Scholarly article on topic 'Comparison between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber/hydroxyapatite (HA) for removal of Zn2+ ions from wastewater'

Comparison between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber/hydroxyapatite (HA) for removal of Zn2+ ions from wastewater Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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{Nanofibers / Electrospinning / "Polyvinyl alcohol" / Hydroxyapatite / "Water treatment" / "Zn2 + removal"}

Abstract of research paper on Chemical sciences, author of scientific article — A.M. Abd El-aziz, Azza El-Maghraby, Nahla A. Taha

Abstract Nanocomposites in the form of continuous and aligned polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers have been obtained by the electrospinning process. These fibers were used as matrix for hydroxyapatite (HA). PVA and PVA/HA nanofibers were fabricated and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA). The hybrid of polymer with ceramics (HA) shows good properties of large surface area and good porosity that were demonstrated by different characterization techniques such as FTIR, SEM, XRD and EDX which illustrate the ratio of HA. The prepared nanofibrous membranes are used for removal of Zn2+ from simulated water. The potential of these synthesized sorbents to remove Zn2 + ions from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch experiments, where several parameters such as the sorbate/sorbent’s contact time, initial Zn2+ ions concentration and sorbent dosage were investigated. The equilibrium concentration of Zn2 + ions was identified by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the adsorption process was studied by the isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. The Zn2 + adsorption process for PVA and PVA/HA nanofibrous membranes was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models respectively.

Academic research paper on topic "Comparison between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber/hydroxyapatite (HA) for removal of Zn2+ ions from wastewater"

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Original article

Comparing between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber / Hydroxyapatite (HA) for removal of Zn+2 ions from waste water

A.M. Abd El-aziz, Azza El-Maghraby, Nahla A. Taha

PII: DOI:

Reference:

S1878-5352(16)30172-1 http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.09.025 ARABJC 1982

Arabian Journal of Chemistry

Saudi Chemical Society & The Arab Union of Chemists

To appear in:

Arabian Journal of Chemistry

Received Date: Revised Date: Accepted Date:

4 July 2016 24 September 2016 26 September 2016

Please cite this article as: A.M. Abd El-aziz, A. El-Maghraby, N.A. Taha, Comparing between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber / Hydroxyapatite (HA) for removal of Zn+2 ions from waste water, Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2016), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016Zj.arabjc.2016.09.025

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Comparing between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber / Hydroxyapatite (HA) for removal of Zn2+ ions from waste water.

A. M. Abd El-aziz1, Azza El-Maghraby1*, Nahla A. Taha1,2

1 Department of Fabrication Technology, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt.

2 Chemistry Department, Al-lith university college, Umm Al-Qura University, Sudia Arabia.

* Corresponding Author: maghrabyazza@yahoo.com, 02-01003087123, Postal code: 23713.

>7123, Postal c

Abstract

Nanocomposites in the form of continuous and aligned polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers have been obtained by the electrospinning process. These fibers were used as matrix for hydroxyapatite (HA). PVA and PVA / HA nanofibers were fabricated and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA). The hybrid of polymer with ceramics (HA) show good properties of large surface area and good porosity that were demonstrated by different characterization techniques such as FTIR, SEM, XRD and EDX which illustrate the ratio of HA. The prepared nanofibrous membranes are used for removal of Zn2+ from simulated water. The potential of these synthesized sorbents to remove Zn+2 ions from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch experiments, where several parameters such as the sorbate/sorbent's contact time, initial Zn2+ ions concentration and sorbent dosage were investigated. The equilibrium concentration of Zn+2 ions was identified by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the adsorption process was studied by the isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The Zn+2 adsorption process for PVA and PVA / HA nanofibrous membranes was fitted to Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm models respectively.

Keywords:

Nanofibers, Electrospinning, Poly vinyl alcohol, Hydroxyapatite, water treatment,

Zn+2 removal.

