Scholarly article on topic 'Social Networking Sites Addiction and the Effect of Attitude towards Social Network Advertising'

Social Networking Sites Addiction and the Effect of Attitude towards Social Network Advertising Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Lütfiye Can, Nihat Kaya

Abstract Because of the prevalence of mobile devices, the overuse of social networking sites has become a global phenomenon. Social networking sites (hereafter SNS) give a lot of opportunities for business. First of all, businesses can make advertise their product in an easy way. A lot of SNS users can see companies’ advertisements when they use SNS for a different purpose. For marketing management, attitude for advertising is very important. Because Consumers’ attitude is an important factor in influencing consumers’ purchase intention. Purposes of this study are to (1) identify the effect of habits and perceived ease of use on psychological dependence on SNS; and (2) to explore the relationship between SNS dependence and attitudes toward SNS advertisement. 215 data entries were analyzed through SPSS. Analysis results revealed that social networks have partial impacts on approaches of people who are psychologically bond to these web sites, towards advertisements.

Academic research paper on topic "Social Networking Sites Addiction and the Effect of Attitude towards Social Network Advertising"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 (2016) 484 - 492

12th International Strategic Management Conference, ISMC 2016, 28-30 October 2016, Antalya,

Turkey

Social networking sites addiction and the effect of attitude towards

social network advertising

Lütfiye Cana, Nihat Kayab*

a,b Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli, 41400, Turkey

Abstract

Because of the prevalence of mobile devices, the overuse of social networking sites has become a global phenomenon. Social networking sites (hereafter SNS) give a lot of opportunities for business. First of all, businesses can make advertise their product in an easy way. A lot of SNS users can see companies' advertisements when they use SNS for a different purpose. For marketing management, attitude for advertising is very important. Because Consumers' attitude is an important factor in influencing consumers' purchase intention. Purposes of this study are to (1) identify the effect of habits and perceived ease of use on psychological dependence on SNS; and (2) to explore the relationship between SNS dependence and attitudes toward SNS advertisement. 215 data entries were analyzed through SPSS. Analysis results revealed that social networks have partial impacts on approaches of people who are psychologically bond to these web sites, towards advertisements.

©2016 The Authors.Published by ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityof theorganizingcommittee ofISMC2016.

Keywords: Social media, Social network advertising, Social networking addiction, Attitude

1. Introduction

When the World Wide Web was first introduced, it was used mostly to send information to relatively passive readers, in a similar manner in with which newspapers and books were made popular. The content of each website was written, edited, and published by a selected group of people. The concept of 'ownership' of websites was strong, and the owners were responsible for the content. It was not very interactive as it was mostly used for reading, so users who accessed this kind of websites did not participate or contribute to creating the content (Seo and Lee, 2016).

* Corresponding author. Tel.+ 90-262-605-1251; fax: +90-262-605-12-25.

E-mail address: lutfiyecan@gtu.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ISMC 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.059

Starting from the mid-2000s, the World Wide Web began to implement more interactive applications, offering a function that readers could participate in content creation. These websites were called Web_2.0 websites (O'Reilly, 2006). To define Web 2.0, it is a continuation of Web 1.0 that ended when the dotcom bubble burst in the fall of 2001. Web 2.0 is a network platform that connects all devices regardless of the operational system they use (Brengarth and Mujkic, 2016). With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies the younger generation of Internet users is rewriting the rules of social interaction, and the way business is conducted. By utilizing electronic media and Web 2.0 tools such as Wiki's, blogs, tagging and social bookmarking, new and ingenious methods of social interaction across geographic borders and industry silos are being created (Fuu et al., 2008). Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define social media as "a group of Internet based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content." Over the last few years, the use of social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity in many countries across the world (Kuss and Griffiths, 2011). Individuals visit social media sites to engage in many different types of entertainments and social activities including playing games, socializing, passing time, communicating, and posting pictures (Allen et al., 2014). Although this has quickly become a normal modern phenomenon (Boyd and Ellison, 2007), concerns have raised regarding the potential addictive use of social media. For a lot of organizations—including business, nonprofits, and governmental agencies use of social media very often begins in Marketing, public communications, or a similar office or department with a direct connection to customers and stakeholders (Evans and Mc Ke e, 2010). The emergence of social media marketing opens up a new era for marketing management. Among the functional areas of firms that have witnessed the potential impact of social media, the sales function has the potential to be one of the most dramatically changed factor by these technological advancements. Virtually all aspects of personal selling and sales management could be inherently affected by these Technologies (Mick et al., 2016) They focus on social media in order to promote or market their product, and communicate with customers or gain them. For social media marketing, social media advertisement is a very important method. But how do consumers perceive social media advisement? Attitude toward advertising is receiving increasing attention as a mediator or advertising effects (Lutz et al,1983). What is the attitude toward SNS advertising? And what is the attitude in general? Or what is its importance? In this study, we will look for answers to these questions.

