy and comfortable to share knowledge with them ( Islam T. Et al., 2012:795). Social factors are more deterministic than extrinsic benefits in knowledge -sharing behaviors (Bock, al., 2005:99)

Knowledge sharing potentially carries the meaning, to share sensitive knowledge about costs, productivity, financial and performance with employees of the organization's (Scott et al.., 2004:333). With knowledge sharing, managers strengthen teams that can take their own decisions. This dimension creates a situation for workers to understand the meaning of their work, to feel being of competence in fulfilling the business and have an impact in the direction of the organization where they feel themselves better (Bandura, 1982:122). In other words, knowledge sharing constitues the basis of empowerment. The sharing of sensitive and important knowledge will allow employees to understand the duties and responsibilities , organization and the top management's judgments and behaviors. Trust, mutual understanding and communication resulting from this

undestanding will give a potential ability to employee to govern themselves (Si & Wei, 2012: 303). As seen, in companies to obtain the knowledge, sharing among employees, development and management emerges as a strategic activity. (Demirel,2008:199).

Knowledge sharing is one of the most critical point for knowledge society. Without knowledge sharing, it is not possible to see an efficient knowledge society. Bureaucratic structure of the organization, limits the sharing of knowledge particularly sensitive and important knowledge. Knowledge sharing, why it is the most important first step can be summarized as follows (Randolph, 1995: 22):

• Without knowledge, it is not possible to wait from the employees to act responsibly for the organization and to make a difference in their movements.

• Knowledge sharing significantly increases the level of confidence in the organization.

• In particular, the sharing of sensitive knowledge, cause employees to embrace the work.

To obtain the innovative competitive advantage in favor of the organizations effectively, organizations provide substantial knowledge to employees, employees to other employees (Ta§, 2011:120). After providing knowledge sharing, and the foundation of trust the next step will be the creating autonomy structure based working teams (Randolph, 1995: 23-25). Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:

Hypothesis 1: Knowledge sharing has a positive relationship with attitude toward creative behaviors.

2.2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

Derived from Katz's (1964) category of extra role behavior (Schappe 1988, 277) OCB has been defined as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Discretionary, means that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description, that is the clearly specifiable terms of the person's employment contract with the organization; the behavior is rather a matter of personal choice, such that its omission is not generally understood as punishable (Organ (1988, p.4). Examples of OCBs include helping coworkers with work related problems, not complaining about trivial problems, behaving courtesely to coworkers, and speaking approvingly about the organization to outsiders. A key component of the OCB definition is that omission of the OCBs is not punishible (Zellars, Tepper, Duffy, 2002: 1068).

Although there is no clear consensus with the literature on the number of dimensions of OCBs, Organ (1988) and other studies (Padsakoff & MacKenzei, 1994; Padsakoff et al, 1997; Farth, Zhong, & Organ, 2004) have proposed a variety of forms, including altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, civic virtue, and conscientiousness. Altruism is discretionary behavior that has the effect of helping a specific other person with an organizationally relevant task. Courtesy is is discretionary behavior aimed at preventing work-related problems with others (e.g., touching base with the manufacturing plant before making a large sale final). Sportmanship is behavior that tolerating in good spirit the occasional hardships and deprivations that unpredictably befall individuals in the course of organizational endeavors (Organ 1988a, p. 11). Civic virtue is behavior indicating that the employee responsibly participates in, and is concerned about, the life of the company. Finally, conscientiousness is discretionary behavior that goes well beyond the minimum role requirements of the organization (MacKenzie, Pod-sakoff, and Fetter 1993). Although OCB is discretionary behavior researchs pointed out that today "the ideal worker is an employee who not only demonstrates high levels of task performance, but also engages in high levels of OCB as well (Bolino and Turnley, 2005, p. 740).

