Scholarly article on topic 'Analysis of Urban Agriculture Sustainability in Metropolitan Jakarta (Case Study: Urban Agriculture in Duri Kosambi)'

Analysis of Urban Agriculture Sustainability in Metropolitan Jakarta (Case Study: Urban Agriculture in Duri Kosambi) Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Darmawan Listya Cahya

Abstract The rapid process of urbanization and urban development in West Jakarta will surely cause various urban problems such as the insufficient provision of food. Urban agriculture in West Jakarta can be seen as one of the supply sources of food and alternatives to household food security, one of the productive activities of urban open space, source of income and employment opportunities, and improve the quality of urban environment. This paper aims to analyze the sustainability status of urban agriculture in Metropolitan Jakarta. Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is used for the analysis of the sustainability status. The result showed that the sustainability status of urban agriculture in West Jakarta on the existing conditions in almost all dimension classified as less sustainable and only institutional and technological dimension is quite sustainable. This existing condition is necessary intervention in raising the sustainability status of urban agriculture in Metropolitan Jakarta.

Academic research paper on topic "Analysis of Urban Agriculture Sustainability in Metropolitan Jakarta (Case Study: Urban Agriculture in Duri Kosambi)"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 227 (2016) 95 - 100

CITIES 2015 International Conference, Intelligent Planning Towards Smart Cities, CITIES 2015,

3-4 November 2015, Surabaya, Indonesia

Analysis of urban agriculture sustainability in Metropolitan Jakarta (case study: urban agriculture in Duri Kosambi)

Darmawan Listya Cahya3^*

aDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, Esa Unggul University, Jl. Arjuna Utara No. 9, Kebon Jeruk, Jakarta, 11510, Indonesia bEnvironmental Science Program, University of Indonesia, Jl. Salemba Raya No. 4, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia

Abstract

The rapid process of urbanization and urban development in West Jakarta will surely cause various urban problems such as the insufficient provision of food. Urban agriculture in West Jakarta can be seen as one of the supply sources of food and alternatives to household food security, one of the productive activities of urban open space, source of income and employment opportunities, and improve the quality of urban environment. This paper aims to analyze the sustainability status of urban agriculture in Metropolitan Jakarta. Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is used for the analysis of the sustainability status. The result showed that the sustainability status of urban agriculture in West Jakarta on the existing conditions in almost all dimension classified as less sustainable and only institutional and technological dimension is quite sustainable. This existing condition is necessary intervention in raising the sustainability status of urban agriculture in Metropolitan Jakarta.

© 2016 The Authors. Published by ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of CITIES 2015 Keywords: urban agriculture; sustainability; multi dimensional scalling

1. Introduction

Urbanization and urban development in Indonesia has occurred rapidly in recent decades. This is evident from the growth of the urban population in Indonesia is very rapid compared to the growth of the rural population. BPS population data indicate that the percentage of the urban population in 1990 reached 30.9%, in 2010 reached 49.8%,

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +628158931441 E-mail address: darmawan@esaunggul.ac.id

1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of CITIES 2015 doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.06.048

and this year has reached 56%. In Indonesia's Economic Vision 2025 is estimated at 65% of Indonesia's population live in cities.

Accordingly, Jakarta as the capital of the country and is one of the metropolitan city is also a process of urbanization and urban development is very rapid. Based on BPS data, the population of Jakarta in 2012 was as much as 9,932,063 people, compared with the total population in 2011 the population of Jakarta is as much as 9,761,992 inhabitants, has been an increase of 170 071 inhabitants or an increase of 0.98 percent, In the period 20002012, the population growth rate has increased by an average of 1.67 percent per year.

The acceleration of urbanization and urban development in Jakarta will certainly cause problems. Number of significant increase in urban population without the support and offset by the amount of the provision of food, employment, housing, infrastructure, law enforcement officers, and so forth is a problem that must be dealt with properly.

Poverty is one of the problems faced by Jakarta. Number of poor (people living below the poverty line) in Jakarta in September 2013 amounted to 375.7 persons (3.72%). Compared with March 2013 (354.19 thousand or 3.55%), the number of poor people increased by 21.51 thousand, an increase of 0.17 points. While compared to September 2012 the number of poor people amounted to 366.77 thousand (3.70%), the number of poor increased by 8.93 thousand, an increase of 0.02 points. Compared with the poor in March 2012 that amounted to 363.20 thousand (3.69 percent) means the number of poor people increased by 3.57 thousand, an increase of 0.01 points. From these data it can be said that the number of poor people in Jakarta tends to increase every year.

