Scholarly article on topic 'Animal keeping in Chalcolithic north-central Anatolia: what can stable isotope analysis add?'

Animal keeping in Chalcolithic north-central Anatolia: what can stable isotope analysis add? Academic research paper on "History and archaeology"

CC BY
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{""}

Academic research paper on topic "Animal keeping in Chalcolithic north-central Anatolia: what can stable isotope analysis add?"

Archaeol Anthropol Sci DOI 10.1007/s12520-016-0386-0

I CrossMark

ORIGINAL PAPER

Animal keeping in Chalcolithic north-central Anatolia: what can stable isotope analysis add?

Catriona Pickard1 • Ulf-Dietrich Schoop1 • Laszlo Bartosiewicz2 • Rosalind Gillis3 • Kerry L Sayle4

Received: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016

# The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

Abstract Stable isotope analysis is an essential investigative technique, complementary to more traditional zooarchaeological approaches to elucidating animal keeping practices. Carbon (613C) and nitrogen (615N) stable isotope values of 132 domesticates (cattle, caprines and pigs) were evaluated to investigate one aspect of animal keeping, animal forage, at the Late Chalcolithic (mid-fourth millennium BC) site of Qamlibel Tarlasi, which is located in north-central Anatolia. The analyses indicated that all of the domesticates had diets based predominantly on C3 plants. Pig and caprine 613C and 615N values were found to be statistically indistinguishable. However, cattle exhibited distinctive stable isotope values and, therefore, differences in diet from both pigs and caprines at Qamlibel Tarlasi. This difference may relate to the distinct patterns of foraging behaviour exhibited by the domesticates. Alternatively, this diversity may result from the use of different grazing areas or from the foddering practices of the Qamlibel Tarlasi inhabitants.

* Catriona Pickard

Catriona.Pickard@ed.ac.uk

School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, William Robertson Wing, Old Medical Quad, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK

Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Wallenberglaboratoriet, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

UMR 7209: Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique: Sociétés, Pratiques et Environnement, Département Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle/CNRS (InEE), 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France

Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Rankine Avenue, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF, UK

Keywords North-central Anatolia • Animal forage • Stable isotope analysis • ô13C • ô15N

Introduction

Archaeological research in north-central Anatolia has focused predominantly on Late Bronze Age and Iron Age urban sites. By comparison, prehistoric settlement in the region has received relatively little attention (e.g. Parzinger 1993; Steadman 1995; Özdogan 1996; Schoop 2005; Düring 2008). As a result, the animal keeping practices and human use of meat and secondary products of this region and time period are poorly understood.

Dietary stable isotope studies of animal bones offer a direct means of reconstructing at least one aspect of animal production: the type of forage domesticates had access to or were given. While such information will not be a panacea in understanding herding practices per se, it elucidates a new dimension directly relevant to animal keeping in the Anatolian region. Here carbon (613C) and nitrogen (615N) stable isotope analyses of remains from domesticated animals and humans (Pickard et al. 2016) from the Late Chalcolithic settlement site of Qamlibel Tarlasi are used to investigate animal diets. The implications of the results for stock-keeping and the consumption of meat and secondary products by a rural farming community in north-central Anatolia are explored.

£amlibel Tarlasi—archaeological background

Qamlibel Tarlasi is one of only a very small number of prehistoric sites to have been investigated in north-central Anatolia. Located 2.5 km east of the modern village of

Published online: 30 September 2016

Ô Springer

Bogazkale (the location of the Late Bronze Age Hittite capital Hattusa), the site was excavated, as a cooperative project between the German Archaeological Institute and Edinburgh University, over three seasons from 2007 to 2009 (Schoop 2010, 2011, 2015 for summary reports). A small, short-lived settlement and mortuary site, ^amlibel Tarlasi was occupied in the mid-fourth millennium BC (Schoop et al. 2009). The site is located on a small plateau (c. 1040 m asl) in a mountainous and previously wooded region (Dörfler et al. 2000; Marsh 2010), a short distance from the main Budaközü Plain (Fig. 1).

Seven phases of activity (summarised in Table 1) have been identified at ^amlibel Tarlasi, all of which date to the Late Chalcolithic between 3650 and 3375 cal BC. Extractive metallurgy and small-scale agriculture are the principal activities evident at the site. The site's occupants may have been attracted to this location because, in addition to the close proximity of an outcrop of copper ore ~2 km to the east of the site, the surrounding plateaus would have been ideally suited to small-scale agriculture (Marsh 2010).

£amlibel Tarlasi—the animal remains

An assemblage of 2752 identifiable animal bones (67.7 kg) was recovered at ^amlibel Tarlasi (Bartosiewicz and Gillis 2011; Bartosiewicz et al. 2013). Wild species constituted less than 1 % of the assemblage by NISP (Fig. 2). The remains were predominantly waste from food consumption. Cattle dominated the domesticate remains with pig and caprines also common. Tooth wear and epiphyseal fusion data indicate that the vast majority of the cattle were mature animals. Longevity is attributable to several factors in cattle including the slow reproduction rate and intrinsically high value of individuals as well as secondary product exploitation. Single purpose pigs were slaughtered at or before adulthood for meat. The proportion of bones from young to mature caprines was low. In addition to cattle potentially having been used for traction and sheep for wool, all bovids (including goats) were likely exploited for dairy produce. Distinction between the bones of young lambs and kids, however, tends to be unreliable, further distorting

Fig. 1 Map of Anatolia indicating the location of Qamlibel Tarlasi and other major Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlements

Table 1 Phases of activity at

£amhbel Tarlasi Phase Characteristic features

TPEU Fragmentary burials in plough zone

£BT IV Habitations, large courtyard with evidence of slag processing, slag, crucibles

SPEU Second phase of ephemeral use: seasonal presence, bowl furnaces, ore

£BT III Large, free-standing buildings, crucibles, copper slag

FPEU First phase of ephemeral use: seasonal presence, bowl furnaces, ore

£BT II Dense architecture, room clusters, bowl furnaces, copper ore, many infant graves

£BT I No habitation structures, water course, seasonal use?, bowl furnaces, copper ore Virgin soil/bedrock

speculations concerning the 'management' of caprine herds (Bartosiewicz et al. 2013).

It has been inferred from remains of churns found at Çamlibel Tarlasi (Fig. 3) and nearby sites such as Yarikkaya (Bogazkôy) that dairy produce was important at least in the local economy (Sauter et al. 2003, Figs. 1, 2 and 3). This is congruent with the identification of animal fats, in one case likely milk fat or a derivative, on two pottery sherds from Yarikkaya (Sauter et al. 2003).

Problems with proxies

Animal remains recovered at settlements such as ^amlibel Tarlasi typically represent food refuse or manufacturing waste unless interpreted as 'ritual' deposits of intact or articulated skeletons. However, there is a tendency to contextualize them in broader terms, inseparably mixing evidence of consumption with far less tangible aspects of exploitation, especially for secondary products. Evidence for the latter is related to animal longevity as secondary products are renewable resources from live animals (e.g. Gerritsen et al. 2010). However, interpretations regarding the bones of calves or lambs/kids alternate between showing emphasis on milk or

Fig. 2 Animal taxa representation at Çamlibel Tarlasi by NISP

meat 'production' (cf. Gourichon and Helmer 2008 and Gerritsen et al. 2010). Moreover, age profiles treated as key evidence are often based on small or unknown numbers of ageable elements encountered among the food remains.

