Scholarly article on topic 'Strengthening the academic usage of social media: An exploratory study'

Strengthening the academic usage of social media: An exploratory study Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

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{"Media learning" / "Social media" / Learning / "Information sharing" / Behavior}

Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Murad Ali, Raja Ahmad Iskandar Bin Raja Yaacob, Mohd Nuri Al-Amin Bin Endut, Naseeb Ullah Langove

Abstract Technology strengthens learning and dominates over the conventional methods in too many aspects. Technologies are advancing learning procedure by their multiple formats, variety of resources, numerous delivery channels and not restricted to time space and place. Social media is a new form of communication that transformed the entire landscape of information access and dissemination online. This platform consists of a range of communication channels, considerably popular among students and assists them in various types of communication and collaborative learning. However, the platform of social media can also be considered as a source of distractions and divert student’s attention from learning and academic achievements. The principal objective of the current study is to understand the recent trends of social media use, the phenomenon of distractions and factors out convincing students for the academic use of social media. Interviews administered to enquire the phenomenon and analyzed with the help of ATLAS-Ti-7 and MS Excel. It is concluded from the results that individual psychological characteristics, social influences, information quality and system usefulness are the leading factors. Furthermore, the survey established the importance of this platform for academic purposes and perception concerning the phenomenon of distraction. In addition, future research directions and study limitations are discussed.

Academic research paper on topic "Strengthening the academic usage of social media: An exploratory study"

Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences (2016) xxx, xxx-xxx

King Saud University

Journal of King Saud University -Computer and Information Sciences

www.ksu.edu.sa www.sciencedirect.com

Journal of

King 5aud University -

Computer and Information Sciences

Strengthening the academic usage of social media: An exploratory study

Murad Ali *, Raja Ahmad Iskandar Bin Raja Yaacob, Mohd Nuri Al-Amin Bin Endut, Naseeb Ullah Langove

7 Management & Humanities, University Technology PETRONAS (UTP), Perak, Malaysia

8 Received 19 February 2016; revised 10 July 2016; accepted 2 October 2016

KEYWORDS

Media learning; Social media; Learning;

Information sharing; Behavior

Abstract Technology strengthens learning and dominates over the conventional methods in too many aspects. Technologies are advancing learning procedure by their multiple formats, variety of resources, numerous delivery channels and not restricted to time space and place. Social media is a new form of communication that transformed the entire landscape of information access and dissemination online. This platform consists of a range of communication channels, considerably popular among students and assists them in various types of communication and collaborative learning. However, the platform of social media can also be considered as a source of distractions and divert student's attention from learning and academic achievements. The principal objective of the current study is to understand the recent trends of social media use, the phenomenon of distractions and factors out convincing students for the academic use of social media. Interviews administered to enquire the phenomenon and analyzed with the help of ATLAS-Ti-7 and MS Excel. It is concluded from the results that individual psychological characteristics, social influences, information quality and system usefulness are the leading factors. Furthermore, the survey established the importance of this platform for academic purposes and perception concerning the phenomenon of distraction. In addition, future research directions and study limitations are discussed. © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction

Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: ali04chd@yahoo.com (M. Ali), iskandar_yaacob@ petronas.com.my (R.A.I.B.R. Yaacob). Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

Production and hosting by Elsevier

Technologies enhance learning, increases learning demand and 20

offer flexible delivery with respect to time, space and place 21

(Westera, 2012). Technology has advantages over the tradi- 22

tional intermediaries in terms of display such as images; color 23

graphics, audio, videos and transferring of information in 24

short period of time (Ziqing and Jinping, 2013). The history 25

of technologies in education is traced back to the inventions 26

of Thomas Alva Edison recording devices and reached to the 27

present era of interaction or two-way communications with 28

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2016.10.002

1319-1578 © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

JKSUCI 278 13 October 2016 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 9

2 M. Ali et al.

the invention of computer and the Internet (Westera, 2012). Social media is a new form of communication and consists of a variety of commutation tolls such as, blogs, collaborative projects, social networking sites, content communities and virtual world (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). These sites contribute by providing unlimited opportunities to interact, socialize and share with each other (Correa, Bachmann, & Hinsley, 2013 and Ozguven and Mucan, 2013). Social media has become an extremely important means of communication of the present age (Al-rahimi et al., 2013) and connect people with similar interest of sharing activities (boyd and Ellison, 2008).

