Scholarly article on topic 'Nutritional Effects of Added Fish Proteins in Wheat Flour Bread'

Nutritional Effects of Added Fish Proteins in Wheat Flour Bread Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Keywords
{"fish protein concentrate" / "chemical score" / "bread quality."}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Floricel Cercel, Romulus Marian Burluc, Petru Alexe

Abstract The addition of ingredients like protein concentrate can lead to the production of bread with high protein content. This work studied the potential of supplementing wheat flour dough with fish protein concentrate (FPC) and fish protein concentrate lyophilized (FPCL). Commercial wheat flour bread was then supplementing at a 10% level of proteins (dry basis) with FPC and FPCL in order to produce bread with protein content at a 20% (dry basis). Flour properties and bread characteristics were determined. Substitution with FPC and FPCL improved the nutritional value of wheat flour bread but induced a decrease in loaf specific volume compare to unriched flour.

Academic research paper on topic "Nutritional Effects of Added Fish Proteins in Wheat Flour Bread"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ELSEVIER

5th International Conference "Agriculture for Life, Life for Agriculture"

Nutritional Effects of Added Fish Proteins in Wheat Flour Bread

Floricel CERCELa*, Romulus Marian BURLUCa, Petru ALEXEa

aDunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Domneasca St. 111, 800201 Galati, Romania

Abstract

The addition of ingredients like protein concentrate can lead to the production ofbread with high protein content.

This work studied the potential of supplementing wheat flour dough with fish protein concentrate (FPC) and fish protein

concentrate lyophilized (FPCL).

Commercial wheat flour bread was then supplementing at a 10% level of proteins (dry basis) with FPC and FPCL in order to produce bread with protein content at a 20% (dry basis).

Flour properties and bread characteristics were determined. Substitution with FPC and FPCL improved the nutritional value of wheat flour bread but induced a decrease in loaf specific volume compare to unriched flour.

©2016 The Authors.Publishedby ElsevierB.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest

Keywords:fish protein concentrate, chemical score, bread quality.

ScienceDirect

Agriculture and Agricultural Science

Procedia

Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 10 (2016) 244 - 249

1. Introduction

The health status of many people could be improved by increasing protein nutritional value of wheat flour bread. Due to the development of scientific research in bakery and cereal products it appeared a diversification and modernization of processing technologies, a broadening of the product range, an increased use of additives for different purposes (Marin et al., 2012).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +4074-918-4816. E-mail address: floricel.cercel@ugal.ro

2210-7843 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest doi:10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.09.060

The incorporation of ingredients like FPC and FPCL can lead to the production of nutritionally enhanced products like bread with high protein content. Supplement with FPC and FPCL improve bread protein content and compensate wheat deficiencies in lysine and threonine, two essential amino acids. This substitution can lead to decreases in loaf specific volume ofbread (Suhrendo et al., 1993; Des Marchais et al., 2011). This work studied the potential of supplementing bread with FPC and FPCL.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Materials

The wheat flour contained: 0.48% ash (SR ISO 936:2009), 10% protein (STAS 9064/4-8), 0.9% lipids (SR 906510:2007) and 13.8% moisture (SR ISO 1442:2010).

The fish protein concentrate (FPC) is obtained by extraction of fish meat composition mixed in a Blixer at 3000 rpm for 60 s with KC1 0.2 M(l:5), EDTA ImM (1:3), KC1 0.14 M (l:4)solutions and distilled water (1:4) followed by three centrifugations at 3000 rpm (Ionescu et al., 1992; Sobral et al., 1998).

The FPC contained: 15.12% protein (STAS 9064/4-8), 83.45% moisture (SR ISO 1442:2010), 0.1% lipids (SR 9065-10:2007) and 0.3% ash (SR ISO 936:2009).

The lyophilized fish protein (FPCL) is obtained bylyophilization of FPC in Alpha 1-4 LD PLUS device. The FPCL contained: 89.7% protein(STAS 9064/4-8), 7.1% moisture (SR ISO 1442:2010), 0.5% lipids (SR (9065- 10:2007) and 1.7% ash (SRISO 936:2009).

2.2. Bread baking

Baking tests were carried out according to SR 91-2007. A baking station equipped with a fermenter and electrical oven was used for fermenting and baking. Dough kneading was carried out using Kitchen Aid (Model 5 KSM 150, England) with the following conditions: 1 min (280 rpm), 1 min (360 rpm) and 20 s (440 rpm) that was settled as a preliminary study. After mixing, the dough was fermented for 60 min at 300C and 85% RH. Then, the dough was removed and divided into 2 portions of 320 g each. Each portion was formed into bread, placed in a baking-tin, and put back into the fermenter for another 60 min. Finally, the bread was baked for 30 min at 2300C. After being removed from the oven, the bread was cooled for 2 h, removed from the baking-tin, and stored at 200C, 50% RH. Before their functional properties were analyzed. Each recipe produced two loaves of breads, and all bread recipes were both baked, thus for each recipe four loaves of breads were produced.

