Scholarly article on topic 'An Integrated Solution for Pavement Management and Monitoring Systems'

An Integrated Solution for Pavement Management and Monitoring Systems Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Procedia Economics and Finance
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{"pavement management and monitoring systems" / "business process" / "road management system"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Lucia Rusu, Dan Andrei Sitar Taut, Sergiu Jecan

Abstract The aim of this paper is to present a holistic platform for pavement monitoring and maintenance management (PMMP). Our solution tries to exploit new technologies in order to design, integrate and implement an automated and portable visual road inspection system for traffic-speed pavement distress monitoring and analysis that can be installed on non-specialized vehicles. PAV3M developed based on solution based on PMMS requirements and recommendation made in EU programs as a modular decomposition based on business process analysis. For road monitoring and maintenance we opted for LCCA methods. Our solution includes Risk management module.

Academic research paper on topic "An Integrated Solution for Pavement Management and Monitoring Systems"

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Procedía Economics and Finance 27 (2015) 14 - 21

22nd International Economic Conference - IECS 2015 "Economic Prospects in the Context of Growing Global and Regional Interdependencies", IECS 2015

An Integrated Solution for Pavement Management and Monitoring

Systems

Lucia Rusua, Dan Andrei Sitar Tauta, Sergiu Jecana*

aFaculty of Economics and Business Administration, Business Information Systems Department, "Babes Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca,

400591, Romania

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present a holistic platform for pavement monitoring and maintenance management (PMMP). Our solution tries to exploit new technologies in order to design, integrate and implement an automated and portable visual road inspection system for traffic-speed pavement distress monitoring and analysis that can be installed on non-specialized vehicles. PAV3M developed based on solution based on PMMS requirements and recommendation made in EU programs as a modular decomposition based on business process analysis. For road monitoring and maintenance we opted for LCCA methods. Our solution includes Risk management module. © 2015PublishedbyElsevierB.V.Thisisanopenaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Faculty of Economic Sciences, "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu" Keywords: pavement management and monitoring systems, business process, road management system

1. Introduction

Evolution of pavement management system was marked by the domain specific technologies and new materials which appeared in recent years. Pavement process has developed in three major directions: pavement construction, pavement management, and pavement research. While pavement construction can manage new pavements and pavement rehabilitation including specification development and quality assurance, pavement management has monitoring post-construction roads, preventive maintenance and rehabilitation treatments for deterioration, and economic analysis of alternatives, based on life cycle cost analysis (Life Cycle Cost Analysis -LCCA). Pavement

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +4-026-441-8654; fax: +4-026-441-8570. E-mail address:sergiu.jecan@econ.ubbcluj.ro (S. Jecan), dan.sitar@econ.ubbcluj.ro (D. A. Sitar-Taut), lucia.rusu@econ.ubbcluj.ro (L. Rusu)

2212-5671 © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Faculty of Economic Sciences, "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu" doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00966-1

research act in both circumstances, by offering new alternatives, modern solution, treatments and materials for pavement construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation.

Pavement management has many definition but most simply is "the process of maintaining the pavement infrastructure cost-effectively" (Wolters et all, 2011). Since 1993 American Public Works Association (APWA) defines pavement management as "a systematic method for routinely collecting, storing, and retrieving the kind of decision-making information needed to make maximum use of limited maintenance (and construction) dollars". Another pavement management approach is "a program for improving the quality and performance of pavements and the quality and performance of pavements and minimizing costs through good management practices".

A Pavement Management System (PMS) role is "to provide objective information and useful data for analysis to that road managers can make more consistent, cost-effective, and defensible decisions related to the preservation of a pavement network". From another point of view PMS is a "set of defined procedures for collecting, analyzing, maintaining, and reporting pavement data to assist the decision reporting pavement data, to assist the decision makers in finding optimum strategies for maintaining pavements in serviceable condition over a given period of time for the least cost" (Vitillo, 2013).

According to Oguara approach, nowadays we can have several systems and procedures: Pavement Management System (PMS), Priority Rating System (PRS), Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS), Roadway Evaluation and Maintenance Programming (REMP), Pavement Serviceability System (PSS). Each procedure's aim is to provide a consistent, reasonably objective and systematic procedure for establishing priorities, scheduling, and budgeting highway maintenance and rehabilitation requirements (Oguara, 2007).