According to Global Digital Statistics (2014), there are 2.95 billion (41% of total population) people who are active Internet users with 2.03 billion penetrations of active social media users, whereas 1.56 billion of them access these social applications through their mobile devices (We are social, 2014). Social media applications are commonly used by millions of people across the world for different reasons on the regular basis (Al-rahmi et al., 2014). This rapid growth in acceptance of social media applications in a short period of time is due to its increasingly widespread operation by students (Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010). This increase in the use of these applications is because of its convenience, flexibility and functionalities (Al-rahimi et al., 2013). These tools are highly beneficial for students of higher education and modernizing the process of student learning, interaction, collaboration and sharing (Chai-lee, 2013 and Al-rahmi et al., 2014). However, on the other hand, these applications are also a source of distraction and divert students' attention from their learning (Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010; Purcell et al., 2013; Junco and Cotten, 2012). Nevertheless, social media has reduced the geographical barriers, and we are no longer limited geographically. Today everyone can interact, comment, debate and collaboratively create knowledge, no matter where they are. The application assists students in too many aspects and needs to understand their use behavior (Boyd and Ellison, 2008), because, social media facilitates learner integration and satisfaction (Andersen, 2013).

Learning takes place by interacting with others, exchanging ideas and critiques. Policy makers and educators are required to develop strategies and design applications to motivate students in adaption of social media for learning (Helou et al., 2012 and Santoso et al., 2014) by integrating with their learning activities (Baran, 2013 and Chai-lee, 2013). Human beings, in general, and students, in particular, are a very complex phenomenon, and their motivational problems are usually manifested in their behavior, which needs careful and systematic observation (McKerlich et al., 2013) Because inquiring their online behavior is important to enhance their learning experiences (Jin et al., 2013) and particularly to their information sharing (Sohn, 2014; Chang and Hsiao, 2014; Tinto, 2013). In Malaysian perspective, these emerging technologies are negatively affecting students' reading behavior and learning performances (Inderjit, 2014 and Hamat et al., 2012) and very rarely examined, which may cause serious problems and threats to the future sustainable development of young higher education (Masrom and Usat, 2013). The purpose of the current investigation is to explore those factors that can help to understand the academic use of social media among students, reduce the phenomenon of learning distraction and enhance their online engagement.

2. Literature review

Creativeness, innovativeness, collaboration and competitiveness are highly essential for successes in the global markets of today. People and societies constantly require information for improvement of their knowledge. Technology enhances learning, increases learning demand, increases customization and facilitates flexible delivery with respect to the time, pace and place (Westera, 2012). Thomas Alva Edison was the first to create the technology for recording and displaying moving images by the end of the 19th century. Edison claimed that the technology would bring revolution in education by bringing new ideas for learning and contents. According to Cuban (1986) before the advent of moving images, radio was used in educational deliveries during 1910 and Reiser (1987) instructional television from 1950 to support instruction and learning as cited by (Westera, 2012). During 1960, audio compact cassettes became available as a portable recording device and were used to provide guidance along with written material. Lasser (2005) and Westera (2012) are further describing that the arrival of video cassettes as a next revolution in learning and education. These resources were more flexible and students could use it any time. Computer was commercialized in 1980. In contrast to audio & video technologies, computer was found more interactive. According to Papert (1982) interaction with computer is an ideal environment for knowledge production, while Shank and Cleary (1995) mentioned that computers make available all the things essential for learning with creative excitement, eagerness, curiosity, exploration, natural learning, and fun as cited by (Westera, 2012). According to Lai & Krit-sonis (2006), computer has positive effect on student learning and other achievements, employing computer technology in learning can be convenient to generate independent and collaborative learning environment. While Gulek (2005) and Low-ther (2007) using computer technologies can improve students' learning as compared to traditional methods especially in subjects such as, Mathematics, geometry, languages, writing and overall grade point averages and its immediate feedback leads to reduced learning time as cited by (Saba, 2009).