On the other hand, one of the phenomena that is currently happening in cities in Indonesia as well as in Jakarta is the development of urban agriculture. In the Report Rural Urban Agriculture Foundation (RAUF) in 2008, noted that the definition of urban agriculture (urban farming) is an agricultural activity that is present in and around urban areas. The most notable differences between urban agriculture with rural agriculture is the integration of urban agriculture into urban economic system and urban ecosystems. Integration can be seen from the existence of the urban poor as labor, resource use, urban (land sub-optimal as agricultural land, organic waste for composting, urban wastewater for watering plants), deal directly with consumers (the town), have a direct impact to the urban ecology (positive or negative), became part of the urban food system, competition in acquiring land with other urban functions, are affected by planning and urban policy, and others.

Activities of urban agriculture in general has a very important role because it is needed in support of food security with the availability of adequate food, the ability to access (including purchase) of food, and the dependence of food at any party, then the position of farmers in the activities of urban agriculture has a strategic position to support food security. This is because farmers are food producers and at the same time also the largest consumer group.

Urban agriculture in addition to having economic benefits, it also has social benefits and environmental benefits. This is in line with the results Slabinski Julie M. (2013) which concluded that urban agriculture could be one solution for not only making vacant land be useful but also provide cheap and flexible solution for people who struggle financially.

Results of research Hubert De Bon, et al (2010) concluded that agricultural activities will continue to be a major contributor to urban communities and rural farming differences with urban agriculture has declined. The function of the food supply for urban communities makes urban agriculture need to be considered by the population, the government, and farmers in urban areas. As well as the main issue is producing high quality agricultural products in densely populated areas and environmental pollution.

The development of urban agriculture should be conducted in the perspective of sustainable urban development. Li (2009), states that the development of sustainable agriculture seeks to achieve sustainability of agricultural production, rural economic sustainability and environmental sustainability in the long term). Based on the definition of sustainability, the development of sustainable urban agriculture in this research is the development of urban agriculture that integrates economic, social and environment in an integrated manner in order to achieve economic sustainability, social sustainability and environmental sustainability within the framework of the development of urban areas.

The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of urban agriculture in Metropolitan Jakarta and analyzing the sustainability of urban agriculture in Metropolitan Jakarta.

2. Methods

To achieve the research objectives, the phases of research that will be done are the preparation, data collection, and analysis. Preparation is done by compiling survey instruments, data requirements, and other preparations. The

type of data used in the analysis of the sustainability status of existing urban agricultural areas in the area of research is the primary data and secondary data associated with 5 (five) dimensions of sustainable development, namely ecological dimension, the economic dimension, the social dimension, the dimension of institutional and technological dimensions. The primary data source consists of observation, interviews and discussions with officials and relevant experts. Secondary data consists of documents and maps. Sources of secondary data are institutions, libraries and electronic media. Analysis of the sustainability status is done with the approach Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS), which is modified from the method of Rapid Assessment Techniques for Fisheries (RAPFISH) developed by Fisheries Centre Research Reports. The research was conducted for 3 (three) months, the month from April to June 2015 by taking a case study of urban agriculture in Kelurahan Duri Kosambi, Cengkareng, West Jakarta Administrative City.

3. Result and Discussions

3.1 Characteristics of Urban Agriculture

Research areas include RW 01 to RW 15 in Kelurahan Duri Kosambi, Cengkareng Sub-district, West Jakarta Administrative City. Kelurahan Duri Kosambi has a total area of 591 hectares. Residents in Kelurahan Duri Kosambi amounted to 73,381 inhabitants.

Kelurahan Duri Kosambi's administrative boundaries are as follows:

- The north bordering the Kelurahan Cengkareng Barat, Cengkareng Sub-district;

- The east bordering with Kelurahan Rawa Buaya, Cengkareng Sub-district;

- The south bordering with Kelurahan Petir, Cipondoh Sub-district;

- The west bordering with Kelurahan Semanan, Kalideres Sub-district.