Stable isotope analysis

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen has been widely demonstrated to be a useful tool in the investigation of animal diets (e.g. Pearson et al. 2007; Towers et al. 2011; Fuller et al. 2012; Gillis et al. 2013).

The technique involves the measurement of carbon (Ô13C=12C/13C) and nitrogen (Ô15N 14N/15N) isotope ratios in samples of bone collagen (Sealy et al. 1995). 12C/13C isotopes are incorporated into plant tissues during photosynthesis. Carbon

Fig. 3 Example of a reconstructed pottery 'churn' from Çamlibel Tarlasi II

isotope ratios (513C) vary between plants depending on the mechanism used to fix atmospheric carbon. Most plants fix carbon through one of two routes, either the C3 or C4 pathways (Edwards and Walker 1983). C3 plants comprise cereals such as wheat and barley, and most fruits and vegetables, while C4 plants include some tropical grasses and cereals such as millet and sorghum. Variation in plant 513C is passed on to the tissues of animal and human consumers. Plant 513C values may also exhibit inter-species variation within a C3 plant environment (e.g. Feranec 2007). The 513C value of animal bone collagen can therefore be used to determine not only the relative importance of C3 vs C4 plants to diet but may also distinguish between different patterns of foraging behaviour in regions with an exclusively C3 biome (DeNiro and Epstein 1978; Feranec 2007).

Nitrogen isotope ratios (5 N) exhibit a 'trophic level' effect, becoming more 'enriched' with each step in the food chain, i.e. they indicate an organism's position in the food chain. The increase in 515N values of animals over that oftheir diets has been observed to be in the order of 3-5 %% (e.g. Bocherens and Drucker 2003)—although the diet-consumer offset may vary between species and has been demonstrated to be higher than 5 %% in humans (Hedges and Reynard 2007; O'Connell et al. 2012). N/ N isotopes may be incorporated into plants from soils and/or drawn from atmospheric N2. Plants that fix nitrogen from the atmosphere (e.g. legumes) generally have lower 515N values than those plants that fix nitrogen from soil nitrate or ammonium (DeNiro and Epstein 1981). Plant 515N values can also vary significantly depending on water stress (e.g. Ambrose 1991), salinity (e.g. Britton et al. 2008) and increased nitrogen cycling in forested environments (e.g. van der Merwe and Medina 1991). The variability in 5 N values is passed on to the consumers of plants and may therefore indicate distinctive foraging behaviours among domesticates.

Although the fundamental principles of stable isotope analysis were established in the 1970s and have remained largely unchallenged, it is important to bear in mind that there are a number of additional issues (both dietary and non-dietary) that have implications for the reconstruction of animal forage from stable isotope values, for example the potential effects of physiological stresses, such as gestation and lactation on intra- and inter-individual isotope signatures, as well as the impact of practices such as manuring on isotopic signatures in plants and their animal consumers (e.g. Jenkins et al. 2001; Fuller et al. 2005; Bogaard et al. 2007; Nitsch et al. 2010; Olsen et al. 2014).

Materials and method

A total of 163 domesticated animal (cattle, caprine and pig) bone specimens from ^amlibel Tarlasi were measured for 513C and 515N to investigate animal forage and human diets

(see Pickard et al. 2016) in Late Chalcolithic north-central Anatolia—see Table 2 for animal data.

A sample of approximately 1 g of bone was taken from each specimen. Pre-treatment included cleaning to remove 1-2 mm of the outer surface of the bone. Collagen was extracted using a modified version of the Longin (1971) method (Brown et al. 1988). Each sample was demineralized in 1N HCl at 20 °C for a minimum of 24 h, rinsed three times in Milli-Q™ purified water and gelatinized in 0.03 N HCl at 80 °C for approximately 16 h. The resulting solution was then lyophilised. Samples with well-preserved collagen, i.e. collagen wt% yield of >1.00 % (Brock et al. 2010; van Klinken 1999), were measured for 5 C and 5 N by the SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory in East Kilbride, UK, using a Thermo Scientific Delta V Advantage continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) coupled via a Thermo Scientific ConflolV to a Costech ECS 4010 elemental analyser (EA) fitted with a pneumatic autosampler. In-house gelatine standards, which are calibrated to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference materials USGS40 (L-glutamic acid, 513CV_ PDB = -26.39 %), USGS41 (L-glutamic acid, 513CV_PDB = + 37.63 %), IAEA-CH-6 (sucrose, 513CV_PDB = -10.45 %), USGS25 (ammonium sulphate, 515NAIR = -30.41 %), IAEA-N-1 (ammonium sulphate, 515NAIR = +0.43 %) and IAEA-N-2 (ammonium sulphate, 515NAIR = +20.41 %), are run in duplicate for every ten unknown samples. Results are corrected for linearity and instrumental drift and are reported as per mil (% ) relative to the internationally accepted standards V-PDB and AIR, with 1 ct precisions of ±0.2 and ±0.3 % for 513C and 515N, respectively. Collagen integrity was assessed according to the following criteria: (i) C/N ratio in the range 2.9 to 3.6 (DeNiro 1985) and (ii) minimum %C and %N as outlined by Ambrose (1990).

Less than 1 % collagen yield was obtained from 22 samples (seven caprines, 11 cattle and four pig). A further nine samples (one cattle, seven pig and one sheep) had a collagen yield of wt% >1.0 % but when measured failed to meet the criteria cited for well-preserved collagen. These samples were excluded from the discussion below.

Results

The average carbon isotope values of the domesticates (cattle, caprines and pigs) are typical of animals foraging predominantly on C3 resources.

The domestic caprine ô13Candô15N values were found to be relatively homogeneous, with average Ô C = -19.2 ± 0.5 %o and ô15N = 6.4 ± 0.7 % (n = 38), and are typical of herbivores consuming exclusively C3 resources (cf. Pearson et al. 2007). Little difference in the average isotope values of goat and sheep is evident (sheep average 513C = -19.1 ± 0.5 % and

Table 2 Stable isotope data and collagen preservation indicators of Çamlibel Tarlasi domesticate remains (previously published in Pickardetal. 2016)

Sample ID (GUsi) Species Phase s13C s15n C/N %N %C

2202 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -19.4 5.9 3.1 13.8 37.1

2205 Cattle (Bos) FPEU -19.6 6.0 3.2 14.6 39.9

2207 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -19.4 8.0 3.2 13.3 35.9

2270 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -18.1 6.2 3.2 13.6 37.7

2271 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT IV -18.9 7.7 3.2 14.8 40.7

2272 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -17.6 9.8 3.2 14.2 39.1

2273 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT IV -19.0 8.1 3.2 14.3 39.8

2274 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT II -19.4 9.7 3.2 13.3 36.7

2275 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -16.8 7.0 3.2 12.1 33.6

2276 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -18.3 6.1 3.2 13.7 37.5

2326 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT II -19.4 6.7 3.2 13.3 36.9

2327 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -18.2 6.8 3.3 15.6 43.9

2328 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -20.1 7.0 3.2 13.6 37.4

2329 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -19.9 6.1 3.2 15.8 43.9

2330 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT II -19.5 8.6 3.3 14.1 39.5

2331 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -18.7 6.5 3.3 15.6 43.4

2332 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -18.3 6.7 3.3 15.4 43.4

2333 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT IV -18.8 6.3 3.2 12.4 34.1