The advent of the internet during 1990s marks an essential change in the way society functions. The wide-ranging nature of the internet gives new ideas of information access, information services and social connectivity, enlarged global economy and wider exchange of cultures. Internet represents the first technological invention that allows education providers to bring changes at an institutional and organizational level. The digital divide among the young and adults shows that the new generation has a more positive attitude toward new technologies (Westera, 2012). Internet has rapidly entered the life of the people in the 20th century. It is a fast means of communication to get people closer to each other, within a short time while having the ability to enhance their knowledge. Educational literature which is freely accessible such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, references, databases etc play an important role in distant learning, in collaborative projects with students from other schools, universities, countries and also enables discussion of different problems with them. Internet in the sphere of education is really unique and was invented especially for education (UNESCO, 2003). Internet turned to a symbol of change as it offered unlimited choices to access

Strengthening academic usage of social media

150 information. Internet affects education process, offering alter-

151 native and creative methods of learning, and helps to acquire

152 desired information and has changed the concept of time

153 and place. In every aspect of education and learning different

154 applications of internet technology are spreading (Tutkun,

155 2011). Internet has changed the way people access information

156 and wide ranges of learning resources are available on the

157 Internet (Johnson, 2011).

158 The advent of Web 2.0 has introduced new philosophy of

159 powers that also encourages education. Web 2.0 replaces tradi-

160 tional models of content development that were hierarchical

161 and company guided with bottom-up models or with individ-

162 ual contributors in social spaces, such as Blogs, Wikipedia,

163 and YouTube. In education, various applications of web 2.0

164 are utilized by experts to create, adapt, share and annotate

165 learning content in an open licensing model (Westera, 2012).

166 Web 2.0 is an information space where everyone has immedi-

167 ate access, not just to browse, but to create (Tim Berners-Lee,

168 1 999) or we became the media (Biafra, 2001) as cited by

169 (Anderson et al., 2007). Social media which is based on web

170 2.0 as the second generation of web is built on the philosophy

171 that (1) to use internet as platform (2) make the web more

172 democratic and (3) find and employ techniques to enhance

173 information sharing (Anderson et al., 2007). These emerging

174 technologies have introduced new trends in education. These

175 trends are more open, personalized, creative, innovative and

176 with greater emphasis on lifelong learning (Owen et al.,

177 2006). According to Glogoff (2006), these social software espe-

178 cially wikis play an important role in learning. Wikis facilitate

179 students to work together, build a wiki-based glossaries which

180 provides them with opportunity to comment and support

181 instructor in designing for learning as cited by (Anderson

182 et al., 2007). Wikis and blogs are particularly useful writing

183 tools that aid composition practice, where education is more

184 like a conversation and learning (Alexander, 2006).

185 The term Web 2.0 was first used in 2004 as a new way where

186 software developers and end-users use the WWW, as a plat-

187 form in collaborative fashion to produce contents and applica-

188 tions. Web 2.0 is not different from the WWW and does not

189 denote any specific version of the Web, but relatively a series

190 of technological improvements. It includes some new features

191 and functionality that were not available in Web 1.0. The set

192 of basic functionalities necessary for its functioning are includ-

193 ing adobe flash (for adding animation, audio/video), RSS (web

194 feed formats used to publish and updated content), and AJAX

195 (asynchronous java script, to retrieve data from web servers,

196 allowing the update of web content) so, Web 2.0 is used as a

197 platform for the evolution of Social Media (Kaplan and

198 Haenlein, 2010). Social Media is a group of Internet-based

199 applications built on the ideological and technological founda-

200 tions of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of

201 user generated content (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Social