From the observation, the soil conditions in Kelurahan Duri Kosambi has fertile soil and suitable for agricultural development. Kelurahan Duri Kosambi is dominated by residences and shops.

Distribution Locations Urban Agriculture

Urban agriculture in Kelurahan Duri Kosambi is located in RW 08, RW 10, and RW 15. Urban agriculture area in RW 08 is around 400 m2. Environmental conditions of urban agriculture in RW 08 is surrounded by residential area, access to urban agricultural land is also very good. A type of plants in urban agriculture RW 08 is a medicinal plant families (TOGA). This area is managed by 30 families who included in the Group of Women Farmers namely Lotus.

Urban agriculture area in RW 10 is around 800 m2. It is located in the middle of new housing as well as close to the Semanan River. Access to this area is also very good because it close to the main road. A type of plants in this urban agriculture is vegetables such as spinach, cesim, and kale.

Urban agriculture in RW 15 is around 1.000 m2. It has two areas in Kampung Kresek and Kampung Duri Kosambi Baru. Access to Kampung Kresek's urban agriculture is very easy. But access to Kampung Duri Kosambi Baru's urban agriculture is quite difficult because no access road from the residential area and adjacent to Semanan River. A type of plants in this urban agriculture is a vegetables such as spinach and kale.

Characteristics of Respondents

Respondents in this research consist of 31 respondents not involved in urban agricultural activities and 7 respondents involved in urban agricultural activities. Related to their employment status, that of 31 respondents non involved in agricultural activities mostly as a housewife (51.6%), followed by employees (12.9%), self-employed (6.45%), civil servants (3.22%), pensioners (3,22%), security officer (3.22%), journalists (3,22%), temporary workers (3.22%), drivers (3.22%), entrepreneur (9.60) in culinary, grocery shop, etc.

Education for respondents not involved in agricultural activities as follows: completed primary school (22.58%), graduated from junior high school (16.10%), and graduated from high school with the highest percentage at 58.02%, higher education (3.22%). Education for respondents involved in agricultural activities as follows: completed primary school with the highest percentage of 42.8%, graduated from junior high school 14.28%, graduated from higher education (28.5%), and 14.28% were not in school. Because the job competition is very high, so the education

factor is very influential with the salary income and their job opportunities. From the above explanation, it can be concluded that the people in Kelurahan Duri Kosambi including the middle and lower class.

Cost of Urban Agriculture

The initial capital of the farmers mostly spends capital for less than IDR 2,000,000, but partly from Rp. 2 million to 5 million. For the maintenance costs, farmers can spend around Rp. 500,000 according to the area of land. On average the farmers benefit net around IDR. 1,000,000. With the profits earned by the farmers have not been sufficient to meet the daily needs. Usually the crop sold through middlemen or through local markets and farmers also use for personal needs.

Support for Urban Agriculture

Respondents living in and around urban agriculture pretty much know about urban agriculture, but not a few who do not know. Citizens strongly support the existence of urban agriculture. The support of citizens such as helping to care for vegetables, as well as following the extension which is held by RW officer.

Many respondents argue very importance of agriculture in urban areas, because of the presence of these farms can make the environment more beautiful and can increase their family income. Based on the results of the questionnaire are many citizens who wish to farm, such as: plant vegetables, medicinal plants, ornamental plants, and others. However, there are many obstacles that do not enable to them to agriculture, namely the time, cost, and so on. Suggestions submitted respondent is that the government will raise the existing urban agricultural activities. In order to improve the environment and the welfare of the community life of the lower middle, the government should also regularly visits to urban agriculture areas so that agriculture can be maintained at maximum.

3.2 Analysis of Urban Agriculture Sustainability Status

Land resources and urban space can provide opportunities utilization of ecologically, economically, socially and culturally. The high urban activity has prompted increasing use and land use change into space awoke to settlement activities, industries and various interests. Another consequence is the high level of air pollution, flood or a decline in the quality of the environment. Urban environmental conditions need capacity analysis by assessing the status of sustainability, in particular the development of urban agriculture as a solution to urban problems.