2. Literature Review and Hypotheses

2.1. Attitude and Its importance

Before the 60s, social psychology had failed to understand the attitude-behavior relationship, but in 1963, Fishbein addressed this issue in a very progressive manner. His subsequent presentation of theory of reasoned action in 1980, and the theory of planned behavior in 1985, were an attempt to explain the impact of attitude on behavior (Baber et al., 2016). The term "attitude" enjoys a long history and can be traced back to varies definitions. In everyday discourse we use the term 'attitude' to express an opinion, or group of opinions, held by an individual about a specific object(Howarth,2006) According to Eagly and Chaiken (1993), Attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. According to Fishbein & Ajzen (1975), Attitudes can be described as a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Attitude is important because of its effect on purchase intention and behavior. To understand the constitutive role that the social media plays in what is seen as 'individual' behavior, we need a more radical change in terms of perspective. Lalljee, Brown and Ginsburg's (1984) notion of 'communicative acts' does move away from an individualistic focus by challenging two main assumptions of traditional attitude theory:

• Attitudes are internal dispositions that strongly influence behavior

• Attitudes are fixed and enduring (Howarth, 2006)

According to Rosenberg & Hovland, attitude has three components, affect, behavior, and cognition, and these components are essentially the anatomy of an attitude (Katz, 1960; Rosenberg and Hovland, 1960). Affect refers to the positive or negative feelings that a person holds toward an attitude object. Here, attitude object refers to the entity being evaluated. Behavior refers to the actions and responses to the attitude object. And cognition refers to beliefs that a person has about an attitude object (Rosenberg and Hovland, 1960; Katz, 1960). This representation can be viewed in Figure 1.

Fig 1. Attitude Has Three Components. Adapted from The Psychology of Attitudes, by Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

General attitude toward advertising is defined as the audience member's affective reaction to advertising. For marketing management, attitude for advertising is very important. Because Consumers' attitude is an important factor in influencing consumers' purchase intention (Lutz et al., 1983).

2.2. Social Media and Social Networking Sites

Social media has been defined in several ways. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content." According to studies and work by Kietzmann et al (2011), Social Media are eminently and exceedingly interactive platforms, which apply and engage the mobile devices and other web based technologies to facilitate individuals, groups and communities in developing, co-creating, sharing, transform and discuss the content produced by the user. In practice, social media refers to specific platforms through which people communicate, such as discussion forums, blogs, wikis, social networks, and multi-media sites, being some of the most popular Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, Google +, Flickr, Twitter, and Youtube (Bradley and Barlett, 2011). These specific platforms may change over time or be replaced by some others, but it seems valuable to address social media by looking at the specific platforms people use. Social Network Sites are defined as: Web based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semipublic profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system the nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site (Boyd, & Ellison. 2008). In terms of SNS history, the first social networking site (SixDegrees) was launched in 1997, based on the idea that everybody is linked with everybody else via six degrees of separation, and initially referred to as the "small world problem" (Milgram, 1967).