202 media is the collection of websites and web-based systems that

203 allows for mass interaction, conversation and sharing among

204 members of a network (Murphy et al., 2014). Social media

205 enhances communication, collaborative learning, and creative

206 expressions as well as boosts education in higher institutions

207 of learning (Al-rahimi et al., 2013). Social media increase stu-

208 dents' learning, conversation, sharing, publishing and partici-

209 pation (Chai-lee, 2013). Social media in learning process

210 allows students to collaborate and share with each other

211 (Gikas and Grant, 2013). These applications are becoming

popular among students of higher education and have positive 212

effect on students' e-learning (Elkaseh et al., 2015). 213

Andersen (2013) quoted the statement of Brenner-Lee, 214

1998; according to the statement "the dream behind the 215

WWW is a common information space where people commu- 216

nicate by sharing information". Social media allows sharing 217

information, and its importance is due to the increasing 218

emphasis on integrated working or collaborative learning con- 219

cept across the globe. Information sharing through social 220

media has affectively changed the way people learn and net- 221

work (UNCTAD, 2012) and a universal method of informa- 222

tion gathering in academic environments (Talja, 2002). It can 223

positively predict students' learning performance (Junco, 224

2012a), enhance and support ^academic learning (Gray and 225

Annabell, 2010), as precious components in the learning pro- 226

cess and assist students to achieve meaningful online disserta- 227

tion that includes various levels of intellectual skills and 228

different types of knowledge (Lin et al., 2013). According to 229

British Library, Jisc (2009) doctoral and research students 230

are more and more dependent on secondary research resources 231

and facing problems to use those resources because of authen- 232

tication access and license to subscription. Social media plat- 233

form opens valuable information and knowledge sharing 234

among people such as SSRN, Social Science space, Acada- 235

mia.edu and ResearchGate (Kichanova, 2012). Social media 236

applications are connecting people free of cost and facilitate 237

the sharing of information in different formats (Cain et al., 238

2009) and students are socially connected through social soft- 239

ware and sharing their daily learning experiences on several 240

topics (Liccardi et al., 2007). 241

However, Social media applications are highly utilized by 242

students for a lot of non-educational purposes; these applica- 243

tions may badly affect students' academic life and learning 244

experiences (Kuppuswamy and Narayan, 2010). These new 245

technologies are revolutionary but some of its applications 246

are highly insecure (Trusov et al., 2009). The use of Social 247

media applications such as social networking among students 248

are mostly for entertainment (Khan, 2012), other applications 249

such as Facebook is significantly negative associated with GPA 250

and learning performance (Junco et al., 2011; Junco, 2012b; 251

Junco and Cotten, 2012) and especially among fresh students 252

(Junco, 2015). Internet and new technologies have positive 253

impact on students but also cause distraction instead of help- 254

ing them academically (Gafni et al., 2012). In Malaysian per- 255

spectives, the uses of these emerging technologies are 256

adversely affecting students' reading behavior (Inderjit, 257

2014), their learning performance (Hamat et al., 2012) and lim- 258

ited inquired for student learning behavior (Masrom and Usat, 259

2013). 260

3. Theoretical foundation 261

This study is exploratory in nature, and the main objective of 262

the study is to navigate factor's guide to penetrate student 263

online behavior and model their best possible use of social 264

media to enhance their learning and academic performance. 265

Theories explain behavior of interest or a phenomenon that 266

required using the scientific method (Bhattarcherjee, 2012). 267

In order to forecast a better understanding of technology 268

usage, acceptance and adoption, there is a wide range of theo- 269

retical models on hand from distinct disciplines (Venkatesh 270

JKSUCI 278 13 October 2016 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 9

4 M. Ali et al.

et al., 2003). The ubiquitous nature of social media is continuously flourishing for the present information-age learners. These applications have the potential to improve students learning, however, the area is insufficiently examined for its impacts on students. The idea of social learning is belonging to the social constructivism theory of 1960s advanced by Vygotsky's in 1978. The theory suggests that students learning are based on collaborative activities. This collaborative learning is more effective than the independent learning and contributing a lot to motivation, achievement oriented, and creating beneficial collective outcomes. In the contemporary digital age, by merging the social learning with the social web platform, where learning is not an individualistic activity and learners are significantly collected information through multiple resources of this platform (Chen and Bryer, 2012). In addition, students motivations and ability with respect to the acceptance or adoption of social media can be understood through the motivation theory of (Pintrich and Schunk, 1996). The theory suggests that motivation is the person's willpower to test, whereas ability is what a person can do. The aim of the theory is to describe student behavior or future behavior. The theory of motivation such as a model by Pintrich and Schunk (1996) is focusing students' beliefs with respect to the importance of a task, students' beliefs with ability and their emotional reactions. Furthermore, there are a number of models and theories to predict technology acceptance and adoption in IS research. The most influential models among these are technology acceptance model of Davis et al. (1989), UTAUT of Venkatesh et al. (2003) and five-factor model of personality of McCrae and Costa (1987). However, due to the absence of environmental factors in FFM and personality factor in TAM, The current study considered the social cognitive theory as a theoretical approach. Because SCT (Bandura, 1999) describes that behavior is determined through personal and external factors. Based on the SCT, the current study is trying to explore factors both personal and environmental to understand the desired behavior.