Many communities opt for the strategy of purchasing COTS systems in pavement management. A Commercial off-the-shelf system (COTS) is defined as "an application or system software that is marketed widely as a prepackaged product under an established commercial licensing or leasing agreement to the general public" (McPherson and Bennett, 2005). COTS systems, can be classified in three categories: Pavement Management Systems (PMS), Bridge Management Systems (BMS), and Integrated Management Systems (IMS), which can manage multiple road infrastructure elements or integrate PMS and BMS (Mizusawa, 2009).

EU programs such as RIMES (Road Infrastructure Maintenance Evaluation Study) and PAV-ECO (Pavement and Structure Management System - Economic Evaluation of Pavement Maintenance) have shown that EU member states spend billions of Euros annually on the maintenance and rehabilitation of their road infrastructure. Only 25% of EU countries (plus Norway and Switzerland) utilize automated data collection systems and the data analysis procedures for road maintenance. Our country has not yet implemented such a program for pavement maintenance and monitoring. Last year our Ministry of Transport presented the long time transport strategy and its vision about General Transport Master Plan (MT 2014).

Our paper tries to offer an original approach of an integrated PMMS based on several innovative camera system and a full set of additional sensors for positioning, orientation, and communication. After an introduction, section 2 presents several international programs for PMMS and related work. Section 3 offers PAV3M architecture, started with objectives, business process, actors and roles, structure, and functionalities.

2. Related works

In recent years pavement management systems have experienced a significant evolution, on the increasing role of modules increased cost analysis and forecasting as well as the evolution of GIS systems have proved their usefulness and PMS. We present some representative solutions for this area.

MS2's Pavement Management System (PMS) offers the essential tools for cost-effective road improvement decisions, analyzing and managing. For efficiently management modules has several usefully facilities: road segment location and description, road condition survey dates, detailed road condition data, road segment and network ratings, graphs, and reporting, history of road treatments. Maintenance components are assured by an application of appropriate roadway deterioration and type and cost of recommended road treatments (MS2, 2014).

The SMEC Pavement Management System (PMS) is used by the Australian and international government authorities in order to improve performance of road networks and road inventory assets. SMEC is an Advanced Asset Management. Technical development solution is based on SQL Server and Oracle technology, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integration, thematic mapping capabilities, and Highway Design and Maintenance (HDM)

modeling. SMEC™s PMS uses advanced technology and HCI (Human Computer Interaction) features into a user-friendly interface. In management and maintenance process SMEC offers the ability to select the most appropriate works program by maximization the long-term performance of the network under a range of user-defined funding and treatment strategies (SMEC, 2015).

AgileAssets Software Platform can be assimilated as an Integrated Management System using newest technologies and mobile facilities integrated in modules. Its architecture consists of four modules: Trade-Off Analyst, Analyst Series Modules, Manager Series Modules and AgileAssets Core System. Trade-Off Analyst addresses to executivelevel offering analysis of scenarios and investment options to achieve optimized funding allocations across programs and asset types. Analyst Series Modules is developed to determine optimal maintenance or rehabilitation strategies using advanced analytics to project future asset performance and to achieve maximum ROI. Manager Series Modules follow pavement management life cycle, by standard work tasks, started to planning, scheduling, work orders, work recording and reporting.

AgileAssets Core System linked together all modules and gives core set of capabilities for the AgileAssets product portfolio from configuration to reporting, linking GIS, LRS, and mobile applications (AgileAssets, 2015).

Pavement Analyst is another Pavement Management System (PMS) which focused on decision support features, by optimizing decision process to maximize the effect of pavement budget and achieve the highest possible ROI on investments. Its features are more oriented on maintenance and rehabilitation processes. Using the data from current pavement condition analysis, it can predict future performance and determine the needs of pavement network. LCCA budget analyses are made by multi-constraint and multi-year analysis and drives, through better analysis and maximize the effect. Projection of future level-of-service (LOS) for specific pavement areas is made using the deterioration modelling and determine optimal maintenance strategies. As a specific output, it produces work plans fitting to specific budget and LOS goals (AMRS, 2000).