1) Introduction:

Nowadays, pollution of water from the contamination of heavy metals is a severe environmental problem. Metals such as chromium, copper, iron, lead, silver, and zinc, which have high toxic and non-biodegradable properties, can cause problems to both the environment and the living organisms with extremely high levels [1-3]. Many methods (such as adsorption, electroplating, ion exchange, membrane separation and precipitation) are being used to remove the ions of these metals from aqueous effluents. Among these, adsorption is commonly regarded as an effective and economical method for wastewater treatment [4].

Nano-scale materials can be designed to exhibit novel improvement of the physical and chemical properties and are designed to become a discipline as important as polymers are in chemistry [5]. More than 100 polymers, both synthetic and natural,

have been successfully electrospun into nanofibers. Mostly from polymer solutions any polymers may be electrospun into nanofibers, provided that the polymer molecular weight is sufficiently high and the solvent can be evaporated in time during the jet transit period over a distance between the spinneret and the collector [6].

PVA is a synthetic water-soluble hydrophilic polymer. The basic properties of PVA are dependent on the degree of polymerization or on the degree of hydrolysis. It has been widely used in adhesives, emulsificants, in the textile and paper industry applications and in the attainment of amphiphilic membranes for enzyme immobilization where properties can be improved, such as mechanical, thermal and chemical stability. Applications of PVA are limited by its hydrophilicity, but chemical cross-linking improves its stability in aqueous media. Chemical cross-link ing by glutaraldehyde (GA), a dialdehyde, during which the hydroxyl groups of the PVA and the aldehyde groups of GA react in the presence of a strong acid, has been well studied. Membranes of nanofibrous cross-linked PVA are being studied in filtration and membrane applications. Cross-linking is advantageous because it renders the nanofibers insoluble in all solvents and increases the mechanical properties of the membranes; insolubility is especially desirable for filtration applications.

A novel class of materials called organic-inorganic hybrids would combine properties of organic polymers with ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA). Hybrids would combine properties of organic polymers with ceramics. These different components can be mixed at length scales ranging from nanometer to micrometer, in virtually any ratio leading to the so-called hybrid organic-inorganic materials [7]. Hydroxyapatite is an ideal material for long-term containment of contaminants because of its high sorption capacity for actinides and heavy metals, low water solubility, high stability under reducing and oxidizing conditions, availability, and low cost. It was conducted in adsorption of a wide variety of metals (e.g., Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, Pu, Pb, As, Sb, U, and V). The sorption to take place through ionic exchange reaction, surface complexation with phosphate, calcium and hydroxyl groups and/or co-precipitation of new partially soluble phases [8].

The aim of this work is to prepare and characterize of the cross linked poly vinyl alcohol nanofibers and nanofibrous composite of both poly vinyl alcohol/ hydroxyapatite nanofibers and compare between them by the removal of the contaminant Zn+2 ion from aqueous solution. The thermodynamics of this adsorption process of Zn+2 from the simulated water have been studied by three isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin.

2. Materials and Methods:

2.1 Materials:

Polyvinyl alcohol "Mwt= 72.000 g/mol", Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O) (98%) and Phosphoric acid, (H3PO4) (85%) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich. Glutaraldehyde 25% aq. Solution was purchased from Alfa Aesar, "A Johnson Matthey Company". Zinc nitrate, Zn (NO3)2. 6 H2O, M=297.48 g/mol, was obtained from Fluka. All chemicals were used without further purification.

2.2 Methods:

2.2.1 Preparation of hydroxyapatite (HA):

The HA Powder was synthesized by the co-precipitation process of 1:2 Molar ratio of Ca(N03).4H20 and H3PO4 of the same volume. The HA particles were precipitated upon the addition of NH4OH till pH equal to 10. After the precipitation the solution was aged in a water bath for 24 h. The precipitation was filtered and then dried at 100° C for 24 hours [9].