2.3. Determination offunctional bread properties

- Loaf specific volume

Each loaf of bread was weighed and then measured for volume using a rapeseed displacement volumeter. Three measurements were made for each loaf of bread and the values were related to lg bread (cm3/g) (Bordei et al., 2003).

- Crumb relative elasticity

Three cylinders with dimensions 4.15 x 6 cm. (D x H) were prepared from each loaf ofbread using cylindrical cutter. They were pressed until to half from initial height (1 min.) and then was removed the press (1 min.) and was noted the final height. The relative elasticity (REL) in percent was calculated by dividing the final height at the initial height and multiplied by 100 (Bordei et al., 2003).

- Crumb relative porosity

Three cylinders with dimensions 4.15 x 6 cm. (D x H) were prepared from each loaf ofbread using cylindrical cutter. They were pressed until to disappeared the goals and the compact balls were introduced in a graduated cylinder with oil established volume. It was noted the final oil volume. The relative porosity (RPO) in percent was calculated by dividing the initial volume at the final volume and multiplied by 100 (Bordei et al., 2003).

- Sensorial analysis

Sensorial analysis of samples was achieved by a group oflO panelists belonging Sensory Analysis ofDepartment of Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania. Each loaf of bread was verified on the quality scheme of 30 points. This scheme was included physical indexes (specific volume, porosity, elasticity) and sensorial indexes (bread volume - 4 points, crust colour - 4 points, crumb texture - 6 points, crumb porosity - 6 points, flavor - 4 points, taste - 6 points) (Bordei et al., 2003).

2.4. Experimental protocol

Detailed recipes were summarized in Table 1. The amount of water addition was established by the consistency dough sample 1 (control C) at the KonsystografTyp SZ-5 of Sadkiewicz Instruments.

Content of essential amino acids (mg/g) of flour and FPC (Table 2) was calculated according to [ww.nutritionvalue.org]. The chemical score (CS) was calculated for each essential amino acid by the following formula: [milligrams of amino acid in lg test protein / milligrams of amino acid in lg reference pattern] x 100. The reference pattern used, were those established by FAO (Seligson et al., 1984).

Table 1. The recipes ofbread containing FPC and FPLC

Sample Flour, g FPC, g FPCL, g Oil(0),g Water, ml Yeast, g Salt, g

I 200 - - - 120 6 3

II 200 140 - 10 61 6 3

III 200 140 - - 61 6 3

IV 200 - 20 - 146 6 3

Table 2.Content of essential amino acids (mg/g) of flour and fish carp

Sample Val Iso Leu Lys Met+Cys Thr Trp Phe+Tyr

Flour 49 43 84 18 44 31 12 92

Fish carp 51.5 46 81 92 41 44 11 83

2.5. Statistical analysis

Treatment effects were evaluated by analysis of variance using a completely randomized design. Treatments means from two replicates were compared using least significant difference (SAS INSTITUTE, 1990).

3. Results and Discussions

3.1. Chemical composition of wheat flour bread

As shown in Table 3, bread samples with fish proteins addition is characterized by high protein, lipid and ash contents. Level of proteins (% d.b.) improved from 9.73 in C to 19.26 in FPC bread and to 10.45 in FPCL bread samples.

Nutritional value of wheat flour bread supplemented with FPC and FPCL probably improved because of better balance in amino acid content.

The improvement of nutritional value of bread supplement with different sources of proteins reported by various workers (Campos et al., 1978; El-Dash et al., 1980; Schoenlechner et al., 2013; Suhrendo et al., 1993).

Table 3. Chemical composition of wheat flourbread samples

Sample Moisture (%) Proteins Lipids Ash

% % d.b. % % d.b. % % d.b.

I 42.98 5.55 9.73 0.25 0.43 0.50 0.87

II 48.58 9.90 19.26 3.83 7.46 0.53 1.03

III 49.29 9.66 19.09 0.35 0.69 0.60 1.17

IV 46.03 10.45 19.37 0.34 0.63 0.78 1.45

3.2. Essential amino acid content

The complementary effect of fish proteins improved the protein quality of wheat flour bread samples by calculation of essential amino acids content (Table 4) and chemical scores for each essential amino acid from each wheat flour bread samples (Table 5).

In control samples (1) lysine is the first limiting amino acid and threonine the second. Addition of FPC and FPCL improved the lysine and threonine content, but threonine was still a limiting amino acid.

