Scholarly article on topic 'Teachers Personality of Various Approbation Orientation'

Teachers Personality of Various Approbation Orientation Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Katarína Cabanová

Abstract In the current school teacher takes a key role in the education of students. There are high demands required of the teachers personality, which could be characterized as professional, educational, psychological and practical competence. Paper offers detailed view at the teacher's personality, namely, the research focuses on a different profile of teachers of nature and of social focus. We administered Cattel 16PF questionnaire to 50 respondents (25 social sciences teachers and 25 teachers of mathematics, physics and informatics). We focused on global factors, extroversion, anxiety, rigidity, independence and self-control. The greatest differences were found in the dimension of extroversion - introversion.

Academic research paper on topic "Teachers Personality of Various Approbation Orientation"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 2571 - 2576

INTE 2014

Teachers personality of various approbation orientation

Katarina Cabanovä*

Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of education, Department of psychology andpatopsychology, Racianska 59, Bratislava 81334,

Slovak republic

Abstract

In the current school teacher takes a key role in the education of students. There are high demands required of the teachers personality, which could be characterized as professional, educational, psychological and practical competence. Paper offers detailed view at the teacher's personality, namely, the research focuses on a different profile of teachers of nature and of social focus. We administered Cattel 16PF questionnaire to 50 respondents (25 social sciences teachers and 25 teachers of mathematics, physics and informatics). We focused on global factors, extroversion, anxiety, rigidity, independence and self-control. The greatest differences were found in the dimension of extroversion - introversion.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

Keywords: personality, teacher, approbation, personality traits

1. Introduction

Teacher's personality is of interest to both psychologists and educators, because the teacher is the second important factor in raising children immediately after parents and children spend with teacher's fairly large part of the day. Karikova (2001) says that the teacher is not only an important model for the identification of students, but also intermediary of information and knowledge, it is the person who teaches children to learn and leads them to be interested in acquiring this knowledge. This brief characteristic implies that the teaching profession requires from its proprietor competence in education and educational areas. Therefore, according to Karikova (2001) teacher should have adequate theoretical and practical knowledge of several areas:

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +421250222343 E-mail address: cabanova@fedu.uniba.sk

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.934

1. expert knowledge of the subjects they teach,

2. expert knowledge of the developmental characteristics of students,

3. knowledge regarding the organization of the lesson

4. knowledge of didactics

5. adequately developed language and speech skills,

6. knowledge of evaluation.

Zelina (1990) states that the teacher's personality can be structured into three main areas:

area of knowledge, skills, cognitive amenities teacher; his intellectual capacity, intelligence; non-cognitive area, beyond intellectual, which some authors call affective area of teacher's personality (R. de Charms 1976 in Zelina, 1990). This area includes the emotional equipment of the teacher, his work motivation, activity, socialization, communication skills and abilities, his values and ethical relationships and his creativity;

area of teachers' work conditions - their optimization with respect to the objectives of education and training, as well as the self-development of teacher's personality.

High requirements are being put on teacher's personality. On the one hand he has to be professional, expert, scientist and on the other hand an artist, an actor who can mediate his knowledge to the audience, it means his pupils. According to Karikova (2001) when talking about the teacher's personality, we should not forget that above all it should be a man personally mature and mentally healthy. And this condition is associated with multiple requirements:

Adequate assessment of reality. Fairness and objectivity in resolving conflicts, to be able to react properly to the arisen situation, problems and assessment of pupils.

Efforts to self-knowledge. Self-awareness and self-reflection increases the level of teaching.

The ability to control your actions. Emotional stability is very important for teachers and helps smooth and

satisfactory course teaching.

Creativity and initiative. Creative and active teachers pay more individualized attention to students. Ability to create a positive emotional bonds. As reported by Goleman (1997), successful workers in professions targeting people should have emotional intelligence, that manifests itself in knowledge and managing their own emotions, in sensibility to the emotions of others and in the ability to motivate yourself.

The moral demands on the teacher's personality. As important traits for a teacher, for example Stefanovic (1991) finds in particular rectitude, honesty, sincerity, credibility, consistency, fairness. Justice as personality characteristics was also presented in the first place in the survey, which concerned the destination profile of the "ideal teacher " for the first grade of primary school. 68 teachers identified this as the most important characteristic (Karikova, 1999). Requirements for character and morality of the teacher are important because the first grade teacher at primary school in particular is the first and leading example for the children with which they meet outside the family (Karikova, 1999).