Future development directions for EU mention that the road sector offers: value for money maintenance, commitment to innovation, responding to social needs. Also, EU decision policymakers can be able to: establish a road network asset value, investment in research and innovation, develop a sustainable roads' policy. In the research and innovation fields they pointed out three directions: (1) Take full account of the strategic role of the road construction and maintenance sector in the proposed Horizon 2020 budget; (2) Endorse the use of Structural Cohesion Founds to lever investments in safe and efficient transport network; (3) Support an effective technology transfer (Cost, 2013).

3. PAV3M an integrated PMMS solution

3.1. PAV3M Objectives

The primary objective of PAV3M is to develop a holistic platform which integrates imaging based road pavement inspection technology with a risk management and cost/benefits application software tool to support road management needs of transportation agencies, construction and road rehabilitation companies and local governments. On the technological side we propose an automated, portable visual pavement inspection system for traffic-speed pavement distress monitoring and analysis of road pavements whose high degree of integration, easy mountability and costs will permit its operation on non-specialized vehicles and thus its widespread use. Current approaches for road condition data collection are done by specialized vehicles at substantial costs and long inspection cycles. In some cases, due to limited funding, officials even relay on time-consuming hand labor. The importance for traffic safety of timely identification and rectification of road deformations cannot be overstated yet.

The goal of the present project is to develop a holistic platform for Pavement Management and Maintenance and to exploit new technologies in order to design, integrate, and implement an automated and portable visual road inspection system for traffic-speed pavement distress monitoring and analysis that can be installed on non-specialized vehicles. The key technological issues are here that, unlike existing systems which are incorporated on specialized dedicated vehicles, the one developed within the present project will be compact, completely autonomous and thus mountable/operational on non-specialized vehicles. The goal is also to design low-cost systems which can be produced and exploited in large numbers, thus significantly reducing inspection cycles and whose potential loss is with low financial impact.

As a general rule, the use of traffic-speed equipment for monitoring pavement condition aims at reducing safety hazards and traffic disruption compared to stationary or slow moving survey equipment. In addition, attractive benefits can be achieved, including cost savings, by optimizing the monitoring strategy on a road network taking into account the type and frequency of surveys.

3.2. Business process

Most contracts involve three responsible actors: Beneficiary, Builder and Consultant. Contracts are concluded only between the Beneficiary and the Builder or between Beneficiary and the Consultant. Even though the Builder and Consultant Contract itself there is a Consultant is responsible (through his contract with the beneficiary) for supervising the work they perform Builder. Consultant approves all works we perform manufacture, certifies and certify the amounts required to pay, and recommends certain actions to Beneficiary, decisions on the execution (subject to approval). Builder and Consultant have a Project Director and experts involved in the execution and supervision of works. In these conditions, if a company has already won auction and project is submitted (related amounts included for all expenses), that becomes a Budget Breakdown, as a Consultant will be responsible for project managing the real values - estimate after calculation. Even if so far the participating companies in the auction have their own structure and expenses associated execution plan, we considered useful to propose a standard structure of the data base project costs. This allows a unified management and pavement management projects closely associated with data archive that allows risk management and future predictions. Business process can be described in several major steps:

• Regional Council / Ministry of Transport / CNADNR dictates specifications for: a) the rehabilitation of a road; b) the maintenance of a road; c) the construction of a new road. Firms bidding for these projects and its specific, according to the detail specification costs and their summary categories of Expenditures and graphic works (nowadays as file xls format). Many companies are present in project bidding after the auction may be declared a winner. There can be some situations of a large jobs, where the company is more associated with a project (even called association).

• Regional Council / Ministry of Transport / CNADNR offers analyzes and determines the winner of the auction. So far this phase of the auction takes place within the local or at the Ministry / CNADNR physical's location and it is not an online auction bids. Due to this reason there is no question of its development in our project. It remains true that project which won for that initial costs will become Budget Breakdown.

• In the next phase, Consultant advises project execution work. The actual costs differ from those estimated, due to those occurring risk factors described in detail in other paper. In order to update costs it appears escalating need to use formula, because of differences in costs of expropriation / raw materials, labor, etc. These coefficients are obtained using the official specifications, based on existing regulations. If the project is executed by an association of companies, each has very clear duties and road running them. On each phase they are calculated based on the actual costs of statements (bills of materials, workmanship notes made by the company). They watched the differences between estimated and realized, then calculated total costs based on LCCA.