There are some possible causes why helping behaviors might be positively related to work group or organizational effectiveness . For example, OCBs (1) provide a means of managing the inter-dependencies among members of a work unit, which increases the collective outcomes achieved; (2) reduce the need for an organization to devote scarce resources to simple maintenance functions, which frees up resources for productivity; and (3) improve the ability of others (i.e., coworkers and managers) to perform their jobs by freeing up time for more efficient planning, scheduling, problem solving, and (4) enable the organization to more effectively adapt to environmental changes and (5) strengthening the organization's ability to attract and retain the best employees. Overall, OCB enhances the social and psychological work environment in such a way that it supports task proficiency and can increase group performance (Organ, 1988; Netemeyer, 1997, 86), Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; 1997). OCBs create efficiencies by reducing the need for monitoring and freeing time for more valuable management activities such as scheduling and problem solving (Podsakoff et al., 1995). OCB develops through the voluntary efforts of employees to exceed prescribed instructions and tasks. These efforts are oriented towards two major targets, with members of the organization being the first target. In this case, OCB is revealed as helping (forms of behaviour reflecting social, moral or practical assistance). Helping may reflect significant traits such as altruism, conciliation and even courtesy. Giving and receiving help strengthens ties between employees. Helping promotes the desire to reciprocate, contributes to learning the ropes and frees management control over tasks, allowing management to concentrate on developing goals, etc. (Paille, Grima, 2011, p.4).

2.3. Creative Behaviours

Today, in business environment where more intensified competition is higher and faster than before, enterprises have to do their best to survive and to maintain their competitive position as being creative. Creativity, bringing together the innovation, in terms of providing the generation of new ideas and approaches, is creating a significant and sustainable competitive advantage. In organizational perspective, innovative ideas and creative performance of individuals on the basis of these ideas are supportive for organizational climate and that will allow the emergence of competition (Amabile et al., 1996: 1156). Innovation approach, discussed in algorythmic areas and businesses that can create an appropriate organizational climate for creativity, will provide a more effective performance and productivity. (Yahyagil, 2001: 10). Creativity is defined many different in ways, it also presents a very complex and detailed structure. Many theorists and researchers interested in the subject of creativity. Despite some small differences, creativity usually have defined in a similar way. In the most accepted definition of creativity; creativity is production of , new and useful ideas in all areas,. (Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, Herron, 1996: 1154). Holt (1974: 24) expresses creativity as " the result of the thought introducing new and useful ideas.

According to Anderson and his colleagues (1992: 41) , creativity is developing new ideas and concepts to combine synthesis, or by changing the existing ideas and / or improving the ability to generate new ideas. It is possible to define creativity summarized based on these definitions; creativity is the process and idea in any field of new, useful ideas to produce solutions to existing problems.

There are many factors that affect creativity. These are categorised mainly in two main categories as individual , and organizational factors. Factors affecting individual creativity can be divided into four groups (Woodman et al., 1993: 297-300). Personality, Cognitive Factors, Intrinsic Motivation, Information.

Today, the success of the company depends on a combination of the solution of organizational and human problems together. For that reason, the manager must work to increase the capacity of two issues. These are ( Duren, 2000: 108): To provide strategic agility to adapt to change, creative ability and flexibility to increase the capacity of intelligence, and structurally, the capacity to innovate in technological and social issues. Creativity, however, can develop in a free and dynamic atmosphere. Encouraging creativity and the right to have information on the need creative process managers to manage, it is essential to know how to create an environment where both the creative staff how he might have chosen will and creativity (Simsek, 1999: 290). Managing the creative organizations members contains; to have the knowledge and share with colleges. The creativity which will be organizational and permanent is an event that can fulfill employees' desire and enthusiasm.

Organizational success and the basic requirement of being a leader in the market, is through the creation of consistent innovation. Businesses can continue their lives as connected to insist on innovation. Having the innovative abilities is the basic condition and needs of organizations to create competitive advantage (Demirel & Sejkin, 2008:190). One of the most important steps to be taken creating an innovative organizational culture, is to promote the sharing of Knowledge. Creativity requires creative thinking. A produced idea may be creative, but also it must have a profit.

