Scholarly article on topic 'Effect of Mixing Time on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Palm Oil Mill Waste and Block Rubber Wastewater'

Effect of Mixing Time on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Palm Oil Mill Waste and Block Rubber Wastewater Academic research paper on "Chemical engineering"

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{"anaerobic digestion" / biogas / "decanter cake" / "block rubber wastewater" / "mixing time"}

Abstract of research paper on Chemical engineering, author of scientific article — Weerapong Lerdrattranataywee, Thaniya Kaosol

Abstract This paper aims to study a biogas production of Anaerobic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (An-CSTR) using decanter cake from palm oil mill factory with block rubber wastewater as a co-anaerobic digestion. The objective is to study the effect of mixing time for co-digestion on An-CSTR. The best co-digestion mixing ratio from the previous research is used for the continuous An-CSTR processes. Two different values of Hydraulic Retention Times (HRTs) were used in these studies which were 10 and 30 days. Also, two values of mixing time at 12 and 24 hr/day were used. Both parameters were used in the biogas production in this study. The biogas production was observed from all reactors. The results from both reactors of the 10-day-HRT are similar. The results from both reactors of the 30-day- HRT are also similar. Thus, it can be concluded that the 12 and 24 hr/day of mixing time on An-CSTR processes have no significant effect on the biogas production. The biogas production from the 10-day-HRT reactor was higher than that from the 30-day-HRT reactor. The best biogas production performance on An-CSTR process of decanter cake and block rubber wastewater was observed from the reactor with 10-day-HRT and 12 hr/day mixing time. The average methane was 441mL/day.

Academic research paper on topic "Effect of Mixing Time on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Palm Oil Mill Waste and Block Rubber Wastewater"

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Energy Procedía 79 (2015) 327 - 334

2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and

Emerging Economies

Effect of Mixing Time on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Palm Oil Mill Waste and Block Rubber Wastewater

Weerapong Lerdrattranatayweea, Thaniya Kaosola*

aDepartment of Civil Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand

Abstract

This paper aims to study a biogas production of Anaerobic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (An-CSTR) using decanter cake from palm oil mill factory with block rubber wastewater as a co-anaerobic digestion. The objective is to study the effect of mixing time for co-digestion on An-CSTR. The best co-digestion mixing ratio from the previous research is used for the continuous An-CSTR processes. Two different values of Hydraulic Retention Times (HRTs) were used in these studies which were 10 and 30 days. Also, two values of mixing time at 12 and 24 hr/day were used. Both parameters were used in the biogas production in this study. The biogas production was observed from all reactors. The results from both reactors of the 10-day-HRT are similar. The results from both reactors of the 30-day-HRT are also similar. Thus, it can be concluded that the 12 and 24 hr/day of mixing time on An-CSTR processes have no significant effect on the biogas production. The biogas production from the 10-day-HRT reactor was higher than that from the 30-day-HRT reactor. The best biogas production performance on An-CSTR process of decanter cake and block rubber wastewater was observed from the reactor with 10-day-HRT and 12 hr/day mixing time. The average methane was 441 mL/day.

© 2015 The Authors.Published byElsevier Ltd. Thisis an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of 2015 AEDCEE Keywords: anaerobic digestion; biogas; decanter cake; block rubber wastewater; mixing time

1. Introduction

An anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for converting organic wastes into biogas under an absence of oxygen. Typically, the biogas consists of 55-80% methane, 20-45% carbon dioxide [1]. Therefore, the biogas can be used as a renewable energy source [2]. The renewable energy is one of the main factors of the global prosperity. It can also reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

Corresponding author. Tel.:+6-681-400-6323; fax: +6-674-459-396 E-mail address: thaniya.k@psu.ac.th.

1876-6102 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of 2015 AEDCEE doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.499

Agricultural wastes have potential for biogas production. The solid organic matter in biomass can be converted to biogas in anaerobic bio-reactors. However, the completely mixing condition is required in the bio-translated process in order to achieve the best performance. The mixing operation requires electricity that is directly translated to cost.

In this paper, the biogas production of various mixing times on the continuous An-CSTR processes is compared. The co-digestion between decanter cake and block rubber wastewater is used in this study to evaluate an energy cost.

2. Material and methods

2.1. Raw materials

Block Rubber Wastewater (BRW) is obtained from a factory in Songkhla province, Thailand. The BRW contains high amount of COD which is the main environmental problem. Thus, the wastewater treatment is required before discharging the effluent to any receiving water source. The decanter cake (DC) is obtained from a palm oil mill factory in Krabi province, Thailand. The DC contains high amount of COD, TS and TVS. Therefore, the DC can increase the organic substrates in the BRW for biogas production. A seeding in the An-CSTR is the filtrated cow manure.

