Scholarly article on topic 'Effect of Diamond Paste Finishing on Surface Topography and Roughness of Dental Nanohybrid Composites – AFM Analysis'

Effect of Diamond Paste Finishing on Surface Topography and Roughness of Dental Nanohybrid Composites – AFM Analysis Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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atomic force microscope / surface roughness / polishing protocols / dental resin-based composites / nanohybrid composites / diamond paste polishing

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Tijana Lainović, Larisa Blažić, Dragan Kukuruzović, Marko Vilotić, Aljoša Ivanišević, et al.

Abstract Dental restorative materials need to be carefully engineered and designed in order to meet many different clinical requirements. The oral biomaterials have to possess such properties which enable them to withstand the conditions present in the oral environment. The improvements in the dental materials science are the main initiators of the entire dental professional progress. In order to exploit all the improved characteristics of new commercial dental materials, dental clinicians need to be familiar with working mechanisms of dental processing methods, and to be able to choose the best therapeutic processing condition for the each material. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diamond paste finishing on surface topography and roughness of two dental resin-based nanohybrid composites. Results of this study showed that diamond paste polishing was useful processing method which significantly reduced surface roughness and created favorable topography of tested nanohybrid composite materials.

Academic research paper on topic "Effect of Diamond Paste Finishing on Surface Topography and Roughness of Dental Nanohybrid Composites – AFM Analysis"

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Procedía Engineering 69 (2014) 945 - 951

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

24th DAAAM International Symposium on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation, 2013

Effect of Diamond Paste Finishing on Surface Topography and Roughness of Dental Nanohybrid Composites - AFM Analysis

Tijana Lainovica*, Larisa Blazicab, Dragan Kukuruzovicc, Marko Viloticc, Aljosa

Ivanisevicc, Damir Kakasc

a University of Novi Sad, Medical Faculty, School of Dentistry, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia b Clinic for Dentistry of Vojvodina, Hajduk Veljkova 12, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia c University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Institute for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6,

21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

Abstract

Dental restorative materials need to be carefully engineered and designed in order to meet many different clinical requirements. The oral biomaterials have to possess such properties which enable them to withstand the conditions present in the oral environment. The improvements in the dental materials science are the main initiators of the entire dental professional progress. In order to exploit all the improved characteristics of new commercial dental materials, dental clinicians need to be familiar with working mechanisms of dental processing methods, and to be able to choose the best therapeutic processing condition for the each material. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diamond paste finishing on surface topography and roughness of two dental resin-based nanohybrid composites. Results of this study showed that diamond paste polishing was useful processing method which significantly reduced surface roughness and created favorable topography of tested nanohybrid composite materials.

© 2014The Authors. Published byElsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of DAAAM International Vienna

Keywords: atomic force microscope; surface roughness; polishing protocols; dental resin-based composites; nanohybrid composites; diamond paste polishing

1. Introduction

The best and the most resistant material that withstands the conditions in the oral cavity environment is, surely, the natural tooth with its own naturally engineered tissues [1]. However, there are possible tooth-diseases or traumas that can harm the dental tissues, and leave the cavities and defects which need the reconstruction with oral

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +381-21-6615-706; +381-21-633-65-22 E-mail address: tijana.lainovic@gmail.com

1877-7058 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of DAAAM International Vienna