Load resistance. C. Henning and G. Keller, authors of the publication Antistress program for teachers (Karikova, 1999), note that the teaching profession belongs to the groups most at risk in terms of the stress occurrence. States of exhaustion and nervousness among teachers were the subject of medical research at the beginning of the 20th century. Ch. Kyriacou (1999, in Visnovsky, Kacani, 2001) uses directly the term teacher stress, which is defined as,, situations in which teachers feel angry, depressed, disappointed, when they feel anxious or tense due to some facts related to their educational activity ". Fontana (1997) notes that stress is caused for teachers in many different, often mutually contradictory claims from pupils, colleagues, parents, directors.

Sense of humor and optimism. As stated by Fontana (1997), sense of humor is given by students in a list of properties of "a good teacher " in the second place, just after the justice. Therefore he almost invites teachers to be entertaining in the classroom. Teachers should have the characteristics such as optimism and sense of humor. It is not only related to the positive atmosphere that such an approach will create in class, but also to their resistance to stress, to creativity and empathy (Karikova, 2001).

Ability for the optimal communication. Under this requirement we imagine all the components of communication, it is an important aspect of the relationship of the teacher and the pupil.

There are several typologies of teachers. Doring's typology, Luke teachers typology, Vorwickefs teachers typology. CaselmanrTs teachers typology, Pavlovian teachers typology. Each of these typologies distinguishes between different types of teachers. Typology importance lies in that it allows us to know a particular teacher's personality sooner and better.

Like any personality formation, the formation of the teacher's personality depends in the first place on the talents, the assumptions for the teaching profession, the motivation to engage in the occupation. These capabilities, assumptions can be summarized under the common concept - teaching talent. More specifically, the following characteristics are love of children, interested in working in youth organizations already in high school, the inclination to teach, impart the knowledge and others. Later, the teacher's personality is formed during theoretical and practical training for practicing teacher's profession. During learning, the teacher prepares on the one hand at a technical level, i.e. to the subject he is going to teach and on the other hand, at education level, which includes knowledge of pedagogy, didactics, education, school organization, psychology. The objective of this training is best to prepare future teacher and his profession and act as a factor in school education process.

Based on various studies there have been confirmed some generalizations about teachers, outlined in their publication Research in classes (1989, in Karikova, 1999) LW Anderson and R Burns:

1. There is no universal definition of good or effective teacher. The main argument for this thesis is the fact that the scope of the teacher's professional activities is so large and diverse that no teacher can meet this range evenly.

2. Teachers are very different in many personal and professional characteristics, only some of which have a direct impact on the effectiveness of teaching. That argument is based on research findings that teachers differ in their attitudes, interests, motivations, value preferences and the like, which do not correlate significantly with the learning results of students.

3. Characteristics of teachers don't have a direct impact on school grades. As the key term in this thesis is considered "direct impact". That argument does not claim that personality characteristics don't affect pupil's school grades at all, but notes that this influence is indirect rather than mediated.

4. Teachers develop in a way that progresses through several fairly well predictable and qualitatively distinct stages, i.e. from the beginner status to the expert status.

The aim of our research is to determine whether there is the difference between personality of the humanitarian subjects teachers, and the personality of the teacher of mathematics, physics and informatics, and therefore we can talk about some personal differences with the respect to approbation at all.

For our research we set the following assumptions:

1. We assume that the teachers of humanitarian subjects will be more extrovert as the teachers of Mathematics, Physics and Computer science. On the contrary, they will be rather introverted.

2. We assume that humanitarian teachers will be more tense, alert and reactive in the dimension of anxiety than the teachers of Mathematics, Physics and Computer science. On the contrary, they will be more relaxed, confident, trusting.

3. We assume that the teachers of humanitarian subjects will be more socially bold, opened to changes, independent in the dimension of autonomy than the teachers of Mathematics, Physics and Computer science. On the contrary, they will be more adaptable.

4. We assume that the teachers of humanities subjects are more likely to be not self-possessed, matching the rules, dreamy in the dimension of self-control than the teachers of Mathematics, Physics and Computer science, they in turn will be more principled, realistic, perfectionists, serious.

2. Research methods and research sample

We used the 16PF Questionnaire - Fifth Edition by authors Raymond B. Cattell, Karen S. A. Cattel, Heather EF Cattell (update: M. Jurcova) issued by Psychodiagnostika a.s. Bratislava in 1997, the original edition of 1994. Although 16PF fifth edition is updated and revised, it continues measuring the same 16 primary personality factor scales that Cattell identified 45 years ago. 16PF fifth edition contains 185 entries, constituting 16 primary personality factor scales (Warmth A, Thinking B, Emotional stability C, Dominance E, Liveliness F, Consistency G, Social boldness H, Sensitivity I, Vigilance L, Reverie M, Containment N, Jittery O, Openness to changes Ql, Self-reliance Q2, Perfectionism Q3, Tension Q4) and 5 global factor scales (Extroversion EX, Anxiety, Stiffness TM, Independence IN, Self-control SC).