Status assessment of sustainability of urban agriculture development is done through an analysis of the sustainability of each dimension of the constituent attributes with methods of multidimensional scaling (MDS) using RAP UF (Rapid Appraisal for Urban Farming), which is a modification of the RAP Fish (a technique for Rapid Appraisal Fisheries). The level of sustainability of the development of urban agriculture is suspected based on the analysis of five dimensions of ecological, economic, social, institutional and technological. Fifth dimension is evaluated and assigned attributes constituent. Based on a survey in determining the dimensions of sustainability attributes of urban agriculture development obtained 54 attributes consist of 11 attributes on ecological dimensions, 13 attributes on economic dimension, 10 attributes on social dimension, 11 attributes on institutional dimensions, and 9 attributes on technologies dimension. Based on the current conditions data, then each attribute on each dimension is assessed and analyzed to determine the value of sustainability index. The combined sustainability index between dimensions is determined through a weighting process on each dimension. Weighting is done by stakeholders based on scientific judgment.

RAP UF analysis results with simulation MDS, then the current state of urban agriculture in the study area of sustainability index values obtained for each dimension according to the category of Rapid Appraisal Index of Sustainability of Land Management as follows:

a) The ecological dimension of 43.67% (the index is in between the value 25.01-50.00%) means less sustainable.

b) The economic dimension of 42.32% (the index is in between the value of 25.01 to 50.00%) means less sustainable.

c) The social dimension of 46.63% (the index is in between the value 25.01- 50.00%) means less sustainable.

d) The institutional dimension of 59.78% (the index is in between the value of 50.01 to 75.00%) means quite sustainable.

e) The technological dimension of 52.54% (the index is in between the value of 50.01 to 75.00%) means quite sustainable.

The analysis shows that the index value to 5 dimensions showed that the dimensions of the ecological, economic, social and institutional relatively less sustainable, so that the necessary interventions or improved performance attributes. Institutional and technological dimensions already in the category of sustainable enough, but needs to be improved become sustainable.

These results indicate that the need to intervene on the performance of each attribute of each dimension in realizing the sustainable development of urban agriculture, especially in the study area.

Based on the opinion of some relevant experts, found that the weighted weights for each dimension are the dimension of the ecology of 27.56%, 17.76% economic, social 14.29%, 18.10% institutional, and technological dimensions of 22.29%.

Based on the results of the weighting of the five dimensions (ecological, economic, social, institutional, and technology), multidimensional sustainability index values obtained by 48.70% (situated between 25.01% -50.00% values) means less sustainable. This value indicates that the development of urban agriculture in the study area need to intervene in improving the performance attributes to raise the status of the sustainability of urban agriculture.

Attribute determination results obtained 54 attributes of the five dimensions of ecological, economic, social, institutional and technological. MDS analysis results (leverage) obtained 21 attributes that acts as a lever factor (leverage factor) for each dimension partially. As leverage factor is the 21st attributes that need to be upgraded, so that the value of sustainability index for the better future. As a factor lever then these factors contribute sensitively to the increase or decrease in the value of urban agriculture sustainability index.

Validity test is done with Monte Carlo analysis. Noting the results of Monte Carlo analysis and MDS analysis on the level of 95% was obtained that the value of the agricultural development of urban sustainability index shows the difference in value of the results of the analysis are very small (1.16%). This means that the MDS analysis model generated adequate to estimate the value of urban agriculture sustainability index. Very small differences in the value indicates that an error in the analysis process less likely. Errors due administration of scoring in each attribute, giving a variation that is multidimensional scoring because of the different opinions are relatively small, the data analysis process is done repeatedly is relatively stable, and errors in the input data and the lost data can be avoided.

Monte Carlo analysis can also be used as a simulation method for evaluating the impact of random error / error (random error) in statistical analysis conducted on all dimensions. Test the accuracy of the analysis of MDS (goodness of fit) to the RAP UF analysis coefficient of determination (R2) between 94.78% - 95.36% or greater than 80% or close to 100% mean prediction model sustainability index is very good and adequate use. Stress values from 0.13 to 0.14 indicate that each attribute is sufficiently accurate and reliable.

4. Conclusions

From these results it can be concluded that the status of the sustainability of urban agriculture research area today are less sustainable. Dimensions ecological, economic and social indicate less sustainable status while institutional and technological dimensions show the status of sustainable enough. To improve the sustainability status of urban agriculture development is advisable need strong intervention of the government of Jakarta and other stakeholders in improving the performance of sensitive attributes and a key factor in deciding on the main sustainability dimensions of ecological, economic, and social.

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