CalgM'VGM

.•no, .»■*,• pH=10bv adding cAjfa.ua<u«

a J m- H ^ - ^ 0 Filtration k WWW

» • t e T.. Drvins at 100°C

Asms in water for 24 h J - ë

Poofr OynAnt HA for 24 h

Figure (1): Mechanism of preparation of HA nanoparticle showing the two-step precipitation reaction which yields poorly crystalline HA followed by calcination of the precipitate to obtain crystalline HA nanoparticles [8].

2.2.2 Preparation of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers

Different concentrations (5, 8, 10) wt. % of PVA water solutions were prepared by stirring at 90 °C for 2 hours. The prepared solutions of PVA solutions have been cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) by the addition of 0.25% glutaraldehyde for cross linking reaction by the stirring for 2 hours at 60 °C. The prepared solutions were electrospun to form polymeric nanofibers. The electrospinning apparatus (NANONC, Germany) consisted of high voltage supply, a syringe infusion pump and a ground electrode (an Aluminum foil on a stainless steel collector). The polymeric solutions were loaded into a plastic syringe (10 mL), the applied voltage was "15 and 30" kV. The solution was constantly supplied using a syringe pump at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/h and the spinning distance between the needle and the ground electrode was 20 cm.

2.2.3 Preparation of cross-linked PVA nanofiber / hydroxyapatite nanocomposite

By the characterization of the polymeric nanofibers, we choose the 10 wt. % of PVA water solution due to the smallest fiber diameters and the highest surface area. The

hydroxyapatite (1 wt. %) added to the 10% PVA water solution by the stirring for 1 hour

r at 90° C. The addition of 0.25 % GA for cross linking reaction between the olymeric chains by the stirring for 2 hours at 60°C [10, 11]. The polymeric solutions were loaded into a plastic syringe (10 mL) and allowed for electrospinning with the conditions as previously mentioned.

2.2.4 Zn adsorption by the prepared nanofibrous membranes:

The study of the adsorption of metal ions (Zn2+) from an aqueous solution was investigated by the batch method. The metal ion solutions were prepared with different concentrations from 100 to 500 mg. l-1. Dried samples of nanofibrous membranes (PVA and PVA/HA) were used as adsorbant materials. The membranes were weighed 50 mg in aqueous solutions (100ml) which were agitated at a constant speed of 300 rpm at room temperature [10]. The concentration of Zn2+ ion has been determined by Atomic Absorption spectrometry (AAS).

2.2.5 Isotherms of the adsorption process:

Langmuir, Frendlish and Tempkin models are three isotherm models which explain the adsorption of adsorbate onto homogeneous and heterogeneous active sites of the adsorbent, respectively. Further to this, the initial concentration of metal ion Zn+2 was changed from 100 to 500 mg. l-1 and the Zn2+ concentrations was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry after a certain time (t). The Langmuir model of isotherm stated that "the surface catalysis is usually preceded by chemisorption, and the kinetics of surface reactions due to the monolayer adsorption" [11]. The model is valid for monolayer adsorption onto a surface containing a finite number of identical sites. While Tempkin model considered the effects of some indirect adsorbate/adsorbent interactions on adsorption isotherms and suggested that because of these interactions of the heat of adsorption, the molecules in the layer would decrease linearly with coverage. The form of the Langmuir isotherm can be represented by the following Equation.

)f the

Ce/qe= 1/(qmk)+(1/qe)Ce (1)

Where qe and qm are the amount of the Zn2+ adsorbed on the membrane surface and the maximum Zr and k is the equilibrium constant.

e the amount oi the zr2+ the maximum Zn2+ adsorbed (mg/g). Ce is the equilibrium Zn2+ concentration (mg/ml)

In contrast to the homogeneous Langmuir isotherm, the Freundlich adsorption isotherm is an empirical model, which can be used for evaluating the heterogeneous

binding system of Zn+2 onto the nanofiber surfaces. The Freundlich equation (Eq. 2) is expressed as: Ln qe= ln kf+ (1/n) ln Ce

where Ce and qe values are the equilibrium Zn2+ concentration (mg/ml) and the amount of the Zn2+ adsorbed on the membrane surface (mg/ml) respectively. while 1/n is the Freundlich constant that refers to the affinity of ion onto the surface of the anofibers [12].