2.2. Experimental setting

The four An-CSTRs are set up at a laboratory scale. The reactors are 6 L of total volume with 5 L of working volume including interchangeable internal mixing machines. In order to operate An-CSTR in an anaerobic condition, all reactors are integrated with gas bags and gas counters (Figure 1).

Fig. 1. The schematic of the An-CSTR: (a) anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor, (b) two mechanical mixers, (c) a gas counter,

and (d) a gas bag.

In this study, the ratio of 5 g of DC and 200 mL of BRW is used because this ratio was the best ratio from the previous study. The co-digestion material samples contain 7.0 of pH, 1,525 mg/L as CaCO3 of Alkalinity, 147,661 mg/L of COD, 12,428 mg/L of TS, 8,118 mg/L of TVS and 859 mg/L of TKN. Table 1 shows the experimental setting of all four reactors, labeled R1, R2, R3, and R4. Each of which has different value pair of HRT and mixing time. R1 and R2 use 24 hr/day mixing time with 30-day-HRT and 10-day-HRT, respectively. R3 and R4 use 12 hr/day mixing time with 30-day-HRT and 10-day-HRT, respectively. The parameters to be analyzed include pH, temperature, COD, TS, and TVS, alkalinity, TKN

and biogas content. All analytical procedures are performed according to APHA [3]. The biogas is analyzed for methane composition using a Gas Chromatography with Thermal Conductivity Detector. The percentage of methane is recorded as the methane content representative.

Table 1. Experimental operations.

Reactors HRT (days) Mixing time (hour/day)

R1 30 24

R2 10 24

R3 30 12

R4 10 12

The pH and temperature values of each reactor are analyzed daily. The parameters of each reactor are analyzed daily. The other parameters are analyzed every 3 days. The removal efficiency parameters such as COD, TS, TVS and TKN can be calculated. The biogas is collected daily using a gas bag. The biogas production is recorded daily as the volume of biogas produced using a gas counter. The biogas is collected in a gas tube every 4 days for analyzing the biogas composition.

3. Results and discussions

3.1. An-CSTR co-digestion operation

The variations of temperature, pH, alkalinity, VFA, ammonia-nitrogen with An-CSTR co-digestion processes under different HRTs (30 and 10 days) and different mixing times (24 and 12 hr/day) was studied in this research (Figure 2). The temperature of co-digestion operation was ranged between 28 and 37oC (Figure 2(a)). It showed the mesophilic phase for anaerobic co-digestion [4]. Thus, the temperature was suitable for anaerobic co-digestion process. It can be observed that the temperature of R1 and R2 operating with mixing time 24 hours per day was a little higher than that of R3 and R4 which are operated with the mixing time 12 hr/day due to different operated mixing time into self-heating of inner mechanical motor. The higher temperature is observed because of the continuous mixing operation.

The pH, alkalinity and VFA are factors for controlling the anaerobic digestion operation. The suitable pH is between 6.8 and 7.2 for methanogenic bacteria. When pH is lower than 6.6 and higher than 7.6, the VFA digestion efficiency will be decreased [5]. In all experiments, the pH during the steady state ranges between 6.3 and 7.1 (Figure 2(b)). The pH value of all experiments decreased when the operation time increases. All reactors show the same trend. The pH value of all experiments was controlled up to neutral by pH-adjust chemical matter. Even when the pH values are lower than the suitable value, the methanogenic bacteria provides good performance.

Fig. 2. The variation of An-CSTR co-digestion operation: (a) temperature, (b) pH, (c) alkalinity, (d) VFA (e) Ammonia-N.

The alkalinity is a parameter in the anaerobic digestion operation which is the measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. It is due primarily to the salts of weak acids [6]. The optimum alkalinity for anaerobic

digestion is between 1,000 and 5,000 mg/L as CaCO3 [7]. The alkalinity of all reactors has the same trend. During the startup period (Day 1 to 40), the alkalinity increased (Figure 2(c)). It can be observed that the alkalinity of R1 and R3 (30-day-HRT operation) was higher than that of R2 and R4 (10-day-HRT operation) because the 10-day-HRT operation has higher input organic materials. After that the system reached the steady state, the alkalinity decreased in all reactors and it was controlled by adjusting the pH value.

The VFA is an important parameter for anaerobic co-digestion process because it indicates the stability degree of the process operation. The highest effluent of VFA results in the decreasing of the methane composition. This event is a result of the shift from methanogenic process to hydrolysis or acidogenic process in the anaerobic co-digestion reactors [8]. For anaerobic digestion, the recommended VFA is ranged between 50 and 500 mg/L CH3COOH [9]. The VFA tends to increase during the first 40 days (Figure 2(d)) because the methanogenic bacteria are slowly growth at the startup period. The VFA levels continue to decrease later in all reactors. The values cannot induce to inhibit the anaerobic digestion. After 40 days into the steady state, the VFA in all reactors was in the range of the recommended values for the anaerobic digestion.