Table 4. Content of essential amino acids (mg/g) of wheat flour bread samples and FAO

Protein Val Iso Leu Lys Met+Cys Thr Trp Phe+Tyr

I 43 38 69 24 39 28 11.5 77

II 47 42 74 54.5 40 35 11 75

III 46.5 41.2 74 52.8 40 34.8 10.7 75

IV 47 41.6 74.9 56.1 40 35.6 12.5 75

FAO 50 40 70 55 35 40 10 60

Table 5. Content ofCS (% FAO) ofwheat flour bread samples

Sample Val Iso Leu Lys Met+Cys Thr Trp Phe+Tyr

I 86 95 98.5 44 111 70 115 128

II 94 105 106 99 114 88 110 125

III 93 103 106 96 114 87 107 125

IV 94 104 107 102 114 89 125 125

3.3. Effect of fish proteins on bread quality

Wheat flour bread control and wheat flour bread with FPC and FPCL are presented in Figure 1 and Figure 2. It observed a diminution of volume loafin order: C(l), FPCL (4), FPC (3), FPC+O (2). The physical indexes of wheat flour samples are presented in Table 6.

Table 6. Physical indexes ofwheat flour bread samples

Sample Specific volume, Porosity, Elasticity,

g /cm3 % %

I 3.9 76 97

II 2.5 75 98

III 3.1 74 97

IV 3.2 75 97

Fig. 1. External characteristics ofwheat flourbread samples.

Fig. 2. Internal characteristics of wheat flour bread samples.

The specific volume decreased in order: C (1), FPCL (4), FPC (3) and FPC+O (2); The porosity decreased in order: C (1), FPCL (4) = FPC+O (2) and FPC (3); The elasticity decreased in order: FPC+O (2) andC(l) = FPC (3) = FPCL (4).

Sensorial evaluation of wheat flour bread samples are presented in Table 7.By sensory evaluation the samples of breads were favorited in the following order: FPC+O (2), C (1), FPC (3), FPCL (4).

Table 7. Sensorial evaluation ofwheat flour bread samples

Sample Bread volume Crust color Crumb texture Crumb porosity Flavor Taste Total points

I 4 3 5 6 3 4 25

II 2 4 6 5 4 5 26

III 3 3 5 4 4 5 24

IV 3 4 5 5 2 3 22

4. Conclusions

The addition of fish protein concentrate and fish protein concentrate lyophilized to wheat flour dough improved the nutritional value of bread. These products were achieved an acceptable specific volume and a crumb structure (texture and porosity) and were a good acceptation by consumers.

References

Bordei, D., Burluc, R.M., 2003. Technology and Quality Control in Bakery Industry.Guidelines.Publishing House of University Foundation Dunarea de Jos ofGalati, 58, 71-82.

Campos, J.E., El-Dash, A.A., 1978. Effect ofAddition ofFull Fat Sweet Lupine Flour on Rheological Properties ofDough and Baking Quality of

Bread. Cereal Chemistry 55(5):619-627. Des Marchais, L.P., Foisy, M., Mercier, S., Villeneuve, S., Mondor, M., 2011. Bread-Making Potential of Pea Protein Isolate Produced by a

Novel Ultrafiltration/Diafiltration Process. Procedia Food Science, I, 1425-1430. El-Dash, A.A., Sgarbieri, V.C., Campos, J.E., 1980. Sweet Lupine-Fortified Bread: Nutritional Value and Amino Acid Content. Cereal Chemistry 57(1):9-11.

Ionescu, A., Berza, M., Banu, C., 1992. Metods and Technics for Control of Fish and Fish Products.Publishing House of University Dunarea de Jos ofGalati, 84-87.

Marin, Monica, Dragotoiu, D., Nicolae, C., Dinita, G., Tapaloaga, P.R., Tapaloaga, D., Isfan, N., 2012.The influence of using different proteolytic enzymatic produces over the characteristics of flour breading products.Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science, Vol. LV, ISSN-L 2285-5750, 276-280. SAS INSTITUTE, 1990. SAS User's Guide: Statistic, v.6, 4 ed. The Institute: Cary, NC.

Schoenlechner, R., Szatmari, M., Bagdi, A., Tomoskozi, S., 2013. Optimization of bread quality produced from wheat and proso millet

(Panicummiliaceum L.) by adding emulsifiers, transglutaminase and xylanase. Food Science and Technology 51(l):361-366. Seligson, F.H., Mackey, L.N., 1984. Variable Predictions of Protein Quality by Chemical Score Due to Amino Acid Analysis and Reference

Pattern. Journal ofNutrition, 682-691. Sobral, P.J.A., Ocuno, D., Savastano, J.H., 1998. Preparo de Proteinas Miofibrilares de Carne E Elaboracao de Biofilmescom Dois Tiposce

Acidos Propriedades Mecanicas, Braz. Journal ofFood Technology l:(l/2), 44-52. Suhrendo, E.L., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W., 1993. Effect ofAdded Proteins in Wheat Tortillas. Cereal Chemistry 70(4):412-416.