The Tempkin isotherm has been used in the following form [27]. qe=RT/b*( ln A Ce) (3)

Eq. (3) can be expressed in its linear form as:

qe=B lnA + RT/b ln Ce (4)

B= RT/b

The adsorption data can be analyzed according to Eq. (4). A plot of qe versus ln Ce enables the determination of the isotherm constants A and B. The constant B is related

to the heat of adsorption.

i with

2.2.6 Characterization of the prepared materials:

Fourier Transmission - IR Spectrophotometer (FTIR -8400S, Shimadzu, Japan) wii a resolution of 2 cm- 1 was used to explore the change in the functional groups before and after functionalization of the nanofibers with HA. The samples (5 mg) wer e mulled with dry potassium bromide (KBr) (20mg) crystals at room temperature. The spectrum was recorded in the wave number range of 4000-350 cm-1 with a resolution of 2 cm -1 To analyze the crystalline structure of the PVA powder, the electrospun (ES) PVA fiber and the ES-PVA/HA fibers, X-ray diffraction was performed using (X-ray 7000 Shimadzu-Japan) at room temperature. The Bragg angle (20) in the range from 10 to 80 degree was measured to determine the degree of crystallinity of the HA. The X-ray source is a Cu target generated at 30 KV and 30 mA with a scan speed 4 deg /min. The size and morphology of the electrospun fibers were investigated by the field scanning electron microscopy (SEM (JEOL JSM 6360LA, Japan), with an Electron Dispersive X-Ray unit (EDX).

Results and Discussion:

PVA nanofiberous memberane and PVA / HA nanocomposites were obtained by electrospining of PVA water solution with GA and electrospining of PVA water solution with HA in presence of GA. The removal of Zn+2 from simulated water were studied.

3.1 Characterization of the prepared hydroxyapatite

The SEM micrograph, the FT-IR analysis and the XRD pattern of the porous HA templates are shown in Figs 2A, 2B and 2C, respectively. The dense agglomerated grains of HA were observed in the SEM micrographs of the calcined HA templates. The micrographs of the clusters of HA particles have a homogenous size. The average size of the clusters was (mean ± standard deviation) (218 ± 75) nm for the co-precipitation procedure of [Ca(NO3)2.4H2O + H3PO4] [13] .

Figure (2): The characterization of the prepared hydroxyapatite (A): SEM surface morphology, (B): FT-IR analysis and (C): XRD analysis.

The functional groups of the HA have been studied by the FT-IR as shown on the following: the band observed at 3417 cm-1 was attributed to the hydroxyl group (OH) stretching [14]. The bands at 1629 cm-1, 1660 cm-1 were attributed to V2 bending mode of the water molecules that are adsorbed on the surface [15, 16]. A weak band of CO3 2- was detected in the region around 1567.78 cm-1. This band indicates or onfirms the minor amount of carbonate substitution. The vibrations of the O-P-O bonds corresponding to the absorption band of PO4-3 appeared at 580 cm-1 indicate the bending mode of PO4 3- The peak at 976.89 cm-1 corresponds to symmetric stretching mode of PO4 3-. The most intensive band that appeared at 1060 cm- corresponds to the asymmetric stretching vibrations of the P-O [17].

The XRD analysis of the prepared HA shows the sharp narrow peaks indicated by 20 from 25°-32°. The crystalline peaks were observed at 20 = 25.8°, 31.8°, 39.8°, 46.7°, 49.5° and 51.5°, corresponding to HA. All the peaks of the prepared powders correspond to that of the standard HA that was reported in the ASTM card (JCPDS No. 74-0566), however the peaks of the produced HA had different intensity than the standard one [18, 19]. These sharp narrow peaks are indicated that the prepared HA is a crystalline sample.