The total number of collected questionnaires is 50. The number of respondents in these files are listed in the following table 1.:

Approbation orientation

Table 1 Numbers of respondents. N

Gender

Teachers of Mathematics, Physics and 25 Man 17

Computer science Women 8

Teachers of humanitarian subjects 25 Men 5

Women 20

3. Result 16PF- Fifth Edition

Ho (statistic hypotheses): between the studied performance of humanitarian subjects teachers and teachers of mathematics, physics and informatics is a consensus (no statistically significant difference).

We focused on the results of global factors, the factor extroversion, anxiety, stiffness, independence and self-control. For the global factor extroversion * we made one more calculation on the basis of the primary factors Warmth (A +), Liveliness (F +), Social boldness (H +), Openness to change (Q1 +), which statistically significantly correlated with extroversion (see Appendix), as in the global factor extroversion there were the most obvious differences, but not statistically significant.

Values are classified on the basis of achieved weighted scores into the groups „a", ,,b", ,,c" a ,,d". The classification to groups based on the results is shown in tables 2,3,4, 5, 6, 7,8.

a) a = introvert (WS 1,2,3)

b) b = rather introvert (WS 4, 5)

c) c = rather extrovert (WS 6, 7)

d) d = extrovert (WS 8, 9, 10)

Table 2 Extroversion results structure.

Extroversion a b c d

Maths/ Physics 2 9 10 4

Humanitarian 0 5 11 9

a = low anxiety (WS 1,2,3) b = rather low anxiety (WS 4,5) c = rather high anxiety (WS 6,7) d = high anxiety (WS 8,9,10)

Table 3 Anxiety results structure.

Anxiety a b c d

Maths/ Physics 1 11 9 4

Humanitarian 1 8 11 5

a = open-minded, open (WS 1,2,3) b = rather open-minded, open (WS 4, 5) c = rather stubborn, resolute (WS 6,7) d = stubborn resolute (WS 8, 9, 10)

Table 4 Stiffness results structure.

Stiffness a b c d

Maths/ Physics 5 10 5 5

Humanitarian 5 16 3 1

a = adaptable (WS 1,2,3) b = rather adaptable (WS 4,5) c = rather independent, stubborn (WS 6,7) d = independent, stubborn (WS 8, 9, 10)

Table 5 Independence results structure,

Independence a b c d

Maths/ Physics 2 9 12 2

Humanitarian 0 8 13 4

a = not self-possessed (WS 1, 2, 3) b = rather not self-possessed (WS 4, 5) c = rather self-possessed (WS 6, 7) d = self-possessed (WS 8, 9, 10)

Table 6 Self-control results structure.

Self- control a b c d

Maths/ Physics 4 11 9 1

Humanitarian 2 18 4 1

a = introvert (WS 1,2,3) b = rather introvert (WS 4, 5) c = rather extrovert (WS 6, 7) d = extrovert (WS 8, 9, 10)

Table 7 Extroversion* results structure.

Extroversion* a b c d

Maths/ Physics 16 31 37 16

Humanitarian 4 29 42 25

For optimal result, for "extroversion" and "independence" we combined the column "a" and "b" into one in the calculation, as Pearson test of good consent can distort the outcome of the data O.

Table 8 Result of the global scale PF16 - Fifth Edition.

Variable Chi- square statistics Chi- critical df alfa Hypotheses

Extroversion 4,221 5,991 2 0,05 Ho accepted

Anxiety 0,785 7,815 3 0,05 Ho accepted

Stiffness 4,551 7,815 3 0,05 Ho accepted

Independence 1,180 5,991 2 0,05 Ho accepted

Self- control 4,279 7,815 3 0,05 Ho accepted

Extroversion* 9,559 7,815 3 0,05 Ho not accepted

In assumption No.l, we came to rather large differences, which were not statistically confirmed. We tried to verify this assumption on the basis of correlated primary factors Warmth (A +), Liveliness (F +), Social boldness (H +), Openness to change (Q1 +). In this case, the differences were confirmed statistically significantly. In the group of teachers of humanitarian subjects there was significantly lower number of introverts (also rather introverts) than in the group of teachers of mathematics, physics and computer science, there was a higher number of introverts (rather introverts).

4. Conclusion

Humanitarian subjects teachers have more representatives who tend to focus on people, seek relationships with others. They have a greater orientation towards people, they initiate and maintain social contact. Teachers of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics have more representatives, who tend to spend more time with them than with others, they are hesitant to express their views and needs. This is also coming from what was already said, the very nature of naturalists, whose exploration and scientific approach to life has attracted more introverted personality and humanity-oriented approach to life attracts extrovert personality.

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