Scholarly article on topic 'Prevalence of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste Disposal- A Case Study of Kolkata, India'

Prevalence of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste Disposal- A Case Study of Kolkata, India Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Keywords
{"Solid Waste Disposal" / "Health hazard" / "Case Study"}

Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Shaoli De, Biswajit Debnath

Abstract Multiple factors like population density with high degree of commercialization and rapid urbanization has resulted in problems of solid waste disposal which produce 120,000 tones of solid waste per day in India (2014) and its detrimental consequences. But separate studies on the health hazards associated with waste disposal in the localities of Kolkata are scanty. The aim of this study is to explore the adverse health effects prevalent in the community associated with the solid waste disposal system in a specific locality (i.e. Garia) of Kolkata. A garbage disposable area of Kolkata was selected in Garia and the nearby households (within 500 m from the waste disposable land) were randomly selected and case study was done by interview on the effect of garbage disposal on the health of the adjacent residents with two self structured questionnaires, taking note of perception and awareness about garbage disposal practices. Their recommendation was also sought for eradication of menace. The study clearly indicates failure of the existing facilities, high volume of waste generation, inadequate collection space, and the presence of open-dump sites which generates serious health risks. Information of various types of waste materials like polythene bags, construction wastes, regular solid wastes from households were obtained. It was observed that the people living in this area have poor health like allergy, asthma, skin irritation and other gastro intestinal diseases. The public perception indicated that most people lack knowledge of the harmful effects of waste heaps including that they are breeding grounds for flies, cockroaches, and mosquitoes, rodents etc which are responsible for transmission of germs and zoonotic infections to the people living nearby. The findings of the study will help the stakeholders to take necessary steps to eradicate the problem and to grow a healthier environment.

Academic research paper on topic "Prevalence of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste Disposal- A Case Study of Kolkata, India"

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Environmental Sciences 35 (2016) 201 - 208

International Conference on Solid Waste Management, 5IconSWM 2015

Prevalence of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste Disposal- A Case Study of Kolkata, India

Shaoli Dea, Biswajit Debnath^*

a Teacher, Children Academy School, Kolkata, India b'Research Scholar, ISWMAW, Kolkata, India

Abstract

Multiple factors like population density with high degree of commercialization and rapid urbanization has resulted in problems of solid waste disposal which produce 120,000 tones of solid waste per day in India (2014) and its detrimental consequences. But separate studies on the health hazards associated with waste disposal in the localities of Kolkata are scanty. The aim of this study is to explore the adverse health effects prevalent in the community associated with the solid waste disposal system in a specific locality (i.e. Garia) of Kolkata. A garbage disposable area of Kolkata was selected in Garia and the nearby households (within 500 m from the waste disposable land) were randomly selected and case study was done by interview on the effect of garbage disposal on the health of the adjacent residents with two self structured questionnaires, taking note of perception and awareness about garbage disposal practices. Their recommendation was also sought for eradication of menace. The study clearly indicates failure of the existing facilities, high volume of waste generation, inadequate collection space, and the presence of open-dump sites which generates serious health risks. Information of various types of waste materials like polythene bags, construction wastes, regular solid wastes from households were obtained. It was observed that the people living in this area have poor health like allergy, asthma, skin irritation and other gastro intestinal diseases. The public perception indicated that most people lack knowledge of the harmful effects of waste heaps including that they are breeding grounds for flies, cockroaches, and mosquitoes, rodents etc which are responsible for transmission of germs and zoonotic infections to the people living nearby. The findings of the study will help the stakeholders to take necessary steps to eradicate the problem and to grow a healthier environment. © 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierB.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015

Keywords:Solid Waste Disposal, Health hazard, Case Study;

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address:bisuworld@gmail.com

1878-0296 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 5IconSWM 2015

doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.081

1.0 Introduction

Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanization and the rise in community living standards have greatly accelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in developing countries (Minghua et.al. 2009) Rapid industrialization and population explosion in India has led to the large scale migration of people from villages to cities which generate thousands of tons M.S.W daily. The M.S.W amount is expected to increase significantly in the near future as the country strives to attain an Industrialized nation status by the year 2020 (Sharma and Shah, 2005; Central Pollution Control Board,2004; Shekdar et.al.1992). Improper handling of waste disposal causes an adverse impact on all components of the environment and human health (Rathi et.al.2006; Sharholy 2007; Ray et.al.2005; Jha et.al. 2003; Kansal 2002; Kansal 1998; Singh and Singh 1998; Gupta et.al.2007). Different kinds of human activities generate huge quantity of waste. More complex and heterogeneous wastes are produced daily because of the change in the living standards and food habits. The solid waste problem is much more severe in urban environments (Anjaneyula 2005).