3.2 Characterization of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers

Fig. (3) shows the representative surface morphologies of electrospun PVA nanofiber membranes with different concentrations of PVA/H2O solutions (5, 8, 10) wt.%. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation revealed the formation of solid, uniform, nanofibers with random orientation. The massive increase in an electrostatic repulsion that present in a high concentration tends to decrease the fiber diameters and induce an increase of the surface area [20-22]. The 10% PVA nanofiber diameters are (231.5 ± 80) nm which are the smallest fiber diameters if compared with (5, 8) % PVA solutions. For concentration (10% PVA/H2O solution) a series of experiments was carried out. The solution was pushed out from the syringe tip with constant flow rate of 0.5 ml/h and the applied voltage was varied between "15 and 30" kV with constant distance between tip and the collector 20 cm. The mean average diameter of the fibers

Figure (3): SEM images of PVA nanofibers different concentrations (5, 8, 10) wt%. 3.3 Characterization of the cross-linked PVA nanofibers

Fig. (4A) shows the mechanism of the crosslinking reaction of GA with PVA nanofibers. The strategy used to investigate the acid-free reaction between PVA and GA to form the A and B reversible structures [23]. The crosslinking 'contracted' nanofibers within the nanofiber mats, producing a denser structure with closely packed nanofiber membranes [24] that is shown in Fig. (4B).

Figure (4): (A): Mechanism of the reaction images of 10% PVA cross-linked nanofibers.

I ■ ■

betwee

ween PVA and GA and (B): SEM

3.4 Characterization of nanocomposite PVA/HA nanofibrous membrane

The encapsulation of nano-HA in PVA nanofibers was characterized by SEM that is shown in Fig. (5). The spherical HA particles were mostly oriented along the axial direction inside individual fibers, whereas a few were perpendicular to axial direction extruding the fibers [26]. The elemental composition of nanofibers determined by EDX reveals the components (Ca, P) (3.69, 2.01) respectively that are encapsulated within fibe

Figure (5): SEM images and EDX composition of the elements of PVA / (1%) HA nanofibers.

Figure (6): FT-IR of (PVA, PVA / (1%

ofibers and HA powder.

The FT-IR analysis of the prepared membranes of PVA nanofibers and nanocomposite of PVA/HA nanofibrous membranes is shown in Fig. (6). The bands at 1316, 3348 cm-1 are associated with C-O-H stretching of PVA and O-H bonding in PVA. The band at 1150 cm-1 was (C-O-C) formed through the crosslinking between OH of a typical PVA structure and -C- of GA molecule. Furthermore, the strengthening of the band at 1720 cm-1 is indicative of C=O bond which is characteristic of GA [25]. The band at 2850 cm-1 that appeared on both PVA nanofibers and nanofiber composite, which revealed to (O=C-H) of the GA structure [11,25].

Removal of Zn from the waste water

8) show the removal percentage of Zn2+ from the simulated water by using nofibrous (PVA, PVA/HA) membranes. TDifferent concentrations of Zn2+ solutions (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500) ppm have been studied as a function in time until 2 h.

Fig. (7) shows the removal percent of Zn2+ by using PVA nanofibrous (50 mg) membranes with constant stirring rate 300 rpm. The adsorption amount increases sharply up to 15 min and then still constant (100% removal percent) until 2 h. However, the removal percent of Zn2+ by using (PVA/HA) nanofiber membranes with the same conditions is variable with different Zn2+ concentrations as shown in Fig (8).

