Scholarly article on topic 'Fishermen Poverty and Survival Strategy: Research on Poor Households in Bone Indonesia'

Fishermen Poverty and Survival Strategy: Research on Poor Households in Bone Indonesia Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Ismail Suardi Wekke, Andi Cahaya

Abstract This study would explore the survival strategy for poor fishing families in coastal areas of Bone Regency, Indonesia. The research findings shows that survival strategy are diversification, which is conducted by various types of businesses, involve the whole family, two meals and diversify the type of food are eaten, as well as a sense of solidarity and trust among neighbours is high enough. They can borrow money and rice when their fellow neighbours in need, this is based on a sense of awareness and a high kinship to sustain life. The strengthening of society civil based on a poor fishing communities The central point of coastal development to improve the status and living conditions of fishermen. This condition is exacerbated by the culture to be wasteful when get caught excess, apathetic to environmental conditions and pessimistic or surrender to the developments taking place in the society due to lack of knowledge and level of education they have. Finally, this study concludes that fishermen has many strategies in enhanching their life through delivering poverty.

Academic research paper on topic "Fishermen Poverty and Survival Strategy: Research on Poor Households in Bone Indonesia"

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bCollege of Adminsitration Studies (STIA) of Puangrimaggalatung , Jl. Jend. Urip Sumoharjo, KM. 1,5, Watampone 92713, Indonesia

Abstract

This study would explore the survival strategy for poor fishing families in coastal areas of Bone Regency, Indonesia. The research findings shows that survival strategy are diversification, which is conducted by various types of businesses, involve the whole family, two meals and diversify the type of food are eaten, as well as a sense of solidarity and trust among neighbours is high enough. They can borrow money and rice when their fellow neighbours in need, this is based on a sense of awareness and a high kinship to sustain life. The strengthening of society civil based on a poor fishing communities The central point of coastal development to improve the status and living conditions of fishermen. This condition is exacerbated by the culture to be wasteful when get caught excess, apathetic to environmental conditions and pessimistic or surrender to the developments taking place in the society due to lack of knowledge and level of education they have. Finally, this study concludes that fishermen has many strategies in enhanching their life through delivering poverty.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center Keywords: Poverty, strategy, survival, culture;

1. Introduction

The phenomenon of poverty and misery in developing countries, including Indonesia, has long been a concern of many parties, both government and academia (Sofer, 2013:482-484). Attention is focused on the question, among others, why the public continues to be poor on the one hand, while on the other side of a country's economic growth rate continues to increase. Theoretically, increasing the economic growth of a country will be able to reduce absolute poverty, as a phenomenon in which people cannot meet basic or minimum requirements for living (Daher, and Maria Haz, 2011:322-334).

As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has vast coastal areas which are inhabited by about two million fishermen and farmers. It is estimated that 60% of the fishermen in villages still have average income below the minimum

* Ismail Suardi Wekke. Tel.: 620-951-322-133

E-mail address: iswekke@gmail.com

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Procedía Economics and Finance 26 (2015) 7 - 11

4th World Conference on Business, Economics and Management, WCBEM

Fishermen Poverty and Survival Strategy: Research on Poor Households in Bone Indonesia

Ismail Suardi Wekkea*, Andi Cahayab

aState Islamic College (STAIN) of Sorong, Jl. Klamono-Sorong, KM. 17 Klablim, Sorong 98417, Indonesia

2212-5671 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00962-4

requirements for living (Orsini, Kahane, Nono-Womdim, and Gianquinto, G., 2013:695-720). Very ironic with great potential, there are still many coastal villagers who have relatively low living standards. The ability of fishermen to meet the minimum basic needs of daily life is very limited. For fishing communities, food is the most important need among the basic necessities of life.

Although the fishermen take a very significant role in increasing the productivity of the national fisheries, it is not correlated to the increase in their welfare (Marron, 2013:785-810). The presence of development intervention programs, especially for coastal communities, such as C0-Fish of the Department of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DKP) is a form of recognition of the existence of poverty in the fishing communities (Carrasco, Menéndez, and Caletas, 2013:939-944). Therefore, this study will explore how fishermen in Bone convey strategies to deliver their daily life in poor condition.