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.03.074

biomaterials. Oral biomaterials need to be biocompatible materials, with optimal physical, mechanical, chemical and aesthetic properties [2]. Among them, very important properties of dental materials are their polish ability and polish retention, and the surface quality which do not cause undesirable biological interactions and the adhesion of the bacterial plaque on the reconstructive material [3,4]. Biofilm is the main cause of caries lesions and gingival and periodontal diseases, and its retention can be reduced by decreasing the surface roughness of the restorative biomaterial [5]. There were some experimental findings that dental material's surface roughness lower than 0,2 |m, significantly reduced the possibility of bacterial adhesion [6]. Smooth surface enables clinical durability, good aesthetic appearance, better optical compatibility with natural enamel tissue and surface gloss, as well as, preventing the discoloration and staining of the restoration [7,8]. There are many dental processing methods for obtaining good surface quality [9]. Dental usual final processing of restoratives includes contouring, finishing and polishing procedures in order to obtain the adequate anatomical morphology of the restoration and the satisfying surface quality [10]. Some dental polishing procedures recommend the so called "high gloss polishing" or "paste-polishing" with application of polishing aluminium-dioxide or diamond pastes for the intraoral use at the end of the restorative treatment [11,12,13]. For every dental clinical work, it is important for the operator to be familiar with procedures and to understand the mechanisms which certain material processing method produces [2]. This study was conducted on dental composite materials, which are the most commonly used materials in dental clinical practice [14]. The contemporary nanohybrid composites were chosen, because these new nanoparticles-containing materials are expected to provide better overall composites features, including the quality of polished surface [15,16]. Every effort in the synthesis of new materials with improved properties includes the evaluation and selection of the best processing conditions in order to utilize these materials improvements.

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diamond paste finishing on surface topography and roughness of polished contemporary dental resin-based nanohybrid composites.

Nomenclature

LED Light emitting diode

AFM atomic force microscopy

Ra average surface roughness [nm]

Rp-v maximum peak-to-valley distance [nm]

2. Materials and methods

Two contemporary dental resin-based nanohybrid composites were tested in this study (Evetric and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar Vivadent). Detailed information about the materials used in the study is shown in the Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Details about Evetric tested in study.

Evetric

Manufacturer

Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein Nanohybrid composite

Classification

Lot no

P50246

Matrix

Dimethacrylates

Fillers

Barium glass, ytterbium trifluoride, mixed oxides, copolymers sized between 40 nm -3000 nm

Filler loading

80-81 wt. %, 55-57 vol. %

Table 2. Details about IPS Empress Direct tested in study.

Name IPS Empress Direct

Manufacturer Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein

Classification Nanohybrid composite

Lot no P74595

Shade A2

Matrix Dimethacrylates

Fillers Filler loading Barium glass, ytterbium trifluoride, mixed oxides, silicon dioxide and copolymers sized between 40 nm - 3000 nm, with a mean particle size of 550 nm 77.5-79 wt. %, 52-59 vol. %

Specimens were prepared in the cylindrical plastic molds (8 mm diameter x 2 mm depth) which were placed on the glass microscope slide, filled with material and covered with a polyester strip and a glass slide, taking care to obtain a flat surface without any defects and entrapped air. Material was then polymerized for 40 seconds with a SmartLite® IQTM 2 dental LED light curing unit (Dentsply Caulk). After removing glass plate and polyester strip from the top of the samples, they were polished by two dental polishing protocols: multi-step dental polishing protocol with SuperSnap sandpapers and the same multi-step polishing protocol followed by DirectDia diamond paste applied by SuperBuff polishers (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan). Detailed information about the polishing protocols used in the study is shown in Fig. 1 and Table 3.

Fig. 1. Model of dental handpiece with polishing disk and the sample.

2.1. AFM scanning

Samples were examined by Veeco di CP-II Atomic Force Microscope, in contact mode with CONT20A-CP tips. 1 Hz scan rate and 256 x 256 resolution were used to obtain topography on a 90 x 90 ^m scanning area. Measured topography data were processed by Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) image processing software called Scanning

Probe Image Processor (SPIP 6.0.10). Following parameters were compared among specimens: average roughness (Ra) and maximum peak-to-valley distance (Rp-v).

Table 3. Details about polishing protocols used in this study.