100 ! IB—H— И-M-IS

60 100 ppm

<u 200 ppm

QC 40 300 ppm 400 ppm

0 50 100 150 Time, min

Figure (7) Effect of concentration on adsorption of Zn+2 by PVA (NF) (sorbent dose: 50 mg; stirring speed; 300 r.p.m; contact time: 2 h)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

100 ppm 200 ppm 300 ppm 400 ppm 500 ppm

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Time, min

Figure (8) Effect of concentration on adsorption of Zn+2 by PVA/1% HA (sorbent dose: 50 mg; stirring speed; 300 r.p.m; contact time: 2 h)

The adsorption amount increases sharply up to 20 min then it seems constant up to (15, 45, 50, 55) % removal percent and the large adsorption amount with 500 ppm simulated solution. The initial increase might be due to high surface area and inter or intra nanofibrous pores that present in nanofibrous membranes [26]. The removal % of Zn2+ in case of nanocomposite was less than PVA nanofibrous membrane.

Unfortunately, the hydroxyapatite affect negatively on the adsorption capacity of the composite may be due to the penetration of the particles of HA inside the chains of PVA crosslinked polymeric structure [28], so decrease the surface area of the nanocomposite and also blocking of the active groups composite that has been shown on the following Fig. (9).

Figure (9): Mechanism of the reaction between GA and PVA during crosslinking process and shows the penetration of HA inside the crosslinked chains.

3.5 Studying the adsorption isotherms

Fig. (10) shows the kinetic isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin respectively for adsorption of Zn2+ by (PVA) nanofiber membrane, while Fig. (11) shows the same kinetic isotherms for adsorption of Zn2+ by (PVA/1% HA) nanofiber embrane. As shown in Table 1 which summarizes the results of the isotherm itants for the three different equilibrium isotherms tested.

mem cons

On the basis of the correlation coefficients (R2), for the Langmuir model (R2 = 0. 8149). It was evident experimental data fitting for the linear Langmuir isotherm equation model for adsorption of Zn2+ by PVA nanofiber membranes. While the PVA/HA nanofibers, the data fitting for Freundlich and Tempkin models R2= (0.866, 0.751) respectively. The results show that the adsorption in case of PVA nanofibers takes place as a monolayer homogenous adsorption with the nanofibrous surface, but in case of addition of HA to PVA nanofibers the adsorption of Zn2+ takes place as a heterogeneous adsorption.

0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 0.0004 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

ш CT с

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

—I -6

Figure (10): Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms of Adsorption of Zn+2 by PVA nanofibers

1200 1000 800 600

"St 400 u

200 0 -200 -400

Figure (11): Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms of Adsorption of Zn+2 by PVA/1% HA nanofibers.

Table (1): Isotherm parameters for Adsorption of Zn+2 by PVA nanofibers and PVA/1%

Isotherm Parameters

PVA (NF) PVA/1% HA

Langmuir model R2 Kl aL 0.8149 -5*104 -120 0.1354 0.595 -3.16*10-3

Freundlich model R2 Kf 1/nf nf 3*10-5 1.7*105 -0.0032 -312.5 0.795 8.46*10-5 1.9125 0.522

Temkin model

R2 0.646 0.1766

B -208.37 304.98

A 1 0.020

Conclusions

In this work, we successfully fabricated polymeric nanofibrous (PVA and PVA / HA) composites. The comparing study of the fiber diameters of the different concentrations (5, 8, 10) wt% was indicating that the 10% PVA nanofiber diameters have the smallest fiber diameters (231.5 ± 80) nm if compared with (5, 8) wt. % PVA solutions. Potential applications based on such fibers specifically their use as adsorbent in wastewater treatment have been realized. After the crosslinking of the polymeric nanofibers (PVA and PVA / HA) with GA, they were used for removal of Zn2+ from a simulated water. The adsorption process was studied by the isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The Zn+2 adsorption process with PVA and PVA / HA nanofibrous membranes was fitted to Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm models respectively. Therefore, the prepared PVA/HA composite nanofiber would be a promising material can be used in the removal of heavy metals.

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