2334 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT II -17.4 8.9 3.3 14.9 41.6

2335 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT IV -18.2 9.1 3.2 14.7 40.8

3096 Cattle (Bos) SPEU -19.6 6.4 3.3 11.4 31.8

3114 Cattle (Bos) FPEU -18.5 5.5 3.2 11.3 31.4

3115 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -17.0 7.5 3.2 11.8 32.6

3116 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT IV -17.5 7.4 3.3 10.7 30.1

3117 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III/IV -20.1 7.4 3.3 13.0 36.7

3118 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -17.6 7.4 3.2 14.2 39.4

3119 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -17.6 6.5 3.3 13.8 38.9

3120 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT II -19.7 7.3 3.3 13.7 38.6

3135 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -18.8 6.8 3.3 12.7 36.3

3136 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -19.3 6.2 3.3 13.1 37.0

3137 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT III -18.4 6.5 3.3 10.3 29.2

3143 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -18.2 6.9 3.2 13.6 37.5

3144 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT IV -18.3 6.3 3.2 12.4 34.3

3145 Cattle (Bos) SPEU -19.2 7.5 3.2 14.3 39.7

3147 Cattle (Bos) FPEU -17.7 6.8 3.2 12.3 34.2

3149 Cattle (Bos) SPEU -18.1 8.2 3.3 10.6 29.8

3154 Cattle (Bos) SPEU -19.2 5.9 3.2 13.1 36.2

3155 Cattle (Bos) SPEU -19.5 6.0 3.3 11.6 32.4

3156 Cattle (Bos) FPEU -19.8 7.1 3.2 11.7 32.4

3157 Cattle (Bos) ÇBT I -20.0 6.1 3.2 12.4 34.3

2325 Caprine ÇBT III -19.2 6.5 3.2 14.8 41.3

3017 Caprine ÇBT IV -18.6 7.9 3.2 12.7 35.2

3022 Caprine ÇBT I -19.6 7.3 3.3 14.5 40.3

3023 Caprine ÇBT II -19.4 6.6 3.3 12.4 34.6

3092 Caprine ÇBT III -19.5 7.2 3.2 13.2 36.7

3254 Caprine ÇBT I -19.4 6.1 3.2 13.2 36.8

3255 Caprine ÇBT II -19.9 5.5 3.3 5.0 14.2

3256 Caprine ÇBT I -19.3 6.1 3.2 13.2 36.4

3257 Caprine ÇBT II/III -19.4 7.2 3.2 13.1 36.2

Table 2 (continued)

Sample ID Species Phase s13C s15N C/N %N %C

(GUsi)

3258 Caprine gBT iii/iv -19.6 7.2 3.3 7.2 24.1

3259 Caprine gBT iii -18.8 6.2 3.2 14.3 39.6

3090 Goat (Capra hircus) SPEU -20.2 4.9 3.3 15.3 43.1

3161 Goat (Capra hircus) gBTiv -18.0 6.0 3.2 13.4 37.2

3164 Goat (Capra hircus) gBT Iii -19.3 5.1 3.2 10.6 29.1

3168 Goat (Capra hircus) SPEU -19.6 6.5 3.2 8.9 24.8

2204 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTi -18.8 5.7 3.2 12.0 32.5

2268 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBT m -19.4 7.8 3.3 13.7 38.2

3018 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTiv -19.7 5.4 3.3 12.1 34.0

3019 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTi -19.0 6.2 3.3 15.5 43.4

3020 Sheep (Ovis aries) FPEU -19.2 7.1 3.2 13.9 38.4

3021 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBT m -19.6 6.4 3.3 7.6 21.8

3024 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTi -18.1 6.7 3.2 13.7 38.0

3025 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBT m -19.2 7.0 3.3 13.5 37.6

3026 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTi -19.0 6.1 3.2 14.7 40.6

3027 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBT Ii -19.3 6.1 3.2 13.4 36.9

3089 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTin -19.2 6.4 3.2 15.6 43.2

3091 Sheep (Ovis aries) SPEU -18.7 6.6 3.3 11.0 30.7

3093 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBT Iii -19.6 7.1 3.2 14.6 40.4

3094 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTiv -19.0 6.2 3.2 13.1 36.3

3095 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTiv -19.1 6.0 3.2 13.6 37.7

3097 Sheep (Ovis aries) SPEU -20.2 5.6 3.2 14.6 40.6

3098 Sheep (Ovis aries) FPEU -19.3 6.5 3.3 7.7 21.9

3158 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTii -19.5 5.9 3.3 13.9 38.8

3163 Sheep (Ovis aries) FPEU -18.2 5.9 3.2 13.5 36.9

3250 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTi -18.8 7.1 3.3 14.6 40.9

3252 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBT Iii -19.3 6.5 3.2 14.2 39.6

3251 Sheep (Ovis aries) gBTii -18.5 5.7 3.2 13.0 35.8

3253 Sheep (Ovis aries) FPEU -19.6 6.0 3.2 13.9 38.5

2203 Pig (Sus) gBT Iii -19.0 7.3 3.2 13.1 35.8

2651 Pig (Sus) SPEU -20.1 5.5 3.2 9.8 27.4

2652 Pig (Sus) gBT m -19.5 7.1 3.2 13.7 37.8

2653 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.9 5.6 3.4 4.5 12.9

2655 Pig (Sus) gBT Ii -18.7 4.7 3.3 8.5 24.0

2657 Pig (Sus) gBT Ii -19.2 7.3 3.2 11.8 32.9

2658 Pig (Sus) gBTiv -18.9 5.9 3.3 10.2 29.0

2659 Pig (Sus) gBT Ii -19.4 6.6 3.3 9.7 27.1

2661 Pig (Sus) FPEU -19.8 8.0 3.2 9.7 26.9

2662 Pig (Sus) gBTiv -19.8 6.7 3.3 10.9 30.9

2663 Pig (Sus) gBT Iii -20.2 5.7 3.4 7.3 21.2

2664 Pig (Sus) SPEU -20.0 6.5 3.3 8.9 25.3

2666 Pig (Sus) gBTiv -18.7 6.0 3.3 8.7 24.8

2667 Pig (Sus) gBTii -19.4 6.4 3.3 12.6 35.5

2668 Pig (Sus) FPEU -19.7 7.6 3.5 4.0 12.0

2669 Pig (Sus) gBTiv -20.3 6.7 3.3 10.4 29.2

2926 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.1 6.0 3.2 13.2 36.2

2927 Pig (Sus) gBTiv -19.6 7.2 3.2 15.4 42.1

2928 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.4 6.3 3.2 13.5 37.1

3015 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.0 6.7 3.2 14.1 39.1

Table 2 (continued)

Sample ID Species Phase s13C s15N C/N %N %C

(GUsi)