4. Methodology

According to Burns and Grove (2001) exploratory research is conducted to discover new ideas, improve novel insights, and increase acquaintance related to a phenomenon. Brown (2006) indicated that exploratory research helps in handling new or rarely investigated problems, research conclusion and even for the problem existence. The data are collected through interviews from the students of higher education. The participants are first given the exposure to different social media applications. A range of questions asked comprised of different social media applications, its importance for learning and the problems associated such as distraction and finally to explore the factors that can motivate them in using social media applications to share information for learning and academic purposes. These questions were formulated to meet the objectives of the study. All these interviews were conducted in PG lounge, information resource center, university technology PETRONAS, and the Data collected are analyzed with assistance of ATLAS-Ti-7, and MS Excel. The current research is administered to answer the following research questions:

1. Do you agree that using social media application can support your learning and academic performance?

2. Do you agree that time spent on social media applications for social interactions (others than learning) can cause distraction or divert your attention from studies or academic achievement?

3. What are the factors that motivate you to use social media applications for learning and academic's purposes?

5. Results and discussion

A total of 47 students were interviewed. The sample included 55 percent of male and 45 percent of female. 70 percent of the respondents' ages were ranging from 19 to 20 years and 30 percent of the respondent ages were ranging from 23 to 26 years. In the current study, the sample representing the population is consisting of multi-ethnic groups. In order to achieve true representations of the population, the sample consists of the different ethnic groups such as, 45 percent Malay, 19 percent Chinese, 15 percent Indian and 21 percent from all minority groups. The study levels of the respondent consisted of 78 percent undergraduate, and 22 percent are postgraduate. The generated output shows that majority of the participants are undergraduate ages from 19 to 22. The details of the demographic characteristics are shown in the Table 1 .

The use of the Internet and social media identified shows that only 3 percent respective respondents use the Internet for one hour a day, 15 percent for two hours, 38 percent for three hours and 40 percent of them use the Internet for four hours and above in their everyday life. The use of social media shows that 19 percent of the participant uses it for one hour or less, 23 percent for two hours 32 percent for three hours, and 26 percent of them use social media for four hours and above. Furthermore, the uses of these different social media applications are mainly consumed for information sharing, entertainment and socializing activities. These details of these activities are tabulated in Table 2.

Social media is a new form of communication and can enhance students learning performance; however, they consider these applications as a source of entertainment and sufficiently use it for their social interaction (Chen and Bryer, 2012). In order to understand student's views that how they

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of respondent.

Number Percentage

Gender Male 26 55

Female 21 45

Age 19-22 33 70

23-26 14 30

Ethnicity Malay 21 45

Chinese 9 19

Indian 7 15

Others 10 21

Study Level UG 32 78

PG 13 22

JKOUCOb2e7r82016 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 9

Strengthening academic usage of social media 5

Table 2 Frequency of social media use.

Number Percentage

Hours surf 1 h or less 3 6

internet in a day 2 h 7 15

3 h 18 38

4 h and above 19 40

Hours surf social 1 h or less 9 19

media sites in a 2h 11 23

day 3h 15 32

4 h and above 12 26

Use of social Information sharing 7 15

media sites for Entertainment 9 19

Socializing 11 23

Above all 20 43

Figure 2 Frequencies of different social media applications.

understand and interpret the term social media. The outputs grabbed are showing that 19 percent student believe the term as a source of interaction, which is the mutual exchange among individuals and building blocks of the society. 13 percent believe to be a source of exchange, which is an activity among individuals or groups, with more or less rewarding as well as tangible or intangible. 23 percent believe to be a source of entertainment which the action or set of actions providing or being provided with amusement and 45 percent of them understand the term as a source of communication, which is the sharing of information using symbols either auditor or visuals format. These views suggest that students have clear understanding of the term because these characteristics are the different attributes of social media and use interchangeably. The students' views on the term social media identified are presented in the figure (Fig. 1).