2.3. Social Networking Sites Addiction and Usage

"Addictive behavior" (e.g., smoking, eating, gambling, relationships, etc.) is defined as follows: "a repetitive habit pattern that increases the risk of disease and/or associated personal and social problems" or "the behavior continues to occur despite volitional attempts to abstain or moderate use" (Marlatt et al., 1988,). Over the last decade, other addictive behaviors have become a part of our lives, such as Internet addiction, excessive use of the Internet, microblogs, blogs or social networking sites. In all, social networking sites is the most widely used social media canal and the term Social Networking Sites addiction come to eminence. Terms such as "excessive use," "addiction," "dependency," and "problematic use" have often been used interchangeably to refer to the negative aspects of SNS usage. In particular, SNS addiction refers to spending too much time on SNSs. This is diagnosed as addiction because it is categorized as cyber-relationship addiction (Choi and Lim, 2016). Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual

communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a 'global consumer phenomenon' with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that 'addiction' to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users (Kuss and Griffiths,2011).

For more than a decade, the social networking sites (SNSs) have witnessed a sporadic increase in number and popularity. In fact, as the year passes-by, so is the popularity and number of SNS increases. Recent studies have shown that people subscribed to more than one SNSs platform (Olufadi, 2016). For instance, Duggan et al. (2015) reported that more than half of the internet users (52%) use two or more of the following SNSs (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn) compared with 42% who did so in 2013.

Andreessen and Pallesen (2014) stressed that there is scarce research on SNS addiction and therefore it might be difficult to determine the causal relationship and to identify the determinants of SNS addiction. Despite the criticism of SNS Addiction Scale, more research is needed to explore this concept and to uncover the mechanism behind addiction to SNS. The more instances of usage and more time spent on SNS cause SNS addiction to become more likely. Most evaluations of SNS usage are based on the number of times one uses SNS per day and the amount of usage each day however, few studies have concretely classified the behavioral standards of SNS addiction, such as those who use SNS four times per day and those who use it for more than 60 min per day or those who use it for more than five hours per day (Hong et al., 2014) SNS addiction (also known as SNS intrusion) is defined as excessive involvement SNS activities and is a frequent cause of problems in everyday social functioning (Elphinston and Noller, 2011). It is also characterized by some of the features commonly observed in other addiction cases, such as tolerance, withdrawal, relapse etc. (Andreassen et al.,2012).

2.4. Advertising and Social Network Sites Advertisement

Advertising is commonly defined as paid, one-way promotional communication in any mass media. The American Marketing Association defines advertising as "the placement of announcement and persuasive message in time or space purchased in any of mass media by business firms, nonprofit organization, government agencies, and individuals who seek to inform and persuade member of a particular target market or audience about their product, service, organizations, or ideas." Advertising remains primary component of a brand's promotional mix, used to inform and persuade target audience about products (Tuten,2008). The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message on consumers has been extensively studied. The understanding among researchers seems to be that when viewers are more frequently exposed to an advertisement, they have more time to think and elaborate about the message. Consequently, this repeated exposure and added elaboration time helps consumers to learn and retain information contained within the message better and repetition leads to better recall of the message content (Newell and Henderson, 2010). The advertising landscape has changed dramatically in recent years, and nowhere is this move visible than online. The advertising industry has long sought to go where consumers go (Tuten, 2008). With the advent of web 2.0, social media advertising has gain importance. There are a lot of advertisement type in Social Networking Sites. In our dissipation we selected specific advertisement types which SNS users see a lot in general. Then we showed how users see advertisement in SNS. Firstly, companies can make advertisement in order to make brand pages liked by users. Users can see the right column or source of news as sponsored. Secondly, people who have already liked the page the brand's page can see it's advertisement as sponsored. Thirdly, people who don't see the brand in advance can see advertisement as a recommended share. And the last but not the least, users can see brand advertisements with friends who liked the brand in advance.

2.5. Development of Hypotheses

To empirically test the proposed model, we collected data using an online survey. Within the rapid expansion of SNS in Turkey, it is appropriate to engage in this study through direct contact with SNS users. As for the importance of the study, in order for a better understanding of the question, we chose +18 SNS users.