The ammonia-N level which is higher than 1,500 mg/L can cause the toxicity for the anaerobic digestion [10]. In all reactors, the ammonia-N was lower than 250 mg/L (Figure 2(e)). Thus, the inhibition of process cannot be occurred during the anaerobic co-digestion in all reactors. The alkalinity, VFA and ammonia-N trend are similar due to the effect of input organic materials.

3.2. Removal efficiency

The influent value and removal efficiency of COD, TS and TVS on An-CSTR co-digestion processes under different HRTs (30 and 10 days) and mixing times (24 and 12 hr/day) was studied in this research (Figure 3). During the first 40 days, the COD removal efficiency was fluctuation in all reactors because all of bacteria growth rates are instability on microorganism adaptation period. At the steady state, the COD effluent was less than 1,000 mg/L and the COD removal efficiency was higher than 98% for all anaerobic co-digestion reactors (Figure 3(a)). It can be observed that the COD removal efficiency of R2 and R4 (30-day-HRT operation) was slightly higher than that of R1 and R3 (10-day-HRT operation) due to the higher input organic materials whereas there is no significant difference in the COD removal efficiency from the reactors with the same HRT value. It showed that the effect of the mixing time on the co-digestion process has no significant effect on the TS and TVS removals.

Fig. 3. Operation results and removal efficiency: (a) COD (b) TS (c) TVS.

The anaerobic co-digestion between wastewater from the block rubber factory and decanter cake from the palm oil mill factory, can significantly increase the TS, TVS and the digestibility in the anaerobic co-digestion due to its solid form of the decanter cake [11]. Figure 3 (b and c) shows the TS and TVS removals during anaerobic co-digestion from the different HRTs (30 and 10 days) and different mixing times (24 and 12 hr/day). At the steady state, the TVS removal of 30-day-HRT was 65-90% (in R1 and R3) and the TVS removal of 10-day-HRT was 90-96% (in R2 and R4). The TS removal of 30-day-HRT was 50-70% (in R1 and R3) and the TS removal of 10-day-HRT was 80-90% (in R2 and R4) whereas there is no significant difference in the TVS removal from the reactors with the same HRT value. It showed that the effect of the mixing time on anaerobic co-digestion has no significant effect on the TS and TVS removals. The anaerobic co-digestion shows high performance for organic removal in the form of solids.

3.3. Biogas production

The mesophilic condition of An-CSTR co-digestion processes was between 28oC and 36oC. The pH value was between 6.3 and 7.2 for all 150 days. The startup period rose up in 20 days. The steady state of the anaerobic condition observed after 43 days in all reactors. At the steady stage, the average biogas

production was 255, 1,000, 269 and 1,012 mL/d, for R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. The composition of methane in biogas production ranged from 25.7-43.1, 30.3-56.8, 33.9-49.0 and 33.1-53.2% for R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. The daily biogas production at 20-150 days is demonstrated in Figure 2. The average methane production generated is 99, 445, 107 and 441 mL/d, for R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively.

2500 2000

I 1500

J 1000

Fig. 4. (a) The daily biogas production at 0-150 days (b) biogas composition at 0-150 days.

The observed daily biogas productions of R1 and R3 are similar while R1 is operated at 24 hr/day mixing time and R3 is operated at 12 hr/day mixing time. Both R1 and R3 are operated at the same HRT condition of 30 days. The same results are observed from R2 and R4 that are operated at 10-day-HRT and different mixing times. Thus, the mixing time has no significant effect on the biogas production. Therefore, the mixing operation cost can be reduced by decreasing the mixing time.

4. Conclusions

This research shows the comparison of biogas and methane productions resulting from 12 and 24 hr/day of mixing time for An-CSTR co-digestion processes under 10 and 30 days of HRT. The co-digestion materials are the decanter cake from the palm oil mill factory and the wastewater from the block rubber factory. The results showed that the biogas production and anaerobic co-digestion performance for both mixing times at same HRT showed no significant difference. It can be concluded that the best performance of An-CSTR co-digestion operation in this study is 12 hr/day of mixing time at 10 days of HRT of anaerobic co-digestion between the decanter cake and the block rubber wastewater. The average methane production is 441 mL/day and the percentage of methane ranged between 33.1 and 53.2%.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank you the Sustainable Waste Management (SWM) team (ENG-58-2-7-11-0200-S) and the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Thailand (ENG550020S) for their financial support.

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