The major urban environmental concerns - municipal solid waste management, sanitation and associated adverse health impacts, the increased urbanization with large population density can further intensify these concerns, unless we take urgent effective steps to improve sanitation and solid waste management. Landfilling is the simplest and normally cheapest method for disposing of waste (Taylor et.al ., 2003). In most low-to medium-income developing nations, almost all generated solid waste goes to landfill. Research findings have shown that these landfilling sites are the breeding ground for pathogenic microorganisms and vectors of disease, and cause a public nuisance due to unsightliness and bad smell. It can cause contamination of surrounding soil, groundwater and surface water, and it can also create fire hazards, physical hazards and have poisoning effects.Current global MSW generation levels are approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year, and are expected to increase to approximately 2.2 billion tonnes per year by 2025. This represents a significant increase in per capita waste generation rates, from 1.2 to 1.42 kg per person per day in the next fifteen years. However, global averages are broad estimates only as rates vary considerably by region, country, city, and even within cities (Hoornweg 2005). According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the average Indian generates about 490 grams of waste per day. Although the per capita waste is low compared to western countries, the volume is huge. The generation of solid waste in Indian cities has been estimated to grow with 1.3 percent annually. The expected generation of waste in 2025 will therefore be around 700 grams per capita per day. Considering that the urban population of India is expected to grow to 45 percent from the prevailing 28 percent, the magnitude of the problem is likely to grow even larger unless immediate steps are taken (Draft report for the 12th Finance Commission Management of Solid Waste in Indian Cities, Government of India). Earlier studies have shown that the unscientific disposal of solid waste created lots of environmental problem in some area.

More than 2920 ton/d of solid waste are generated in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. Major deficiencies were found in all elements of SWM. The collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate, thus contributing to the inefficiency of the system. At this time, no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on open land at Dhapa after collection. Lack of suitable facilities (equipment and infrastructure) and underestimates of waste generation rates, inadequate management and technical skills, improper bin collection, and route planning are responsible for poor collection and transportation of municipal solid wastes (Hazra and Goel 2009).

With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydro geological conditions, and ecological and societal effects (Paulet.al. 2009).

There are certain trends and facts that more or less create the 'bigger picture' in which the waste management industry will evolve. It is clear that new challenges are emerging, and the current situation must be seen in a different way because the disposal site is limited and also it has to be made cost effective. Increasing population can impact human lives by two ways: the rate of waste generation and secondly, its influence on human health, giving rise to many infectious health disorders. However, currently no such study exists to explain the actual situation of the waste disposal trends and its consequent health hazards in specific localities of Kolkata.

The purpose of this study is to outline the major trends of solid waste disposal system and challenges that will shape health of the nearby residents (within 500m) in a major locality of Kolkata. The present study explains the probable correlation among different factors of solid waste and the consequent health hazards. However to be more specific the aim of the study is to explore the adverse health effects prevalent in the community that is associated with the solid waste disposal system in a specific locality (i.e. Garia) of Kolkata.

This paper is divided into six sections. The introduction section describes the present status, the literature gap and the objective of this study. Section two describes the methodology adopted in this paper. Section three presents the field study. Findings of this study have been presented in the section that follows. The latter section is the discussion part. The paper has been concluded in the conclusion section.

2.0 Methodology

A waste disposable area of Kolkata was selected for field study in Garia and the nearby households (within 500 m from the waste disposable land) were randomly selected. Among the randomly selected samples, a case study was done on the garbage disposal and its effect on health of the adjacent residents. The respondents who were willing to participate and co-operate were included in the study. They were interviewed with two self structured questionnaires - general questionnaire on waste management and questionnaire on health issues by taking a note of perception and awareness about garbage disposal practices and also the consequent health problems faced by them. Their recommendation is also sought for eradication of the menace.