Tested scales used in our survey were adapted from the previous literature. The scales for social media dependence which use 9 items to measure it were adapted from Charlton (2002). However, one item was deleted because of loaded two different factors in the end of factor analysis. To appraise perceived ease of use scales which use 4 items to measure it drawn from Leung (2008). The scales of habit were adapted from LaRose et al (2003) which use 3 items. The scale of attitude toward social media advertising which use 4 items was adapted from Chang&Thorson (2013). All items were measured using a seven-point Likert scale, with the anchors from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree."

The sample group completed four questionnaires: Psychological Dependence test, habit test, perceived ease of use and, attitude toward SNS advertisement test. Before we asked attitude toward SNS advertisement of participant, we showed how they can see SNS advertisement when they use SNS. Additionally, the respondents were asked about gender, age, marital status and the frequency and duration of every use.

Fig 2. The research model

H1: There is a relationship between Perceived Ease of Use and Habit

H2: There is a relationship between Habit and Psychological Dependence

H3: There is a relationship between Perceived Ease of Use and Psychological Dependence

H4: There is a relationship between Psychological Dependence and attitude toward SNS advertisement

H5: There is a relationship between Perceived Ease of Use and attitude toward SNS advertisement

H6: There is a relationship between Habit and attitude toward SNS advertisement

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Goal

Purposes of this study are to (1) identify the effect of habits and perceived ease of use on psychological dependence on SNS; and (2) to explore the relationship between SNS dependence and attitudes toward SNS advertisement. To test the propositions, electronic survey using questionnaires was conducted.

3.2. Sample and Data Collection

The sample group consisted of 218 individuals. An online version of the questionnaire was prepared, so there was no information about the number of uncompleted questionnaires. A friend of us agreed to take part in the study and to send the link of questionnaires to SNS users with a request to spread the message among their Social Network friends. All the participants fulfilled one criterion: they were SNS users.3 participants said they weren't SNS users so their

questionnaire were cancelled. Then data obtained from those 215 questionnaires were analyzed through the SPSS statistical packet program.

3.3. Analyses and Results

The majority of the sample group consisted female individuals and the ages of participants varied from 18 to 41. The majority of them was bachelor. After the demographic question, we asked "how often do you use Social Networking Sites and what is the mean duration of every use? It was found that %87 of participants use SNS almost every day and approximately half of them use it less than 1 hour (%52).

Table 1. Respondents' demographic profiles and experiences with SNS

Demographics Distribution Percentage (%)

Gender

Female 140 65,1

Male 75 34,9

18-25 107 49,8

26-33 91 42,3

34-41 17 7,9

42-49 -

50 and more -

Marital Status

Bachelor 159 74

Married 56 26

Experience Distribution Percentage (%)

How Frequency

Everyday 186 86,5

3-4 day in a week 20 9,3

1-2 day in a month 2 0,9

3-4 months in one year 7 3,3

Duration of every use

Less than 1 hour 111 51,6

1-3 hours 82 38,1

4-6 hours 12 5,6

More than 6 hours 10 4,7

Table 2. Factor Analysis Result

1 2 3 4

I use the Social Networking Sites without really thinking about it. The use of Social Networking Sites is part of my usual routine. The use of Social Networking Sites is a habit that I have gotten into ,598 ,645 ,769

Perceived ease of use

Learning to operate Social Networking Sites is easy It is easy to interact with Social Networking Sites The use of Social Networking Sites is clear and understandable. Social networking sites is flexible to use. ,794 ,797 ,899 ,741

Psychological Dependence

I sometimes neglect important things because of an involvement in Social Networking Sites My social life has sometimes suffered because of my interactions through Social Networking Sites. Using Social Networking Sites sometimes interferes with other activities When I am not using Social Networking Sites, I often feel agitated I have made unsuccessful attempts to reduce the time I spend interacting through Social Networking Sites I am sometimes late for engagements because I interact with Social Networking Sites Arguments sometimes arise because of the time I spend on Social Networking Sites I often fail to get enough rest because I interact with Social Networking Sites ,847 ,751 ,829 ,603 ,751 ,864 ,756 ,743