Polishing protocol Polisher name Manufacturer Description Usage Conditions Handpiece speed

No. 1 SuperSnap Shofu, Japan multi-step polishing protocol, four abrasive disks with successively reduced grits one minute polishing for each abrasive disk In dry conditions 10 000 rpm*

No. 2 SuperSnap followed by Direct Dia with SuperBuff Shofu, Japan multi-step polishing protocol, four abrasive disks with successively reduced grits followed by diamond paste applied with polishing disk one minute polishing for each abrasive disk followed by one minute diamond paste polishing With slightly moistened SuperBuff disk with water before applying diamond paste on it 8 000 rpm*

* recommended from the manufacturer

3. Results

Qualitative analysis of the 2D and 3D AFM images showed that multi-step polishing protocol produced lines and scratches on the tested materials' surfaces, which were results of the machining process with abrasive sandpapers (see Fig. 2 and Fig. 4). The abrasive wear mechanism of this polishing method created surface with furrowed and microploughed topography, with rare round local damages made as a consequence of the inorganic fillers dislodgement. The values of measured AFM roughness parameters (Ra and Rp-v) were satisfying and showed relatively low surface roughness for the both materials polished by multi-step protocol (see Fig. 6 and Fig. 7).

Fig. 2. (a) 2D AFM image of Evetric polished by multistep protocol; (b) 3D AFM image of Evetric polished by multistep protocol.

Fig. 3. (a) 2D AFM image of Evetric polished by multistep protocol followed by diamond paste polishing; (b) 3D AFM image of Evetric polished by multistep protocol followed by diamond paste polishing.

However, diamond paste polishing which followed the multi-step protocol, created even smoother surfaces of the samples, by sweeping the lines and grooves, leaving only a few new, hole-like defects of the surface (see Fig. 3 and Fig. 5). The great wear capacity of the diamond paste reduced surface roughness of both tested materials, by erasing the scratched topography and leaving only sporadic deep grooves.

(a) (b)

Fig. 4. (a) 2D AFM image of IPS Empress Direct polished by multistep protocol; (b) 3D AFM image of IPS Empress Direct polished by

multistep protocol.

Fig. 5. (a) 2D AFM image of IPS Empress Direct polished by multistep protocol followed by diamond paste polishing; (b) 3D AFM image of IPS Empress Direct polished by multistep protocol followed by diamond paste polishing.

Quantitative analysis of calculated AFM roughness parameters (Ra and Rp-v) showed that both of the tested materials had significantly lower roughness values when samples were polished by diamond-paste polishing after the standard multi-step polishing protocol (see Fig. 6 and Fig. 7).

IPS Empress Direct - multi step polishing protocol

B IPS Empress Direct - multi step polishing protocol + diamond

paste polishing B Evetric - multi step polishing protocol

Li Evetric - multi step polishing protocol + diamond paste polishing

ja 1500 >

^ 1000 500

O IPS Empress Direct - multi step polishing protocol

H IPS Empress Direct - multi step polishing protocol + diamond paste polishing

Evetric - multi step polishing protocol U Evetric - multi step polishing protocol + diamond paste polishing

Fig. 6. Average surface roughness (Rg) of tested materials. Fig. 7. Maximum peak-to-valley distance (Rp_v) of tested materials.

4. Conclusion

The great wear capacity of the diamond paste enabled this polishing system to create smoother surface of the both tested nanohybrid materials in this study. Diamond paste removed both of the composite's phases homogeneously, because the diamond components have been harder then the filler composite particles. It depends on the size of the fillers, whether their dislodgement will leave the smaller or bigger holes and damages. Analyzing these polishing mechanisms, it can be concluded that the nano-sized particles in the material composition and the adequate polishing protocols have the major role in the final surface quality. Further studies need to investigate the effect of the other commercially-available polishing systems on the surface topography and roughness of different new dental composite materials containing nanoparticles.

Acknowledgements

This paper represents a part of the research realized in the frameworks of the projects: TR 035020 (Blazic L, Lainovic T, Ivanisevic A) and Project III-45006 (Kakas D, Vilotic M, Kukuruzovic D) financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia.

The authors would like to thank Ivoclar Vivadent product distributers in Serbia, and Mikodental, Sabac - general dealers of Shofu, Japan for Serbia, for the material support.

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