General questionnaire on waste management was used to assess the awareness and the current trends of waste disposal system among the respondents. The questionnaire on health issues was used to evaluate the consequent health risks associated with the exposure of the garbage among the neighborhood. Lastly, their opinion about the proper garbage disposal method is also sought to note their perception about the same.

3.0 Field Study (Garia, Kolkata)

The study has been carried out in a small locality of Garia where open dumping and land filling is a common practice. In some areas the services provided are satisfactory. Every day roads are swept and waste is collected at a particular time slot starting from morning 7.30-9.00am. Sweepers are provided with the handcarts or tricycles, scrappers and brooms to clean the roads and lanes properly, to clean the open drains, to collect the waste and load it into the carts provided and then transfer them to the primary collection points called the vats which are situated in different locality. The handcarts on an average have a capacity of 2-3 m3. Roads are first swept before proceeding for collection of household wastes (Figure 1b). The waste is collected by sweepers going from house-to-house and collecting the waste which the residents have collected in the dustbins (Figure 1a). This house-to-house collection is done from all the residents. Earlier the bins were placed at different places, but the residents used to throw waste outside those bins instead of inside which created unsanitary conditions around the bin locations.

Fig. 1(a) & (b):Door to door collection and road cleaning

However, with progression of time, people are becoming aware of the hazardous effects of solid wastes through information circulated via electronic and social media and the importance about the proper disposal of solid waste and its impact. Along with such educational programs, the government and other entities involved in tackling solid waste related problems are making considerable efforts including inculcation of strict legislative actions in keeping the city cleaner and healthier.Besides the regular collection system provided by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation, in some areas there are still practices of open dumping where people just throw their garbage in open land (Figure 2). It creates a very unsightliness for the passersby and also foul smell comes out during the monsoon making the place an appropriate breeding ground for mosquitoes and flies. All types of wastes are thrown including- vegetable peels, regular domestic waste, diseased person's waste, medical waste, e-waste, etc. The decomposition of the wastes take place and various poisonous gas is evolved from the place which again attracts several rodents ,pests to

invade the place and pave the way for serious health risks.

Here people often suffer from diseases like- diarrhea, malaria, dengue due to unscientific and unhygienic standard of living. Their mode of living is very unhygienic as their living place is very close to the open landfill thus facilitating the way for the infectious organisms. They do not segregate the e-waste from the regular wastes and throw it all along in one place. Very few of them have the awareness and perception about the harmful effects of open dumping. Their knowledge is not transformed into practice and there is a tremendous problem in their attitude about proper disposal method as they are mostly located as tenants of the place and belong to less privileged class of the society, so they lack the proper awareness of the unscientific disposal method and unhygienic living. Most of them have skin disorders and cough and cold is a common problem in almost every household.

4.0 Findings

4.1 Characteristics of waste

(a) (b)

Fig. 2 (a) & (b): Open Dumping sit and people living nearby

The overall study of solid waste management in Garia locality in Kolkata revealed that the neighborhood generates significant amount of solid waste everyday. This non-segregated solid waste is disposed at landfill site a residential locality which is 2.5 km away from the Garia main municipal vat. The land allocated for solid waste disposal is land filled and sealed off permanently. Solid waste generated at disposal site is of two types biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Out of total garbage major percentage of waste is organic waste, besides there are also paper waste, plastic waste, metal waste, glass waste and miscellaneous waste. Organic waste includes leaves, timber waste, vegetable extract, kitchen waste, household waste, hotels waste, fruits and juice centre residue etc. Paper waste includes paper dish, news paper, paper box, paper bags, wrapping materials (e.g. soap cover, tooth paste cover, match box cover) etc. Plastic waste includes plastic bags, broken plastic material (e.g. mug, bucket, pipes, plastic covers and plastic wrapping material). Metal waste includes screw, nut bolt, electronic parts, damage vehicle parts etc. Glass waste includes broken glass materials, bear bottle, glass lamp, bulb, tube lights. Miscellaneous waste includes all sanitary waste.