Attitude toward Social Networking Sites advertisement

I like Social Networking Sites advertisement I am interested in Social Networking Sites advertisement Social Networking Sites advertisements appeal to me Social Networking Sites advertisements are nice ,912 ,926 ,917 ,945

Total explained factor: % 69,58 KMO: 0,860 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity: 0,000

Those items with factor loadings can be seen in Table 2. Also as it has been seen in Table 3, the Cronbach's Alpha values for each factor exceed 0,60, which indicates the reliability of scales used in that survey.

Table 3. Cronbach Alpha Values, means and standard deviance

Concepts Mean Std. Cronbach

Deviance Alpha

Habit 2,60 0,836 0,636

Perceived ease of use 3,92 0,650 0,824

Psychological Dependence 1,97 0,790 0,914

Attitude toward SNS Advertisement 1,90 0,912 0,947

Table 4. Regression Analysis Results

Regression model Independent Variables Depended Variables Standardized ß Sig. Adjusted R2 F Value Model Sig.

H1 Perceived ease of use habit O,255 ,000 ,061 14,783 ,000

H2 Habit Psychological Dependence 0,539 ,000 ,288 87,428 ,000

H3 Perceived ease of use Psychological Dependence -0,007 O,920 -0,005 0,010 0,920

H4 Psychological Dependence attitude toward SNS advertisement 0,132 0,054 0,013 3,763 0,054

H5 Perceived ease of use attitude toward SNS advertisement 0,50 0,468 -0,002 0,529 0,468

H6 Habit attitude toward SNS advertisement 0,151 0,27 0,18 4,980 0,27

In this study, simple linear regression analysis is also conducted to test the hypotheses and to define the direction of relations. When we examined the Table 4, it can be seen that perceived ease of use have a significant effect on habits (P=0,255 p=0,000<0,05). So regression analysis results support H1. It can be seen that habit have a significant effect on psychological dependence (P=0,539, p=0,000) So regression analysis results support H2. Moreover, psychological dependence has effect on attitude toward SNS advertisement (P=0,132, p=0,054) and so H4 can be supported. But H3 hypothesis is not supported (p=0,920> 0,05), H5 and H6 hypothesis in not supported (p=0,468> 0,05, p=0,27>0,05)

But we conduct that multiple linear regression (independent variables= habit, perceived ease of use SNS, Psychological Dependence/ dependent variable=attitude toward SNS advertising) there is no statistical relationship between the variables.

4. Conclusion

Public attitudes toward advertising in general have long been a focus of research. Qelebi (2015) found that in his study "Individuals who have a need of belonging to groups and enjoying a sense of community hold positive attitude toward Internet advertising and SNS advertising". According to Tuden, Research suggest that advertising online is viewed positively by a lower percentage of consumers than any other advertising medium. The aim of this research is to measure attitudes toward SNS advertising. It should not be forgotten that attitude leads to behavior. This research is of high importance for both business managers and marketing staff as its results suit to their concerns. The research was conducted to those who use social networks in an active way. The approaches when they encounter random advertisements while using social media were observed. It is known that advertisement is a significant way for businesses to market their products. They improve recognition of their products by advertising and create demand for them as well. It was understood through this study that social networks have partial impacts on approaches of people who are psychologically bond to these web sites, towards advertisements. However, those impacts are not as effective as they are thought to be. Many SNS users stated that they did not either like or concern advertisements. These results should also be evaluated for marketing managers. There should be visually attractive and entertaining advertisements that may arouse interests of SNS users. An alternative for this method may be using viral advertisements of which SNS users are not necessarily aware (which they would not regard as an advertisement). In this way, recognition of products may be increased. As it is known, viral advertisements include a fiction and try to introduce products and gain sympathy through this fiction. Further studies may be conducted to see whether viral advertisements of social media are more effective than normal SNS advertisements or not.

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