3016 Pig (Sus) SPEU -19.4 7.1 3.2 13.4 37.1

3088 Pig (Sus) gBTIV -19.5 6.9 3.2 9.4 26.1

3122 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.6 6.6 3.3 9.0 25.3

3123 Pig (Sus) gBT iii -19.4 6.9 3.3 9.6 27.4

3124 Pig (Sus) gBT Iii -19.3 7.0 3.3 9.8 27.5

3125 Pig (Sus) gBT Iii -20.3 6.7 3.3 13.5 38.0

3126 Pig (Sus) gBTii -19.8 6.2 3.3 9.6 27.0

3127 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.6 7.7 3.2 12.9 35.6

3128 Pig (Sus) gBT Iii -19.5 7.6 3.3 14.0 39.2

3129 Pig (Sus) gBTii -19.4 6.5 3.2 12.1 33.7

3130 Pig (Sus) SPEU -19.0 8.2 3.3 12.4 34.7

3131 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.3 6.1 3.3 9.8 27.4

3132 Pig (Sus) FPEU -19.0 6.8 3.3 12.5 35.2

3133 Pig (Sus) gBT in -19.2 7.8 3.4 5.6 16.4

3134 Pig (Sus) gBT ii -19.3 7.0 3.2 11.6 32.2

3139 Pig (Sus) gBT in -20.3 6.4 3.3 10.5 29.6

3148 Pig (Sus) SPEU -19.1 7.3 3.2 8.7 24.3

3150 Pig (Sus) gBT in -19.0 6.0 3.2 11.8 32.8

3151 Pig (Sus) gBT in -19.0 6.6 3.2 12.6 35.1

3152 Pig (Sus) gBT in -19.0 7.1 3.2 13.0 36.1

3153 Pig (Sus) gBTi -19.5 6.0 3.2 13.4 36.9

3159 Pig (Sus) FPEU -18.3 5.4 3.2 8.8 24.4

3160 Pig (Sus) FPEU -19.5 7.6 3.2 12.0 32.8

3162 Pig (Sus) gBT iii -19.3 6.6 3.2 12.6 35.0

3165 Pig (Sus) gBT iii -19.0 7.3 3.3 10.0 28.0

3166 Pig (Sus) gBTi -18.6 6.0 3.2 18.3 50.7

3167 Pig (Sus) gBTi -18.8 6.4 3.2 13.0 35.9

3242 Pig (Sus) gBT ii -19.2 6.7 3.2 13.5 37.4

3243 Pig (Sus) gBT ii/m -19.4 7.3 3.3 13.8 38.6

3245 Pig (Sus) FPEU -19.1 7.8 3.2 11.3 31.1

3249 Pig (Sus) gBT in -19.4 7.1 3.2 10.0 27.8

3246 Pig (Sus) gBT ii -19.9 6.6 3.3 13.2 36.8

3247 Pig (Sus) gBT in -19.9 7.0 3.2 12.0 33.3

3248 Pig (Sus) FPEU -19.4 6.0 3.3 12.3 34.5

2206 Dog (Cansfami/ians) gBTi -19.4 6.2 3.1 12.6 34.0

3109 Dog (Cansfami/ians) gBTin -19.0 7.7 3.2 12.7 35.1

3110 Dog (Cansfami/ians) gBTi -18.9 8.3 3.2 12.4 34.2

3111 Dog (Cansfami/ians) gBTi -19.3 6.1 3.3 11.0 30.9

3112 Dog (Cansfami/ians) gBTii -18.9 6.9 3.2 13.5 37.4

3113 Dog (Cansfamiliaris) FPEU -18.6 9.8 3.3 11.3 32.2

3121 Dog (Canisfami/íaris) gBTii -18.9 7.2 3.2 10.9 30.4

3146 Dog (Canisfami/iaris) gBT iii -19.4 6.5 3.3 8.3 23.3

615N = 6.4 ± 0.6 %c (n = 23); goat average 613C = -19.3 ± 0.8 %% and 615N = 5.8 ± 0.8 % (n = 4)).

The pigs sampled were identified as domestic based on their small phenotypic size in comparison to the wild progenitor and on the fact that other hunted animals were a very small

component of the faunal assemblage (Bartosiewicz and Gillis 2011; Bartosiewicz etal. 2013, 111, Figs. 7 and 8). One ofthe pigs sampled, GUsi-2663, is a sub-adult specimen. However, the 513C and 515N values of this specimen overlap those obtained for the adults, i.e. no suckling enrichment effect is

evident by this age. This specimen is therefore considered along with the adults. Pig mean ô13C and ô15N values suggest a relatively uniform diet, with average ô13C and ô15N of -19.3 ± 0.4 and 6.8 ± 0.6 %% (n = 54), respectively.

By comparison, cattle ô13C and ô15N values are more variable, with a relatively large range in both isotope values evident (see Table 2 and Fig. 4). The average values with standard deviation are ô13C = -18.7 ± 0.9 % and ô15N = 7.1 ± 1.1 % (n = 40). The range of cattle ô15N values is wide, spanning 4.3 % with a minimum value of 5.5 % and a maximum value of 9.8 %. The range of cattle ô13C values is also broad, from -20.1 to -17.0 %. The variation in cattle stable isotope values does not correspond to diachronic change (there are no statistically significant differences in the ô C and ô N values between bones associated with various phases of activity at Çamlibel Tarlasi).

Statistical evaluation of domesticate herbivore stable isotope values

Bartlett's test was used to assess the null hypothesis that the variance of the ô13C values of the domesticates (cattle, caprine and pig) is homogenous. The variance of the domesticate ô13C values was found to be significantly different (Bartlett X2 = 25.582 with probability 0.000003, x2 value for significance at 5 % and d.f. 2 is >5.991). Figure 5 shows the distribution of ô13C values by taxon. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test

was used to assess the null hypothesis that the 513C values of the domesticates were uniform. The 513C values were found to be statistically different (K = 12.466179, p = 0.001963). The same statistical tests were undertaken for the domesticates with the exclusion of goats (owing to small sample size) and the caprines that could not be identified to species level. Bartlett's test indicated that the variance of the domesticate 5 C values (i.e. cattle, pig and sheep) remained significantly different (Bartlett X2 = 24.763 with probability 0.000004, x2 value for significance at 5 % and d.f. 2 is >5.991). The Kruskal-Wallis test also indicated that there is a statistically significant difference in the 513C values of the different domesticates (K = 12.938133, p = 0.001551, for cattle, caprine and pig; K = 12.466179, p = 0.0001963, for cattle, sheep and pig).

The same sets of statistical analyses were repeated to compare the 5 N values of the domestic herbivores. The variances of the 515N values were found to be unequal (Bartlett X2 = 9.957 with probability 0.002069, x2 value for significance at 5 % and d.f. 2 is >5.991, for cattle, caprines and pig; Bartlett x2 = 12.362 with probability 0.006885, for cattle, sheep and pig)—see Fig. 6 for distribution of 515N values. The 5 N values of the domesticates are significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test—K = 10.135896,p = 0.006295, for cattle, caprines and pig; K = 9.423774, p = 0.008988, for cattle, sheep and pig).

A post hoc Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine pairwise differences in stable isotope values. Increased

Fig. 4 Scatterplot of average 513C and 515N values of ^amlibel Tarlasi domesticate samples by species with standard deviation indicated by error bars. The average 513C and 515N values of the adult humans from Qamlibel Tarlasi have been included for comparison

Fig. 5 Boxplot showing the distribution of s13C values of the domesticates from Çamlibel Tarlasi by taxon. The red line highlights the s13C value -18.0 %o, which has been used as a 'threshold' value for the consumption of C4 resources (e.g. Pearson et al 2007)

stringency was employed to compensate for multiple testing (p has significance at <0.05/3, i.e. 0.0167). The p values of the Mann-Whitney U test and a summary of statistical significance are presented in Tables 3, 4 and 5. Figure 7 provides a graphical representation of the isotopic relationships of the cattle, caprines and pigs for both carbon and nitrogen values based on the Mann-Whitney results.