• Risk factors are implemented in the risk management, to which project manager and consultant have access.

• In the maintenance phase/rehabilitation it will collect and process images from the ground. These images (or videos) will support the decision of rehabilitation and especially the solution chosen by analyzing the crack / craters/distresses analyzed existing road. Images will be available from special forms of .jpg / jpeg / purple / etc. Then, it will be stored in the database where they were which were associated with the miles that were acquired images.

3.3. Actors and roles

Analyzing the functionality that a proposed system and actors (users) with which it interacts, are:

• Administrator is dealing especially with data management (metadata and physical resources). Full advantage of the addition, modification, deletion of resources and user groups rights. It has access to the list of members, their last portal access, modify their access rights, the elimination or restriction of certain members, deleting members to a

period of inactivity greater than that established.

• Beneficiary- customer portal with the role of partner and negotiator. It can consult existing projects to manage their personal data and communicate with other members.

• Consultant - is the person responsible for bringing court cases answers for us. It also has the ability to access and /or modify database on the own expertise.

• Project manager - responsibilities are part of the delegation of tasks to team members and providing them with the necessary information. It is also responsible for ensuring communication with other participants. Its registration is done only by the administrator or a user of a higher level.

• Subcontractor - a company manager, if the project involves associations of companies.

• A member of the team - is the person who is coordinated by the project manager. This type of user has access only to the list of tasks and plans (possibility to download) and he is able to communicate with other members of the team or with his manager.

• Simple user - has restricted access, can only access information deemed general and how to use the portal, a list of frequently asked questions related portal. Use as a customer portal to get some information it needs. It is entitled to search the knowledge base and if desired can offer their services and skills as a potential member/ virtual employers.

The actors with clear role in risk management module are: project manager, consultant and beneficiary. 3.4. PAV3Marchitecture

As a general rule, the use of traffic-speed equipment for monitoring pavement condition aims at reducing safety hazards and traffic disruption compared to stationary or slow moving survey equipment. In addition, attractive benefits can be achieved, including cost savings, by optimizing the monitoring strategy on a road network taking into account the type and frequency of surveys. Consequently, in the present project we also propose to develop an integrated risk analysis model that addresses key aspects of pavement maintenance.

The prototype offers an application integral for flagship in road maintenance and monitoring solution, using GPS and GPRS devices and geo-coding and reverse coding features of MultiMap. We defined a modular approach based features of pavement management system, IPA (Image Processing and Analysis) which has the role to collect and transmit parameters about roads, collect, processing and analyzing information about road distress, General Information which coordinate PMM, two parts: IPA and - Management and Maintenance module (MM) which connect and transmit information to databases. IPA module processes all images provided my mobile devices, makes analysis and monitories in MM.

Data import/export has divided in two parts: Vehicle Map Layer, which contains tools for real time and static time monitoring information and road parameters information and General information, based on five components: Inspection and Recording Condition, Setting Priorities, Organize Resource, Material Investigation, last two component offer parameters only by request. Vector map consist on three parts: Roads parameters information, Static monitoring information and Maintenance Information, linked with a strong middleware to MultiMap Database. Management and maintenance module includes procedures and modules for collecting, analyzing, maintaining, and reporting pavement data (Fig. 1).

An important part is IAP, which includes Image Aquisition, a processing and analysis image and Optimization Algorithms, which is connected to Analysis and evaluation and Maintenance modules. For road monitoring we propose a GIS (Geographic Information System) linked with mobile vehicle and video-camera as a cheaper solution to determine road crashes or other problems. All collected data will be processed in a specialized module from IPA and will give details about defections which will be loaded in road database (PMM Application Database).

A global positioning system (GPS) will be used to provide accurate position of detected defects. The use of differential GPS (DGPS) will be also investigated for increasing resolution. Its use depends on availability of additional information such ground-based reference stations or satellite based augmentation systems. GPS information will be coupled to public available map systems like OpenStreetMaps (www.openstreetmap.org), Google Maps, or Bing Maps (Microsoft).

Based on road information and distresses zone, collected and performed by IPA, and Static monitoring information, project managers can performed Maintenance Decision Criteria, using LCCA (Life Cycle Cost Analysis). General

information updated with the official specifications, based on existing regulations are performed in Cost of Pavement Maintenance and in Predictive Maintenance to establish best strategy for rehabilitation and/or road maintenance.