A creative approach needs to be taken to drive the strategic vision of the organization through effective leadership (Sohmen V.S., 2013:4). Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:

Hypothesis 2: Team working has a positive relationship with attitude toward Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.

2.4. Relationship Between knowledge sharing, OCB and creative behaviors.

Bolino, M.C., et al., ( 2002:510) mentioned in their study that that OCBs play a very vital role in the development of social capital in organizations. Their conceptual framework indicates that OCBs include loyalty, obedience and participation, all of which contribute to the creation of the structural, relational and cognitive aspects of social capital. OCB's enhanced when employee's perceived that there is a supportive culture in their organizations. By social exchange theory it is also mentioned that when employees perceive that their organization supports them they show citizenship behaviors (Islam T. et al., 2012:796). Knowledge sharing behavior is regarded as the degree to which employees share their acquired knowledge with their colleagues (Ryu S., Ho S.H., and Han I.,2003:119). Inherently, the transfer of knowledge from one individual or one unit of an organization to another significantly contributes to the organizational performance (Argote, L., et al., 2000:7). Facilitating knowledge sharing is a complicated task, as one of the major challenges concern is the willingness of organizational members to share their knowledge with other co-workers (Lam, A., and Lambermont-Ford, J.P., 2010:57). In the workplace, knowledge sharing behavior is viewed as voluntary and is represented by OCB, and another social psychological factor, namely, sense of self-worth. Ipe (2003) indicates that many researchers have handled the motivation for knowledge sharing as a function of reciprocity.And the organizational climate must

be ready for knowledge sharing. We can talk about the creative behaviours where knowledge sharing and OCB perceived by employee well. Employees who demostrate organizational behaviours will feel a part of their organization and voluntarily share needed knowledge with their collauges. This volunatrily executed social behaviors will affect the employee to show creative behaviors. It is argued that potential creativity can be increased through interactions with others and the cross-fertilization of ideas (Perry-Smith and Shalley, 2003). Creativity of employee can be occured if there is support for the creative atmosphere and creative thinking of the members of the organization (Yulianti P.2014:101).

3. Methodology

3.1 Research Objective

The purpose of this survey is to identify the effect of knowledge sharing, organizational citizenship behaviors on creative behaviors. To test the propositions, a field survey using questionnaires was conducted.

3.2. Sampling and Data Collection

The main body of this survey comprises an educational institute operating in Turkey. This institute is operating since a long time in the education sector throughout Turkey, and was carried out in a well-established company operating in many cities and towns in Turkey. The survey of this study is conducted on 220 personnel of this institution. Despite these fundamental constraints of the study should be evaluated in the literature as well as contributed to a number of practitioners. Data obtained from those 220 questionnaires were analyzed through the SPSS statistical packet program. To ensure and improve innovation in an organization, knowledge sharing must be used widely (Kermally, 2004, P. 105)

3.3. Measures

The scale items for attitude toward knowledge sharing and from Blanchard (1995). The scale developed by Padsakoff et al. (1990) is used to measure the organizational citizenship behavior. Organizational citizenship behavior is measured as 24 variables in five dimensions; conscientiousness, civic virtue, sportsmanship, altruism and courtesy. In order to measure creative behaviors the scale of Rice (2006) was used.

All of the variables in the research model was measured using 5-point Likert scale. A six-point scale is used, with anchors ranging from 1="extremely disagreed", 2="disagreed", 3="somewhat disagreed/somewhat agreed", 4="agreed", to 5="extremely agreed".

The main and sub-hypotheses based on the measurement model study was as follows.

H1: Knowledge Sharing has a positive effect on creative behaviors.

H2. Organizational citizenship behavior has a positive effect on creative behaviors

• H2a1 Conscientiousness dimension affects creative behaviors by «= 0.05 significance level.