2. Previous Research

National development in Indonesia, which has been running in long time, is still faced with the classic problem that is poverty. However, the poverty problem is not a simple thing because today an anti-poverty policy formulated by the government has not found quite the right formula to solve the problem of poverty; it is based on experience shows that so far Indonesia has not been free from poverty (Nguyen, and Maggard-Gibbons, 2013:444-452). Poverty in different sides has an impact on individuals, families and institutions. But it is undeniable that the most essential notion is always that poverty stems from the condition of individuals, families or as members of a particular institution (Nahui, Bojie, Yihe, and Shuai, 2014: 83-92).

The most striking poverty in the village Kajuara are: poverty culture, where they are to be indifferent (apathetic). He always assumed that whatever he did they remain poor; they enjoy it with poverty, although his house only 12 meters square, no bed, no cabinets and chairs, no kitchen and other rooms. Anatomy of poverty meant to understand what exactly is meant by poverty (Aalbers, van Gent, and Pinkster, 2011:260-264). Because the initial assumption of poor fishing families in communities in coastal areas in Bone regency, they consider themselves poor in terms of social and economic culture only (Imran, Stein, and Zurita-Milla, 2014:322-334). Therefore, the first thing to put forward is an understanding of the meaning of poverty. Poverty is essentially not only economic issues but it is more multidimensional (Wekke and Lubis, 2008). The root of the problem lies in the nation's economic and political concern (Midgley, 2011:346-347).

People are poor because of economic and political policies that are less favourable to them, so it does not have sufficient access to the key resources needed to properly organize their lives. As a result, it was forced to live in substandard (Roy, 2014:453-457; Achenbaum, 2013:566-568). Poverty can be seen from a variety of major dimensions, including the material dimension in the form of food shortages, leading to a job with hunger or lack of food, the next dimension is psychological dimension, among others are powerlessness, inability to argue, shame and abject dependence (Dear and McMichael, 2011); no access dimension to practically owned assets or no assets as capital to hold a decent living as physical capital (land, livestock, equipment, employment, housing and so on).

3. Conseptual Framework

Factors affecting the poverty are multidimensional. The cause root lies in the economic policies that are less favorable for fishing communities. For example, they do not have sufficient access to the key resources needed to properly organize his life so was forced to live under the poverty standard (Barclay, 2013:354-355). In addition, fishermen poverty can also be seen from different dimensions, namely: the dimensions of the material in the form of food shortages and employment, among other dimensions of psychological helplessness, unable to express opinion, dependency, shame, embarrassment and humiliation, as well as the dimensions of social capital related health, education, and employment (Palivela, Satyanarayana, Jawahar, and Neeharika, 2011:811-814). Another thing that has been considered as a factor of fishermen's poverty is natural poverty. This kind of poverty can shape the socialization process based on the views and culture, value, and maritime norms of fishermen's children in facing the future.

This study uses phenomenological approach to describe how the phenomenon of poverty in fishing communities in the coastal areas of Kajuara district, Bone Regency. This approach is in contrast to the empirical study

independently of the ground, and then as a general findings withdrawals meaning subjectively in accordance with reality (Aran-Filippetti and Maria, 2011:341-354). The phenomenon of poverty in fishing communities do not over control theoretically interpreted, but rather openly interpreted according to the meaning of those involved in the phenomena involved in the phenomenon of poverty is poverty (Hatemi-J and Uddin, 2014:374-382). However, the theoretical understanding of the course must be owned by the researchers as a guide when conducting research as a guide when conducting research in the field.

4. Findings and Discussion

Socialization of cultural values regarding values education, which is the cultivation and development of values within someone. It does not have to be a special program or lesson, as well as teaching programs in schools. Education of values helps people to be able to distinguish what is desirable, felt or thought, and what to do. The values believed by someone will help personal growth and become a personality bound. A person's action reflects the value that he or she believes. The level of a value can be measured from how much time is given to pay attention to the values, and people will also devote thought and energy to the espoused values. People act according to its value and therefore the value of giving his life direction. If not, then it might be concluded that the value is only as a dream, a desire or a mere idea.

Basic values and normative patterns is institutionalized in a social system and internalized in the personality structure of each member of society. The values were created as glorified by their ancestors as the foundation stone of Bugis people and culture, then conveyed, passed down through the generations from one generation to the next. In the effort to pass it, they advise or suggest, as contained in Lontara, which is called Pappaseng or Paseng. The process of inheritance of value is also called socialization, which uses a variety of media such as the family, the closest social environment, school, religion, mass media, custom or tradition, peer groups, and communities.