4.2 General awareness about solid wastes and their disposal method

It was evident from the responses of the household member that they were well aware of the plastic bags and also use it while shopping or disposing the waste materials. They dispose the medical wastes, e-wastes and different types of daily wastes in the same place. There is no segregation of wastes. Inspite of many prior surveys from the Municipal Corporation, they have not tried to reduce the use of plastic bags. But some of them are aware of the formal recycling method that is required to reuse the biodegradable wastes. All E-wastes- battery and radio,

television sets are disposed off in the nearby dumping ground. Neighboring people face a lot of problem due to the foul smell and the mosquitoes and flies that create a menace to the total area.

4.3 Health problems faced by the local people due to waste disposal

As per the results of the study it became evident that the local residents are aware of the different types of diseases that may occur due to the exposure to certain harmful waste and living nearby a dumping ground. Various health problems are prevalent in the community people like common cough and cold, frequent diarrhea, infections (both skin and respiratory) parasitic infections like malaria. There are also chances of fecal contamination of rodents in the food as they hardly follow sanitation measures before taking meal. Moreover the diseased person's waste is also disposed in the same open dumping area. The people residing in these areas are using well water for drinking, domestic and for agricultural use. It is observed that the people living in this area having health and hygienic problems such as allergic, asthmatic, bronchitis, skin irritation and gastro intestinal diseases.

4.4 Opinion of local people about waste disposal

The local people are very upset with the current situation and are compelled to live in such an unhygienic place as there is no other alternative way to them. There are many malpractices of solidwaste disposalin their area. But due to many unavoidable circumstances (lack of proper facility) they have to dump the wastes in the nearby land. All of them are affected with the dumping ground and its associated problems and wants some change to the present situation. Often they raise some voice of protest. But that does not keep any meaning for the local leaders. The local leaders often give false promises to alleviate the present situation to the local people, but then all promises are put down after some days. The local people hope for a better locality with no landfills or open dumping. The local residents also complained that open dumping causes an unsightliness and foul smell as it is very close to their living place. It is also the breeding ground for the mosquitoes and flies especially during the monsoon and along with that the associated health disorders like malaria, dengue, diarrhea, etc. Mention was also made about the several contaminations that may occur when the flies will make the foods inedible and cause infections.

They want a scientific disposal system- where various wastes viz.--papers, plastic and polythene bags, e-wastes, medical wastes will be disposed off separately which will not cause any type of nuisance in the locality or residential area or for the passersby. Moreover they also want the diseased person's waste materials to be disposed in a distant site far away from the locality as that may also spread the risk for infection from the fecal matter, sputum, blood and other excreta of the patient. The chances of respiratory infection also increases due to the Suspended Particulate Matter present in the nearby (especially for the newborn infants and small children in the locality).

5.0 Discussions

Community participation has a direct bearing on efficient SWM. Yet, the municipal authorities have failed to mobilize the community and educate citizens on the rudiments of handling waste and proper practices of storing it in their own bins at the household-, shop- and establishment-level. In the absence of a basic facility of collection of waste from source, citizens are prone to dumping waste on the streets, open spaces, drains, and water bodies in the vicinity creating insanitary conditions. People assume that waste thrown on the streets would be picked up by the municipality through street sweeping. Air pollution is a major threat to human health and environment, especially pollution from unscientific disposal sites creates acute health problems to the surroundings habitants (Visvanathan & Trankler 2003). The continious inhalation of particulate matters consists of dust, fumes, mist and smoke cause lung damage and respiratory problems (Winder & Stacey 2004.). At elevated levels, all the air pollutants will have adverse effects on human and environment. The accumulation of pollutants in the human body through inhalation of air is an important route (Barman et.al.2010). The results of the present study revealed presence of health risks. The dust released from various sources can produce a spectrum of diseases ranging from a simple cold to deadly diseases like cancer (Bency et.al.2003).The high amount of RSPM (Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter) are either in polluted or moderately polluted category and might be due to the harmful effect of the RSPM dwelling in the area (Barman et.al.2010). There is no practice of storing the waste at source in a scientifically segregated way. The

people have not been educated to keep domestic, trade, and institutional bins for storage of waste at source and stop littering on the streets. There is no public system of primary collection from the source of waste generation. The waste discharged here and there is later collected by municipal sanitation workers through street sweeping, drain cleaning, etc.