Discussion

Domesticate forage and animal keeping at £amlibel Tarlas i

Statistical analysis of the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of the domesticates has demonstrated that the cattle have distinctive stable isotope values from both the pigs and the caprines at ^amlibel Tarlasi. There are several possible diet-related explanations that may account for these differences including (i) differences in foddering practices, (ii) differences in foraging behaviour and (iii) differences in areas

grazed.

Domesticate animals often have multiple uses and may be fed distinctive diets depending on function (Bayer et al. 2003). For example, in traditional small-scale farming economies, cattle kept principally for milk may be non-grazed, fed exclusively on fodder crops to ensure high quality diet to maximise productivity (van Shaik et al. 1996). At Late Neolithic/Early

Chalcolithic Ilipinar, barley kernels and chaff were recovered in the dung of stalled cattle, interpreted by Cappers (2008, p. 120) as a diet specific to 'beasts that are used for ploughing' (Cappers 2008, p. 120). Although the energy requirements of non-female draught cattle have been demonstrated to be similar to that of non-draught bulls (Goe and McDowell 1980), cows used for traction show reduced fertility and milk production partially mitigated if nutritionally high quality feed is provided (Jabbar 1993). The majority of the identified cattle remains were those of mature animals, a mortality profile consistent with use for traction or dairy (Bartosiewicz and Gillis 2011). There is no archaeological evidence to support confined stalling or selective foddering of cattle at ^amlibel Tarlasi. However, the most recent settlement at ^amlibel Tarlasi was surrounded by a boundary wall, a relatively weak construction which was clearly not defensive in character. Such a wall would have been extremely useful for the protection of livestock in an environment which was potentially home to a range of large predators such as leopards, lions, bears and wolves—the latter still present today.

Domesticates have distinct ingestive and digestive capabilities (Prache et al. 1998) resulting in different behaviours in free-foraging animals. Pigs, as facultative omnivores, might be anticipated to have a distinctive diet from the domesticated ruminants. The diets of domestic pigs vary depending on husbandry practices. Pig farmers traditionally practice one of three feeding strategies, (i) free roaming and foraging; (ii) grazing in fields often with other livestock; and (iii) penning,

Fig. 6 Boxplot showing the distribution of s15N values of the domesticates from Qamlibel Tarlasi by taxon. Two cattle have statistically outlying s15N values

Table 3 Mann-Whitney U test p values of pairwise comparison of domesticate 513C values

s13C Cattle Caprines Pig

Cattle

Caprines p = 0.032544

Pig p = 0.000630 p = 0.138028

Sheep p = 0.139705 p = 0.466061 p = 0.039171

i.e. confined to spaces such as pig sties. Free roaming pigs tend to forage over large areas and while they consume a wide range of animal foods including insects, eggs, small mammals and carrion, they are predominantly herbivorous (Studnitz et al. 2007). Penned pigs will generally be fed on plants and on domestic/household waste. If the waste products include animal proteins (e.g. milk and meat or even faeces) resulting pig 515N values will be higher than those of free roaming or field grazed animals. However, as indicated above, the 5 C and 515N values ofthe pigs at ^amlibel Tarlasi are statistically equivalent to those ofthe sheep as well as the extended group that includes all caprines (i.e. obligate herbivores), suggesting that the pigs were unlikely to have been fed on domestic refuse often rich in animal proteins.

Cattle and sheep, despite both being grazing ruminants, may also have distinctive foraging behaviours. Sheep tend to target higher quality forage owing to reduced gut size and shorter digestion times as well as being able to be more selective in forage owing to the shape and reduced size ofthe ovine dental arcade (Prache et al. 1998). Cattle tolerate lower quality and rougher forage more readily than sheep (Prache et al. 1998).

Local vegetation heterogeneity accompanied by different foraging behaviours could potentially account for the differences evident in the isotope values of cattle and sheep at ^amlibel Tarlasi. Given the range ofthe cattle 513C values at ^amlibel Tarlasi, from -20.1 up to -17.0 %%, it could be argued (cf. Pearson et al. 2007; Budd et al. 2013) that the source of this heterogeneity is the inclusion (or greater inclusion) of C4 plants in cattle diet. However, all of the crop and wild grass species identified at ^amlibel Tarlasi use the C3 photosynthetic pathway (Papadopoulou and Bogaard 2012, Table 4). Two plants recovered were not identifiable to species

Table 4 Mann-Whitney U test p values of pairwise comparison of domesticate 515N values

s15n Cattle Caprines Pig

Cattle

Caprines p = 0.003240

Pig p = 0.232884 p = 0.025863

Sheep p = 0.004600 p = 0.743375 p = 0.022187

Table 5 Summary of statistical significance of differences in 513C and 515N values of domesticates

S13C s15n

Cattle Caprines Pig Cattle Caprines Pig

Cattle

Caprines No Yes

Pig Yes No No No

Sheep No No No Yes No

level, one from the borage (Boraginacaea) or sedge (Cyperaceae) families and the other from the saltbush genus (Atriplex sp.). These families include both C3 and C4 species (Edwards and Walker 1983). However, the presence of these broad taxa does not convincingly indicate the presence of C4 plant species in the ^amlibel Tarlasi locale. Furthermore, it is unlikely that C4 cereal crops such as millet (Panicum miliaceum) were available to the inhabitants of ^amlibel Tarlasi. Millet was not cultivated in central Anatolia in large quantities before at least the Bronze Age and possibly later (e.g. Nesbitt and Summers 1988; Riehl andNesbitt 2003).

An alternative scenario to heterogeneity in local plant forage is the movement of domestic livestock between different pastures, potentially some distance from settlements and possibly with access to isotopically distinct plants (cf. Peters et al. 2013). Although C3 plants have dominated Anatolian vegetation throughout the Holocene (Rao et al. 2012), C4 plants were certainly present at least regionally. Consumption of C4 plants is clearly indicated by the range of 5 C values of wild cattle (Bos spp.) and the plant remains at the Aceramic Neolithic site of A§ikli Hoyuk in the Cappadocian region of Turkey (Pearson et al. 2007). C4 plants have also been recovered from a number of sites in Anatolia and in some cases were evidently

— 813C — 515N / \

Fig. 7 Graphical representation of statistical significance based on Mann-Whitney U test with increase stringency. Lines between the groups represent statistically indistinguishable isotope values. Statistical equivalence of s15N values is indicated by the green line, while that of s13C is indicated by the red line

consumed by livestock. For example, at ^atalhóyük, located in south-central Anatolia, C4 grasses Aeluropus, Crypsis and Sporobolus, as well as Eleocharis (generally a C4 plant although Bruhl and Wilson (2007) describe C3/C4 intermediate and variant species), were recovered from animal dung (Richards et al. 2003; Bogaard et al. 2013a). The C4 ruderal, sun spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia), is present at Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic Ilipinar, in North West Anatolia, but is not abundant (Cappers 2008).