Social media is an umbrella term and consists of different online applications such as social network, blogs, content communities, collaborative projects and virtual or game words (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). These applications are based on user generated contends (UGC) and facilitates everyone to access, create and share information online (Correa et al., 2013). In order to understand student use frequencies of these different applications, the output generated shows that Face-book, YouTube and WhatsApp are the three main players followed by Wikipedia and blogs as shown in the figure (Fig. 2).

These different applications of social media facilitate different kinds of communication and information sharing; however, the basic idea of all these sites is same and all of them are based on web 2.0. To understand the primary use of these applications among students of higher education, the data

collected show that 18.51 percent of students use these applications for socializing and learning, 37 percent for learning, 11.11 percent for entertainment and 33.33 percent for socializing purposes. These information are presented in the figure (Fig. 3).

Social media is the mean of commutation (Al-rahimi et al., 2013). However; students consider these applications as a source of entertainment and considerably use it for their social interaction. This attitude of students has turned these applications as a source of distraction and negatively influences their academic performance (Chen and Bryer, 2012; Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010; Gafni et al., 2012; Junco and Cotten, 2012). In order to get student's response and confirm the phenomenon of distraction associated with the use of social media applications. All the students are agreed, and some of them mentioned their own experiences associated with distraction. Therefore, the findings from this study are similar to those of (Chen and Bryer, 2012; Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010; Gafni et al., 2012; Junco and Cotten, 2012). The phenomenon of distraction is what that causes prevention to give attention to something else or from a real issue. In the context of social media for learning purposes, distraction refers to delay in study time, less concentration with respect to learning, low for academic practice, cyber-bullying or malicious behavior; privacy concerns and health treat weak learning outcomes, lower GPA and motivational problems, which is the personal desire of student to get high achievements in academic life (Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010; Junco et al., 2011; Rouis et al., 2011; Chen and Bryer, 2012; Lederer, 2012; Guy, 2012; Inderjit, 2014). These studies mentioned that these distractions were ranging from psychological disorder to emotion disorder and lower GPA, which is the ultimate achievement of every individual in their education life. Furthermore, they were also inquired for their agreement with the statement that these applications can help them in learning and can improve their

Interaction Exchange Entertainment Communication

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Socializing & Learning Learning Entertainment Socializing

10 20 30 40

Figure 3 Primary use of social media application.

Figure 1 Students views about the term social media.

JKSUCI 278 13 October 2016 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 9

6 M. Ali et al.

Figure 4 Social media enhance learning.

academic performance. The data analyzed show that 62 percent of them are agreed, and 23 percent are and 15 percent are not sure that using social media applications can enhance their learning and academic performance. In addition, they were also inquired about their agreement on the statement that these applications can help them in learning and can improve their academic performance. The data analyzed show 62 percent of them are agreed, and 23 percent are and 15 percent are not sure that using social media applications can enhance their learning and academic performance. These responses are shown in the figure (Fig. 4).

The principal objective of the study is to explore those factors that can motivate students to use social media for academic or learning purposes. The query is made to extract these factors which can motivate them to use social media applications for learning and academic purposes. Some of the student responses are listed below (Table 3).

In the first phase, all keywords from the responses as highlighted above are accumulated by using the world crunchier through Atlas-ti software version 7. The concluded inventory acquired is encompassed of a huge number of important terms that carry some thoughtful meaning and suggestions. In the second phase, all these keywords identical or those carrying the same meaning are combined into a particular term, for example, friends, class fellow, and family. Teachers and media are termed as subjective norms or social influence. The same procedures are applied for all the collected responses, in order to get meaningful factors. According to the output generated shows that personality, Social Influence, information quality and system usefulness are the dominant factors, which can motivate them to use social media applications for learning and academic purposes. The detailed information about these factors is portrayed in the chart as Fig. 5 and is listed.

Figure 5 Factors enhance the use of social media for learning.