Disposal of waste is the most neglected area of SWM services and the current practices are grossly unscientific. The municipal authorities deposit solid waste at a dump-yard situated within or outside the city haphazardly and do not bother to spread and cover the waste with inert material. These sites emanate foul smell and become breeding grounds for flies, rodent, and pests. Liquid seeping through the rotting organic waste called leachate pollutes underground water and poses a serious threat to health and environment. The higher concentration of particulate matter causes acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung damage in humans (Pulikesia et.al.2006). Population residing in the vicinity of polluted region by high Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was reported to have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (Nautiyal et.al. 2007). Further the incidence is increased during the monsoon period. Landfill sites also release landfill gas with 50 to 60 per cent methane by volume.

Even street sweeping is not carried out on a day-to-day basis in most cities and towns in India. Generally commercial roads and important streets are prioritized and rests of the streets are swept occasionally or not swept at all. Generally, no sweeping is done on Sundays and public holidays and a back log is created on the next working day. The tools used for street sweeping are generally inefficient and out-dated. For instance, the broom with a short handle is still in use forcing sweepers to bend for hours resulting in fatigue and loss of productivity. Traditional handcarts/tricycles are used for collection, which do not synchronize with the secondary storage systems. Waste is deposited on the ground necessitating multiple handling. There are no uniform yardsticks adopted for street sweeping. Though, some states/cities have prescribed work-norms, these are not very scientific. Most of the cities allocate work to sanitation workers on ad hoc basis. The work distribution ranges between 200 metres to 1000 metres of street sweeping each day. Some sanitation workers are found under worked while some over burdened.

The most obvious environmental damage caused by solid waste is aesthetic, i.e. waste that litter public areas is ugly and generates foul smell. A more serious risk is the transfer of pollution to ground water and land as well as the pollution of air from improper burning of waste. Many waste activities generate greenhouse gases; e.g., landfills generate methane and refuse fleets are significant sources of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Open burning dumpsites produce volatilized heavy metals (e.g. mercury and lead), dioxins, and furan. Leachate from unlined and uncovered dumpsites contaminates surface and ground waters.

A fundamental problem is the linear, non-cyclical, way of treating and relating to waste in India, both on paper and in practice. Waste is not seen as a resource that can be refined (e.g. as nutritious compost manure or energy) or recycled (e.g. into new paper and plastic), and thereby generate wealth. Instead, it is often treated as the evil leftover that needs to be eliminated. Moreover, waste is rarely discussed as part of a cycle of production, consumption, and recovery, nor is it assessed in relation to environmental sustainability. On the contrary, SWM is seen as a linear process of collection and disposal and the preceding actions of production and consumption are seldom reflected upon.

The common practice for household refuse disposal in the local areas is to dump solid wastes openly in backyard gardens or in an open space. Such indiscriminate disposal is an environmental hazard and can threaten human health and safety. Solid waste that is improperly disposed of can result in a number of problems. It can create a breeding ground for pathogenic microorganisms and vectors of disease, and cause a public nuisance due to unsightliness and bad smell. It can cause contamination of surrounding soil, groundwater and surface water, and it can also create fire hazards, physical hazards and have poisoning effects (from pesticides and insecticides).The traditional approach where municipal authorities monopolise waste management, ignoring other stakeholders, using command-and-rule strategies, and ill-adapted imported technology is common in urban cities. The immediate health effects from hazardous wastes range from bad smells and simple irritation of eyes, skin, throat and breathing (lungs), to serious health conditions that affect the nervous system and could cause paralysis of the functional body parts. Some hazardous solid wastes have teratogenic (birth defects) and carcinogenic (cancer causing) effects (Akhtar 2014).

6.0 Conclusion

The results of our study clearly indicate a major prevalence of open dumping in a certain locality of Garia. It also indicates the further rise in the health risks associated with the open dumping process particularly the frequency of malaria, diarrhea, dengue and also other such detrimental health disorders. Inspite of the awareness about the harmful impact of open dumping of garbage and landfills, people are practicing the same in different localities of Kolkata. In some areas municipal solid waste is still collected without segregation and treatment facilities are also very limited. The proper disposal of Municipal Solid Waste is a necessary step, to minimize the environmental health impacts and degradation of land resources.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the residents of Garia for their co-operation during the study period, and also for providing the data used to undertake the research. ISWMAW is also acknowledged for their all kind of support during this research.