A further possibility cannot be ruled out, that is the external, and possibly long-distance, provisioning of smaller settlements such as ^amlibel Tarlasi with at least some of their livestock or meat. Arbuckle (2012) noted increasing complexity in the management of sheep herds throughout the Chalcolithic in central Anatolia, which were at least in part distributed to settlements by specialist mobile pastoralists. Concrete evidence for far-reaching trade contacts at ^amlibel Tarlasi include finds of cockle shells (Cardiidae), which must have originated from either the Black Sea or the Mediterranean, obsidian from Cappadocia, flint blades from unknown exotic sources and a casting mould for ring-shaped figurines indicating an ideological link to the Southern Balkans (Schoop 2011; Schoop and Lehner 2013). Livestock may thus have been imported in the form of exchange or at social occasions when groups living in the broader area congregated. Meanwhile, locals may have kept small stocks. That cattle meat may have been consumed only occasionally, possibly during social gatherings or 'feasts', is supported indirectly by the average nitrogen stable isotope value of the inhabitants of ^amlibel Tarlasi (Pickard et al. 2016), which is similar to that of the cattle, suggesting that cattle meat was unlikely to be a significant or consistent source of dietary protein.

Domesticate forage and animal keeping across prehistoric Anatolia

The results from ^amlibel Tarlasi add to a small but growing body of isotope data from domesticates at Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites across prehistoric Anatolia.

At ^amlibel Tarlasi, the relatively low 6 N values of the pigs in comparison to ruminants suggest that they were likely free roaming and foraging. Pearson et al. (2015) also noted that the relatively low average 615N value of pig in comparison to the human inhabitants and domesticates of Neolithic ^atalhóyük suggested that these animals were not fed on domestic waste (although three outliers with comparatively high 615N values may be an exception). By contrast, at the PPNB site of Nevali £ori in southeast Turkey, domestic pig and humans have similar 6 N mean values (5.5 ±1.9 and 6.1 ± 1.0 %%, respectively) and ranges (3.9 to 8.2 %o and 4.4 to 8.8 %%, respectively) implying similar diets, i.e. at Nevali £ori, the pigs were likely fed on household waste and thus

possibly penned (Lösch et al. 2006). However, only four pig specimens were analysed at this site.

The wide ranges of ö13C and ö15N values of sheep and cattle from Çatalhôyûk were attributed by Pearson et al. (2007, 2015) to the grazing of herds in different areas—in pastures with only C3 species, as well as those with both C3 and C4 plants. Extra-local grazing of at least some cattle is paralleled at Çamlibel Tarlasi. By contrast, the sheep from Çamlibel Tarlasi have relatively homogeneous ö13C and ö15N values. The differences in sheep forage and by implication stock-keeping practices between Çatalhôyûk and Çamlibel Tarlasi may reflect the distinctive nature of the two sites. The scale of Çatalhôyûk, a large agglomerated village or proto-urban site spanning c. 130,000 m (Hodder and Cessford 2004), likely necessitated extra-household herding strategies and grazing in various pastures potentially at some distance from the site (Pearson et al. 2015). In contrast, Çamlibel Tarlasi was a small-scale rural settlement covering an area of no more than 250 m2—small herds of sheep were likely managed locally.

A trend of15N enrichment is evident in the sheep from later levels at Çatalhôyûk. Budd et al. (2013) also noted an increase in ö C and ö N values of animal remains (n = 9) from Neolithic to Early Chalcolithic contexts at Aktopraklik, Northwest Anatolia. As both Pearson et al. (2015) and Budd et al. (2013) indicated, one possible explanation for 15N enrichment is the grazing of animals on manured fields (e.g. Fraser et al. 2011; Bogaard et al. 2013b; Styring et al. 2014). Crop manuring has been demonstrated at early Neolithic sites in southeastern Europe from c. 5900 BC (Bogaard et al. 2013b). At Çamlibel Tarlasi, the average ö N value of all the domesticates is 6.7 %%. Assuming a diet-herbivore offset of 4 %, the average ö N value of the domesticate forage at Çamlibel Tarlasi was 2.7 %; this relatively low forage ö15N value suggests that these animals were not fed on manured crops/stubble (cf. Bogaard etal. 2013b). However, identifying manuring practices and/or animal penning from the stable isotope values of domesticates is non-trivial. In part, this is a consequence of the temporal and spatial variability in soil ö N values (e.g. Ambrose 1991). Also problematic is the inclusion of 15N-depleted pulse crops in domesticate diet, which may mask the effects of consuming manured cereals or stubble. Moreover, N enrichment of pulse crops is evident only with intensive and protracted manuring (Fraser et al. 2011; Bogaard et al. 2013b). Pulses including bitter vetch and lentil were identified at Çamlibel Tarlasi and may have comprised a significant part of human (see Pickard et al. 2016) and/or domesticate diet.

The comparative analysis of the domesticate stable isotope datasets presented above is offered cautiously because of (i) spatial and temporal variations in environmental ö13C and ö N values (e.g. Schwarcz et al. 1999; van Klinken et al. 1994; van Klinken et al. 2000) and the broad geographical

range and chronological span of sites with stable isotope datasets in prehistoric Anatolia, (ii) the difficulty of distinguishing early domesticates from wild progenitors from morphological characteristics at Early Neolithic sites (see Zeder et al. (2006) for summary), (iii) the small datasets available from some sites and (iv) the complexities of identifying the consumption of pulses.

Conclusion

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses indicate that the domesticates from Çamlibel Tarlasi had diets based mainly on C3 resources. Of all the domesticates at Çamlibel Tarlasi, cattle exhibit the widest range of ô13C and ô15N values. Moreover, cattle have statistically distinct isotope values from both the sheep/caprines, and the pigs recovered from the site. This indicates that the cattle had distinctive foraging behaviour not only from that of the pigs (which is perhaps not surprising) but also from that of the sheep. The ô13C values of the cattle hint at the inclusion of C4 plants in diet. However, no C4 plants were identified in the plant macro assemblage recovered at the site and this suggests (if indeed C4 plants were included in the diet of cattle) that they were grazing in nonlocal pastures. The inter-species variability in isotope values points to distinctive and potentially complex foraging and/or feeding behaviours at Late Chalcolithic Çamlibel Tarlasi.

Acknowledgments This research was supported by the British Academy/Leverhulme Small Research Grants (SG121910) and the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh. The excavations at Çamlibel Tarlasi were conducted as a collaborative project by the University of Edinburgh and the German Archaeological Institute. Thanks are extended to Professor Gordon Cook (SUERC). We are also grateful to Juliet Voon, Samantha Williamson, Lisa Bird and Caroline Hall-Eastman who helped select and prepare the samples for analysis.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

References

Ambrose SH (1990) Preparation and characterisation of bone and tooth collagen for isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci 17:431-451. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(90)90007-R

Ambrose SH (1991) Effects of diet, climate and physiology on nitrogen isotope abundances in terrestrial foodwebs. J Archaeol Sci 18:293317

Arbuckle BS (2012) Animals and inequality in Chalcolithic central Anatolia. J Anthropol Archaeol 31:302-313. doi:10.1016/j. jaa.2012.01.008