' General Information

Inspection and Recording Condition

Material Investigation

Setting Priorities

Organize Resource

Analysis & evaluation

Maintenance Static

information monitoring information

Maintenance decision criteria

Fig. 1. PAV3M Architecture

After we analyzed several methods for RMS and BMS: Multi-criteria analysis uses several parameters: rate/rank options with respect to set of objectives, performance measures, weights, and impacts. Benefit-Cost Analysis method uses rate/rank options with respect to benefits and costs. Cost-Effective Analysis centered rate/rank options with respect to efficiency and costs. This is appropriate when both efficiency and other measures (e.g., frequency, equity) can be quantified but where the other measures cannot be monetized (McPherson and Bennett,2005; Weimer, and Aidan 2004). Life-Cycle Cost Analysis uses rate/rank options with respect to agency and user costs incurred over the life of a project and try to evaluate external costs as well. Heuristic Decision Rules identify the best possible option based on a problem solving rules. In our country, because of lack of experience in PMMS we opted for Benefit-Cost Analysis method in PMMS and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis method in PMM.

We use history data for Predictive maintenance and based on results obtained in Monitoring and Analysis and evaluation module we can perform a decision support system for Maintenance decision, based on flexible criteria established according to priorities and resources. For cost of pavement maintenance analysis module we follow international EU recommendations and we will divide in sub-nodes, according to national strategy and regional division (Weimer and Aidan 2004).

Using semantic Web we propose a road database history, which can be used in Risk management module. An expert module assists the decision makers in finding optimum strategies for maintaining pavements and risk module offers solutions for avoid or mitigate risk factors in a given period of time for the minimum cost. We used Unified

Facilities Criteria for Pavement Maintenance Management. This module will offer alternative strategies to cover the wide range of risks associated with pavements, which was proposed by Paine (McPherson and Bennett 2005).

Risk analysis module uses clusterization methods and several characteristics notes as important factors: Quality of Work, Required Cost, Required Period, Quality of Design, Working Load, Workers' Skill' and Data of Inventory. Main characteristics remain time, costs and quality of services and materials which is in "average" category nowadays. Web-base solution can offer a personalize interface, according to user type (administrator, high-level ministry servant, road specialist, auditor).

4. Conclusions

According to international and EU programs and national Master Plan, road networks are a networks is critical for a company or other organizations to ensure return on investment. A proper maintenance plan can save amount of money and preserve road conditions in the future.

We focused on RMS system and present several solutions for PMMS: MS2's Pavement Management System (PMS), SMEC Pavement Management System as a proper option used by Australian and international government authorities, both could be classified as a RMS and AgileAssets Software Platform can be assimilated as an IMS. Many software company offer several COTS software for RMS BMS or IMS but many country developed own systems according to country particularities and local objectives. We offer a holistic platform for PMMS centered on RMS features, which is a web-based solution based on PMMS requirements and recommendation made in EU programs: RIMES and PAV-ECO.

Specific business processes of our country, allowed us to identify key actors and their role in PMMS. In business process analysis we took into account the possibility that management of road projects to be carried out by associations of firms, coordinated by a project manager.

With respect to PMS and PMMS requirements we decomposed the system in three parts: Genereral Information,

Image Acquisitions and Processing (IMA) and Management and maintenance module (MM) linked with Image Database, which contains image and videos acquisitions and processing algoritms and Pavement Application Database, which contains projects schedules, materials and human resource data, pavement projects archive information. IMA has a major role in LCCA analysis, special for maintenance and rehabilitation process.

Automated image and video analysis for pavement is based on ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) products as ArcGIS, a GIS solution on vehicle, camera and other sensors as a low-cost solution. We decrease the data acquisition costs, and users can access our portal according to their role in PMMP. We opted for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis method, according to international EU recommendations and specific road management and maintenance from our country. Prediction and cost-benefit analyses and risk management during maintenance phase help decision makers and offer a cheaper and powerfully solution. In addition, users have sharable access to resource and decision, according to the role in holistic system.

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by Grant Project Partnerships PCCA 2013 "Intelligent management, monitoring and maintenance of pavements and roads using modern imaging techniques - PAV3M" PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1762, no. 3/2014

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