Personalitu

Gende*—'

Sociailnfluence

Satisfaction Age

Awareness

Usefulness

InformationQuality

InstitutionQllnvolvement

(jSSlitOut

Figure 6 List of factor extracted.

In the third phase, the reduced numbers of terms are pulled 468

out in a suitable structure through world cloud by using 469

Atlas-ti-version 7. However, only those terms are clouded in 470

the final model having minimum 25% minimum response rate. 471

The final list of extracted factors that are considered to the 472

influential factor with respect to the academic use of social 473

media is shown in the world cloud (Fig. 6). 474

As shown above, there are nine factors extracted through 475

the world clouds, illustrating that majority of students are 476

agreed that psychological characteristic, information quality, 477

Social Influence and system usefulness are the leading factors 478

that can motivate them to use these applications for learning 479

and academic purposes. Among these factors extracted, social 480

influence and system useful are the core constructs of TAM 481

and UTAUT (Davis et al., 2014; Venkatesh et al., 2003). The 482

other factors is the student personality which is a individual 483

relatively stable psychological characteristics and one of the 484

Table 3 Student responses on factors motivate their academic use of social media.

Respondent: 1 The curiosity to achieve a better academic performance can attract us to use these sites for learning purposes. However, my

exposure to these services is social and needs a guideline. Maybe I did not think it before Respondent: 2 I think over these applications as a source of social interaction. Anyhow, to suppose the platform as a learning tool, besides the usefulness of its services, also there are some influential factors such as, teacher and family motivation, awareness, personal interest and self-discipline. However, depends on site content's quality Respondent: 3 Information quality is the key feature to attract us for academic context. If part of the exam, may it work to be learning tool Respondent: 4 I am agreeing that these sites provide learning opportunity by unlimited access to variety of information along with relaxation.

It helps to reduce tension by playing games and listening music sideway, but we normally follow the trends of our classmates and friends. It saves time, easy to interact and give new ideas Respondent: 5 These sites are free but contents quality is the main concern. Even so university environment specifically can turn these sites in order to learning platform

Strengthening academic usage of social media

most influential factors to understand users online behavior (Correa et al., 2013 and (Ozgiiven and Mucan, 2013). The factors of age and gender are also important and suggested by (Al-rahimi et al., 2014) for future online research. Furthermore, the factor of satisfaction is somewhat used in health-related research, however, awareness, and institutional involvement are diverse and new in this context.

6. Conclusion

The use of technology in education is traced back to Thomas Alva Edison invention of recording. Social media consists of a variety of communication tools such as Blogs, collaborative projects, social networking sites, content communities and virtual world or virtual game worlds. These channels of this platform are providing unlimited opportunities to communicate interact, socialize and share with each other. In the field of IS research, understanding user behavior for technology acceptance or adaptation is important and as well as a challenging issue. Social media has changed the entire scenario of information sharing. However, it can also be a source of distraction for students. According to Venkatesh et al. (2003), researcher select constructs from the existing models to meet their study objective, which sometime fails to meet their desired objectives. Keeping in view, the current study is conducted to supplement the existing models by revisiting the target audience. The current study has achieved its main objectives by extracting some related factors, which include individual psychological characteristics such as personality, social influence, information quality, system usefulness, satisfaction, age and gender as well as confirming the issue of distraction causing by these sites. Furthermore, to achieve a more concrete understanding of student online actives, particularly to their learning technology acceptance model by Davis et al. (1989) and the Big Five models (FFM) by McCrae and Costa (1987) are required to integrate under a single framework. As prior research recognizes that only 35% individuals' behavior is aligned with their intentions (Taylor and Todd, 1995 and Venkatesh et al., 2003), and beside high behavioral intentions, some individuals are not adopting the actual use of an information system, because of their intentions into behavior in accordance with their personality (Maier et al., 2012). Intention-behavior gap in IS research is widely accepted, encouraging researchers to integrate personality into different streams of IS research, such as the updating of beliefs or the transferring of behavioral intentions into behavior (Moore and McElroy, 2012 and Maier et al., 2012). Data collected during this study from students of engineering background only. In future, more explorations are required with respect to different population and research methodology to achieve the desired objectives.

7. Uncited reference

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