Bartosiewicz L, Gillis R (2011) Preliminary report on the animal remains

from Çamlibel Tarlasi. Archeol Anz 1:76-79 Bartosiewicz L, Gillis R, Girdland-Flink L, Evin A, Cucchi T, Hoelzel R, Vidarsdottir U, Dobney K, Larson G, Schoop U-D (2013) Chalcolithic pig remains from Çamlibel Tarlasi, Central Anatolia. In: De Cupere B, Linseele V, Hamilton-Dyer S (eds) Archaeozoology of the Near East X. Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on the Archaeozoology of Southwestern Asia and adjacent areas. Peeters, Leuven, pp. 101-120 Bayer W, von Lossau A, Feldmann A, (2003) Smallholders and community-based management of farm animal genetic resources. In Community-based management of animal genetic resources. Proceedings of the workshop held in Mbabane, Swaziland May 2001. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 7-11 Bocherens H, Drucker D (2003) Trophic level isotopic enrichment of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen: case studies from recent and ancient terrestrial ecosystems. Int J Osteoarchaeol 13:46-53. doi: 10.1002/oa 662 Bogaard A, Heaton THE, Poulton P, Merbach I (2007) The impact of manuring on nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals: archaeological implications for reconstruction of diet and crop management practices. J Archaeol Sci 34:335-343 Bogaard A, Charles M, Livarda A, Ergun M, Filipovic D, Jones G (2013a) The archaeobotany of mid-later occupation levels at Neolithic Çatalhôyûk. In: Hodder I (ed) Humans and landscapes of Çatalhôyûk: reports from the 2000-2008 seasons, monographs of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, pp. 93-128 Bogaard A, Fraser R, Heaton THE, Wallace M, Vaiglova P, Charles M, Jones G, Evershed RP, Styring AK, Andersen NH, Arbogast R-M, Bartosiewicz L, Gardeisen A, Kanstrup M, Maier U, Marinova E, Ninov L, Schäfer M, Stephan E (2013b) Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:12589-12594. doi:10.1073/pnas.1305918110 Britton K, Mûldner G, Bell M (2008) Stable isotope evidence for salt-marsh grazing in the Bronze Age Severn Estuary, UK: implications for palaeodietary analysis at coastal sites. J Archaeol Sci 35:21112118. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2008.01.012 Brock F, Higham T, Bronk Ramsey C (2010) Pre-screening techniques for identification of samples suitable for radiocarbon dating of poorly preserved bones. J Archaeol Sci 37:855-865. doi:10.1016/j. jas.2009.11.015

Brown TA, Nelson DE, Southon JR (1988) Improved collagen extraction

by modified Longin method. Radiocarbon 30:171-177 Bruhl JJ, Wilson KL (2007) Towards a comprehensive survey of C3 and

C4 photosynthetic pathways in Cyperacea. Aliso 23:99-148 Budd C, Lillie MC, Alpaslan Roodenberg S, Karul N, Pinhasi R (2013) Stable isotope analysis of Neolithic and Chalcolithic populations from Aktopraklik, northern Anatolia. J Archaeol Sci 40:860-867. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.09.011 Cappers R (2008) Plant remains from the Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic levels. In: Roodenberg J, Alpaslan Roodenberg S (eds) Life and death in a prehistoric settlement in northwest Anatolia: the Ilipinar excavations, Volume III. Leiden, Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, pp. 117-148 DeNiro MJ (1985) Postmortem preservation and alteration of in-vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to paleodietary reconstruction. Nature 317:806-809. doi:10.1038/317806a0 DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1978) Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:495506. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(78)90199-0 DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1981) Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:341351. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(81 )90244-1

Dörfler W, Neef R, Pasternak R (2000) Untersuchungen zur Umweltgeschichte und Agrarökonomie im Einzugsbereich hethitischer Städte. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft 132:367-380

Düring BS (2008) The early Holocene occupation of north-central Anatolia between 10,000 and 6,000 BC cal: investigating an archaeological terra incognita. Anatol Stud 58:15-46 Edwards G, Walker DA (1983) C3, C4: mechanisms, and cellular and environmental regulation, of photosynthesis. University of California Press, Berkley Feranec RS (2007) Stable carbon isotope values reveal evidence of resource partitioning among ungulates from modem C-3-dominated ecosystems in North America. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 252:575-585 Fraser R, Bogaard A, Heaton T, Charles M, Jones G, Christensen BT, Halstead P, Merbach I, Poulton PR, Sparkes D, Styring AK (2011) Manure and stable isotope ratios in cereals and pulses: towards a new archaeobotanical approach to the inference of land use and dietary practices. J Archaeol Sci 38:2790-2804. doi:10.1016/j. jas.2011.06.024

Fuller BT, Fuller JL, Sage NE, Harris DA, O'Connell TC, Hedges REM (2005) Nitrogen balance and S15N: why you're not what you eat during pregnancy. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:2889-2896. doi: 10.1002/rcm. 170 Fuller BT, De Cupere B, Marinova E, Van Neer W, Waelkens M, Richards MP (2012) Isotopic reconstruction of human diet and animal husbandry practices during the Classical-Hellenistic, Imperial, and Byzantine periods at Sagalassos, Turkey. Am J Phys Anthropol 149:157-171. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22100 Gerritsen F, Özbal R, Thissen L, Özbal H, Galik A (2010) The Late

Chalcolithic settlement of Barcin Höyük. Anatolica 36:197-225 Gillis R, Bréhard S, Balasescu A, Vigne J-D, Popovici D, Balasse M (2013) Sophisticated cattle dairy husbandry at Borduçani-Popinâ (Romania, 5th mill BC): the evidence from complementary analysis of mortality profiles and stable isotopes. World Archaeology 45: 447-472. doi:10.1080/00438243.2013.820652 Goe MR, McDowell RE (1980) Animal traction: guidelines for utilization. Department of Animal Science Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Gourichon L, Helmer D (2008) Etude de la faune néolithique de Menteçe (Turquie). In: Roodenberg JJ, Alpaslan Roodenberg S (eds) Life and death in a prehistoric settlement in northwest Anatolia. The Ilipinar excavations, volume III. Leiden, Nederlands Institut voor het Nabije Oosten, pp. 435-448 Hedges REM, Reynard LM (2007) Nitrogen isotopes and the trophic level of humans in archaeology. J Archaeol Sci 34:1240-1251. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.015 Hodder I, Cessford C (2004) Daily practice and social memory at

Çatalhôyûk. Am Antiq 69:17-40. doi:10.2307/4128346 Jabbar MA (1993) Research on cow traction in Africa: some lessons to be learned. In: Lawrence PR, Lawrence K, Dijkman JT, Starkey PH (eds) Recherche pour Le Développement de la traction Animale en Afrique de L'Ouest. Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network held in Kano, Nigeria, 913 July 1990. The International Livestock Centre for Africa, Adis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 263-268 Jenkins SG, Partridge ST, Stephenson TR, Farley SD, Robbins CT (2001) Nitrogen and carbon isotope fractionation between mothers, neonates and nursing offspring. Oecologia 129:336-341. doi:10.1007 /s004420100755

Longin R (1971) New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon

dating. Nature 230:241-242. doi:10.1038/230241a0 Lösch S, Grupe G, Peters J (2006) Stable isotopes and dietary adaptations in human and animals at pre-pottery Neolithic Nevali Çori, Southeast Anatolia. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:181-193

Marsh B (2010) Geoarchaeology ofthe landscape at Bogazköy-Hattusa.