In the Bugis-Makassar ethnic, paseng have sacred position, usually very sacred. They upheld and ready to defend it even to death. Research shows that paseng means emphasizing the necessity and abstinence. People who maintain paseng will always be respected in society, those who ignore it otherwise would bear a very heavy social sanctions, such as tainted name and his social position went down to a lower level, so it is very difficult for them to restore his good name. A paseng in Bugis society actually become the most important means of encouraging Bugis people to maintain their pangngadereng (custom, tradition). In addition, states that both paseng (message) or pappangaja (advice) always contain something that shows value .

Statement of paseng and pappangaja is essentially a moral call to maintain the continuation of the tradition handed down from generation to generation, and is seen as the best. It shows that every business changes which are considered contrary to paseng will provoke spontaneous resistance reaction of society, in implicit or explicit way. Pappaseng or pappangaja is an expression in the form of wise words, and stories that include some wise messages. The nature and behaviour demonstrated in it give impression that something is praiseworthy and noble. When it is in the form of a story, then its content includes values like goodness, rightness, or superiority and achievement. Pappaseng or pappangaja is spoken by parents to their children or grandchildren, master to disciple, brother to brother, and by the husband to his wife. Similarly, paseng in Bugis is entrenched in the community from the past until now. As a result, culture is one of the dominant factor that guide their daily lifes and activities. Moreover, the culture remain importan and practiced on the whole part of neighborhood. This fact will inspire them to face the problem.

5. Theoritical Implication

There are two factors that would impact to poverty. Those factors are value or culture and educational factor. These factors benefit to raise awareness and provide a condition to stimulate the poverty elimination.

4.1. Value or Culture Factor

Clothing is one of human needs. It may serve as protection from the ultra violet of the sun and as insulation from hot and cold conditions. It also function as adornment and personal taste and style (Western, 2011:283-286). However, it is less important than the need for food. Even though good clothing is something fun for everyone, but

for the poor it often just becomes a dream because even to fulfill the need of food they have to work hard and toil (Pal, Chattopadhyay, and Maity, 2011:195-208). They can only buy new clothes once a year usually before a special day or event like Lebaran or religious festival during holidays. Although the number of dependents may motivate fishermen to do other businesses or to obtain a certain income to finance their family's life. On the other side, the number of family members in the family can affect household expenditures so that it can affect dependency (Lawhon, 2014; Rodriguez-Takeuchi and Imai, 2013:227-236).

4.2. Educational Factor

The level of education is closely related to productivity. The higher the level of a person's education, the higher his productivity in the work. Furthermore, the lower the education, the lower the productivity in the work, which in turn can affect a person's income. In general, being not in school and less educated may be the cause of the inadequate quality of fishermen and their ability is limited to small and traditional experience (Katz, 2013:900-901). They lack the ability in other fields. To do the work outside the fishing sector requires a lot of practice; so many people experience this situation as an endless cycle (Smith, Koikkalainen, and Casanueva, 2014:3-33). The education level is closely associated with a person's quality. Low education levels, malnutrition, and other limitations might be the cause of low productivity. In addition, low levels of education lead fishermen to lag behind in adopting new technology. Lack of creativity and attempts to achieve better quality life can lead to low productivity and business income received by farmers (Buang, Habibah, Hamzah, and Ratnawati, 2011:104-109).

This fact leads low income people to be less able to repair their nutrition and public health. With better nutrition and health, poor rural people may work in longer hours in a year and can improve the effectiveness of work (Akpalu, 2011:666-675). The low level of education is closely related to poverty. Poverty makes the poor unable to continue their education to higher level which will affect their ability and skill level required in working (Jackson, 2014:190-208; Wekke and Hamid, 2013). The low level of skill may have an effect on productivity, and in turn will influence their income.

6. Conclusion

The results of this study found that kinship, mutual help, cooperation, mutual trust among the poor families become social capital to survive with their family members. Utilization of local institutions that grow and thrive in the life of rural communities has helped many poor households in order to survive. Therefore, it is suggested that the government should pay attention to local institutions by providing reinforcement to those institutions to be able to serve as a forum for the fishermen in the villages in order to empower them without having to bring in outside agencies because, in principle, institutions that grow and thrive in society have helped fishermen in rural life; and it is a social capital. Poverty is defined as a situation where a person is unable to maintain himself in accordance with the standard of life of the group and also not able to take advantage of mental and physical energy in the group. On a practical level, the results of this study are expected to contribute to the local government in particular, and to the national government for the construction of a pattern of poor development policies especially in coastal areas.

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