• H2a2 Sportmanship affects creative behaviors by «= 0.05 significance level.

• H2a3 Courtesy dimension affects creative behaviors by «= 0.05 significance level.

• H2a4 Civic virtue dimension affects creative behaviors by «= 0.05 significance level.

• H2a5 Altruism dimension affects creative behaviors by «= 0.05 significance level.

Table 1: Profiles of the Resondents

Frequency Percentage

(N=300) (100 %)

25 years and under 10 4,6

26- 35 100 46

36- 45 85 39

46- 55 20 9

56 years and over 5 2,4

Total 220 100

Female 120 55

Male 100 45

Total 300 100

Married 100 45

Single 120 55

Total 300 100

Elementary School 3 1

Middle School 9 4

High School 16 8

College 40 19

Bachelor degree/professional 134 60

Master Degree/ PhD 18 8

Total 220 100

< 1 year 10 4.6

1-3 years 70 32

4-6 years 83 37,6

7-9 years 47 21.4

>10 years 10 4.4

Total 220 100

2.2. Analyses and Results

The research result obtained after the findings were analyzed for the purposes of the research. Research hypotheses reliability and validity analysis in order to assess the accuracy of the scale used for multivariate scale in research before testing was performed. Three different scales were used for knowledge sharing, OCB and creative behaviors .A total of 34 variables were used for these four dimensions in the study.

Table: 2 ^ The relations between Knowledge Sharing and creative behaviors

Hypothesis Relations P Conslusion

H1 There is a relationship between Knowledge Sharing and creative behaviors . ***

Table: 3 The relations between OCB and creative behaviors .

Hypothesis Relations P Conslusion

H2a1 There is a relationship between conscientiousness dimension of OCB and creative behaviors. *** Partially Supported

H2a2 There is a relationship between sportmanship dimension of OCB and creative behaviors . ,002

H2a3 There is a relationship between courtesy dimension of OCB and creative behaviors . ,407

H2a4 There is a relationship between civic virtue dimension of OCBand creative behaviors . ***

H2a5 There is a relationship between altruism dimension of OCB and creative behaviors . ,003

3. Conclusion

In the scope of this study the effect of knowledge sharing and OCB on creative behaviors was investigated. Considering of the strategic management, this study will be useful for the purpose of functioning effectively in organizations with their employees. In this context data was obtained from those 220 questionnaires in an educational institute that operates throughout Turkey. After the data is encoded using SPSS 17.0 and AMOS 18.0 tested. According to the hypothesis test hypothesis was accepted at the 0.05 significance level. According to the hypothesis test, the two main hypothesis of the research, due to the refusal of some sub-hypothesis was partially accepted. Knowledge sharing influences creative behaviors. As shown in our study, Knowledge sharing is a positive influence on creative behavior. Employees with whom the necessary knowledge shared exhibit more OCB in the workplaces. With more knowledge employees become more empowered. In contrast to the hierarchical structure formed working groups (teams) within can create a vision for themselves and their OCB has been shown to increase with a lot size of workers to move freely in the framework of this vision. With this climate created by leaders in working environment, institutions can provide more benefits, show smooth and disinterested activities, own work , move efficiently, bring the institution to highest level. So these such organizations give the chance to work with employees who can help each other and show creative behaviors for the profit of their organizations. The OCB and the knowledge sharing affect to the behaviors of employee in organizations in creative way. With knowledge sharing can an organization creates a positive perceived climate for employees. In this climate employees show OCBs in organizations which effects the performance positively. In order to achieve an efficient and effective organization; management must create a climate within the knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behaviors to have a creative climate for their employees. In the future, the strategic advantage of an organization can be achieved by having a climate within the employees can act voluntarily as a citizen of their organization. If employees feel theirselves worthy for their organization they can show OCBs and share freely the needed information with their collauges. Feeling a part of organization and having the needed information can an employee be more creative than before and others.


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