References

1) Akhtar, M.N. : Prospective assessment for long-term impact of excessive solid waste generation on the environment(2014): International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences;2,(2)pp-39-45

2) Barman, S. C., Kumar, N., Singh, R., Kisku, G. C., Khan, A. H., Kidwai, M. M., & Murthy, R. C. (2010). Assessment of urban air pollution and it ' s probable health impact, 31(November), 913-920.

3) Bency, K. T., Suresh, V. M., Kumaran, V., Jansy, J., Thakappan, B., Kumar, B., Centre, R. C. (2003). A study on the air pollution related human diseases in thiruvananthapuram city , kerala, 15-17.

4) Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), (2004); Management of Municipal Solid Waste. Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India.

5) Draft report for the 12th Finance Commission Management of Solid Waste in Indian Cities, Government of India. www.iitk.ac.in/3inetwork/html/reports/IIR2006/Solid_Waste.pdf

6) Gupta, P.K., Jha, A.K., Koul, S., Sharma, P., Pradhan, V., Gupta, V., Sharma, C., Singh, N., (2007); Journal of Environmental Pollution 146 (1), 219-224.

7) Hazra T., Goel S. (2009)Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: Practices and challenges :Waste Management ; 29 (1) pp. 470-478

8) Hoornweg. Lam, D. P., Chaudhry, M., 2005, Waste Management in China: Issues and Recommendations. Urban Development Working Papers No. 9.

9) Jha, M.K., Sondhi, O.A.K., Pansare, M., (2003); Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 23 (10), 1153-1160

10) Kansal, A., (2002); IndianJournal of Environmental Protection 22 (4), 444-448.

11) Kansal, A., Prasad, R.K., Gupta, S., (1998); Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 18 (2), 123-128.

12) Minghua, Z. F. Xiumin, A. Rovetta, H. Qichang, F. Vicentini, L. Bingkai, A. Giusti, L. Yi (2009); Journal oof Waste Management, 29, pp. 1227-1233

13) Nautiyal Jyoti., Garg M.L., Sharma Manoj Kumar, Khan Asif Ali, Thakur Jarnail S. and Kumar Rajesh (2007): Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab,India - A Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 4(4), 268-282.

14) PaulK.,Dutta A.,Krishna A.P.: A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association:64(7)pp-846-861

15) Pulikesia M., Baskaralingama P., Elangob D., Rayuduc V.N., Ramamurthia V., Sivanesana S. (2006): Air quality monitoring in Chennai, India, in the summer of 2005.

16) Rathi, S., (2006); Journal ofWaste Management 26 (10), 1192-1200

17) Ray, M.R., Roychoudhury, S., Mukherjee, G., Roy, S., Lahiri, T., (2005); International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 108 (4), 255-262.

18) Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Vaishya, R.C., Gupta, R.D., (2007); Journal ofWaste Management 27 (4), 490-496.

19) Sharma, S., Shah, K.W., (2005); Generation and disposal of solid waste in Hoshangabad. In: Book of Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Chemistry and Environment, Indore, India, pp. 749-751.

20) Shekdar, A.V., Krshnawamy, K.N., Tikekar, V.G., Bhide, A.D., (1992); Journal ofWaste Management 12 (4), 379-387

21) Singh, S.K., Singh, R.S., (1998); Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 18 (11), 850-852.

22) Taylor, A. A. R., 2003, Waste Disposal and Landfill: Potential Hazards and Information Needs, Available: http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsacd/cd59/protecting/sect2-12.pdf

23) Visvanathan, C., & Trankler, J. 2003. Municipal solid waste management in Asia: a comparative analysis. In Workshop on Sustainable Landfill Management (pp. 3-5).

24) Winder, C. & Neill H. Stacey. 2004. Occupational Toxicology, (Second Edition). 71-114. Taylor and francis, CRC Press. UK.

25) Y. Anjaneyula. Introduction to Environmental Science (2005).