Archaeol Anz 2010:201-207 Nesbitt M, Summers GD (1988) Some recent discoveries of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) at excavations in Turkey and Iran. Anatol Stud 38:85-97 Nitsch EK, Humphrey LT, Hedges REM (2010) The effect of parity status on s15N: looking for the "pregnancy effect" in 18th and nineteenth century London. J Archaeol Sci 37:3191-3199. doi:10.1016/j. jas.2010.07.019

O'Connell TC, Kneale CJ, Tasevska N, Kuhnle GGC (2012) The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study. Am J Phys Anthropol 149:426-434. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22140 Olsen KC, White CD, Longstaffe FJ, von Heyking K, McGlynn G, Grupe G, Rühli FJ (2014) Intraskeletal isotopic compositions (s13C, s15N) of bone collagen: nonpathological and pathological variation. Am J Phys Anthropol 153:598-604. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22459 Özdogan M (1996) Pre-Bronze Age sequence of Central Anatolia: an alternative approach. In: Magen U, Rashad M (eds) Vom Halys zum Euphrat: Thomas Beran zu Ehren. Ugarit-Verlag, Münster, pp. 185-202

Papadopoulou I, Bogaard A (2012) A preliminary study ofthe charred macrobotanical assemblage from Camlibel Tarlasi, North-Central Anatolia. Archaeol Anz 2011:22-27 Parzinger H (1993) Zur Zeitstellung der Büyükkaya-Ware: Bemerkungen zur vorbronzezeitlichen Kulturfolge Zentralanatoliens. Anatolica 19:211-229

Pearson JA, Buitenhuis H, Hedges REM, Martin L, Russell N, Twiss KC (2007) New light on early caprine herding strategies from isotope analysis: a case study from Neolithic Anatolia. J Archaeol Sci 34: 2170-2179. doi: 10.1038/230241 a0 Pearson JA, Bogaard A, Charles M, Hillson SW, Larsen CS, Russell N, Twiss K (2015) Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis at Neolithic Catalhöyük: evidence for human and animal diet and their relationship to households. J Archaeol Sci 57:69-79. doi:10.1016/j. jas.2015.01.007

Peters J, Buitenhuis H, Grupe G, Schmidt K, Pöllath N (2013) The long and winding road: ungulate exploitation and domestication in Early Neolithic Anatolia (10000-7000 cal BC). In: Colledge S, Conolly J, Dobney K, Manning K, Shennan S (eds) Origins and spread of domestic animals in Southwest Asia and Europe. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek CA, pp. 83-114 Pickard C, Schoop U-D, Dalton A, Sayle KL, Channell I, Calvey K, Thomas J-L, Bartosiewicz L, Bonsall C (2016) Diet at Late Chalcolithic Camlibel Tarlasi, north-central Anatolia: an isotopic perspective. J Archaeol Sci: Reports 5:296-306. doi:10.1016/j. jasrep.2015.11.034 Prache S, Gordon IJ, Rook AJ (1998) Foraging behaviour and diet selection in domestic herbivores. Annales de zootechnie, INRA/EDP. Sciences 47:335-345 <hal-00889735> Rao ZG, Chen FH, Zhang X, Xu YB, Xue Q, Zhang PY (2012) Spatial and temporal variations of C3/C4 relative abundance in global terrestrial ecosystem since the Last Glacial and its possible driving mechanism. Chin Sci Bull 57:4024-4035. doi:10.1007/s11434-012-5233-9

Richards MP, Pearson J, Molleson TI, Russell N, Martin L (2003) Stable isotope evidence of diet at Neolithic Catalhöyük, Turkey. J Archaeol Sci 30:67-76. doi:10.1006/jasc.2001.0825 Riehl S, Nesbitt M (2003) Crops and cultivation in the Iron Age Near East: change or continuity? In Fischer B, Genz H, Köroglu JE (eds) Identifying changes: the transition from Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and its neighbouring regions. Proceedings of the International Workshop, 8-9 November Istanbul 2002. Istanbul, Türk Eskigag Bilimleri Enstitüsü, pp 301-312. Sauter F, Puchinger L, Schoop U-D (2003) Fat analysis sheds light on everyday life in prehistoric Anatolia: traces of lipids identified in

chalcolithic potsherds excavated near Bogazkale, Central Turkey. ARKIVOC XV: 15-21 Schoop U-D (2005) Das anatolische Chalkolithikum. Eine chronologische Untersuchung zur vorbronzezeitlichen Kultursequenz im nördlichen Zentralanatolien und den angrenzenden Gebieten. Verlag Bernhard Albert Greiner, Remshalden

Schoop U-D (2010) Ausgrabungen in Çamlibel Tarlasi 2009. Archaeol

Anz 2010:191-201 Schoop U-D (2011) Çamlibel Tarlasi, ein metallverarbeitender Fundplatz des vierten Jahrtausends v. Chr. im nördlichen Zentralanatolien. In: Yalçin Ü (ed) Anatolian Metal V. Deutsches Bergbaumuseum, Bochum, pp. 53-68 Schoop U-D (2015) Çamlibel Tarlasi: Late Chalcolithic settlement and economy in the Budaközü Valley (north-central Anatolia). In: Steadman SR, McMahon G (eds) The archaeology of Anatolia I. Recent discoveries (2011-2014). Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, pp. 46-68 Schoop U-D, Lehner J (2013) Long-distance trade and communication

networks in Late Chalcolithic Anatolia. Heritage Turkey 3:27 Schoop U-D, Grave P, Kealhofer L, Jacobsen G (2009) Radiocarbon dates from Chalcolithic Çamlibel Tarlasi. Archeol Anz 2009:66-67 Schwarcz HP, Dupras T, Fairgrieve SI (1999) 15N enrichment in the Sahara: in search of a global relationship. J Archaeol Sci 26:629-636 Sealy J, Armstrong R, Schrire C (1995) Beyond lifetime averages: tracing life histories through isotopic analysis of different calcified tissues from archaeological human skeletons. Antiquity 69:290-300 Steadman S (1995) Prehistoric interregional interaction in Anatolia and the

Balkans: an overview. Bull Am Sch Oriental Res 299(300):13-32 Studnitz M, Jensen MB, Pedersen LJ (2007) Why do pigs root and in what will they root? A review on the exploratory behaviour of pigs

in relation to environmental enrichment. Appl Anim Behav Sci 107: 183-197. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.11.013 Styring AK, Fraser RA, Bogaard A, Evershed RP (2014) The effect of manuring on cereal and pulse amino ac id ö 15N values. Phytochemistry 102:40-44. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.11.013 Towers J, Jay M, Mainland I, Nehlich O, Montgomery J (2011) A calf for all seasons? The potential of stable isotope analysis to investigate prehistoric husbandry practices. J Archaeol Sci 38:1858-1868. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2011.03.030 van der Merwe NJ, Medina E (1991) The canopy effect, carbon isotope ratios and foodwebs in Amazonia. J Archaeol Sci 18:249-259. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2011.03.030 van Klinken GJ (1999) Bone collagen quality indicator for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements. J Archaeol Sci 26:687-695. doi: 10.1006/jasc. 1998.0385 van Klinken GJ, van der Plicht H, Hedges REM (1994) Bond 13C/12C ratios reflect (palaeo-) climatic variations. Geophys Res Lett 21: 445-448

van Klinken GJ, Richards MP, Hedges REM (2000) An overview of causes for stable isotopic variations in past European human populations: environmental, ecophysiological, and cultural effects. In: Ambrose SH, Katzenberg MA (eds) Biogeochemical approaches to paleodietary analysis. Springer, New York, pp. 39-63 van Shaik G, Perry BD, Mukhebi AW, Gitau GK, Djikhuizen AA (1996) An economic study of smallholder dairy farms in Murang'a District, Kenya. Prev Vet Med 29:21-36 Zeder MA, Bradley DG, Emshwiller E, Smith BD (2006) Documenting domestication. In: Zeder MA, Emshwiller E, Smith BD, Bradley DG (eds) Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 1-12