Scholarly article on topic 'A Low Power Single-stage LED Driver Operating between Discontinuous Conduction Mode and Critical Conduction Mode'

A Low Power Single-stage LED Driver Operating between Discontinuous Conduction Mode and Critical Conduction Mode Academic research paper on "Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering"

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{CRM / DCM / PFC / "Single-Stage ;"}

Abstract of research paper on Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, author of scientific article — Faris Al-Naemi, Jianbo Yang, Weiping Zhang

Abstract A novel single-stage single-switch (S4) LED driver is proposed in this paper. The paper focuses on the operation principles of the power stage circuit with an operation switched between Critical Conduction Mode (CRM) and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM), including steady state analysis, simulation and backed up by experimental results. The results verify that this proposed LED driver can obtain a high power factor (PF) and the dc output is relatively stable.

Academic research paper on topic "A Low Power Single-stage LED Driver Operating between Discontinuous Conduction Mode and Critical Conduction Mode"

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Energy Procedia 74 (2015) 817 - 825

International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and

Sustainability, TMREES15

A Low Power Single-Stage LED Driver Operating between Discontinuous Conduction Mode and Critical Conduction Mode

Faris Al-Naemia, Jianbo Yanga, Weiping Zhangb

aSheffield Hallam University, 153Arundel St,Sheffield, S1 2NU, United Kingdom bNorth China University of Technology, 5Jianyuanzhuang St, Beijing, 100144,China

Abstract

A novel single-stage single-switch (S4) LED driver is proposed in this paper. The paper focuses on the operation principles of the power stage circuit with an operation switched between Critical Conduction Mode (CRM) and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM), including steady state analysis, simulation and backed up by experimental results. The results verify that this proposed LED driver can obtain a high power factor (PF) and the dc output is relatively stable. © 2015Publishedby ElsevierLtd. Thisis anopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD) Keywords: CRM; DCM; PFC; Single-stage

1. Introduction

Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) has become a commonly used solid-state light source in general lighting applications [1, 2]. It has longer lifetime and has no poison mercury content compared with the conventional fluorescent lamp [3]. So LEDs now have been drawing attention as a state-of-the-art illuminator and the driver of LEDs in the markets also keeps up with the progress in this promising field [4]. The active PFC converters can be implemented using either the "two-stage" approach or the "single-stage" approach. The most commonly used approach in ac/dc conversion that meets high power quality requirements is the "two-stage" approach [5]. The "two-stage" approach includes two power-conversion processes. The first stage is a PFC (power factor correction) stage like a boost converter, and the second stage normally is a dc/dc converter to regulate the output voltage. This approach has good performances for power factor (PF) and output-voltage regulation. The main disadvantage is the high cost due to an increase in the device count. This "two-stage" PFC ac/dc converter usually increases the cost by about15%, compared with that of an ac/dc converter without PFC [6-9].

1876-6102 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4 .0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD) doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.817

In order to reduce the cost, the single-stage approach, which integrates the PFC stage with a dc/dc converter into one stage, has been presented in this paper. These integrated single-stage PFC converters usually use a boost converter to achieve PFC in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) operation and constant on-time control, which is known as the voltage-follower approach. This approach is simpler to be implemented than the multiplier approach (usually for continuous conduction mode (CCM) operation); however, it requires an input filter to obtain a good input current waveform. In this paper, the proposed converter operates between the DCM and critical conduction mode (CRM). The input current falls to zero without dwelling at zero in part of the half-line frequency cycle. Therefore, for a given throughput power, the proposed operation involves lower peak input current than the pure DCM operation and requires smaller input filter. Furthermore, the dc bus voltage is controlled directly, which solves the high voltage stress problem existed in the single-stage PFC converter.

2. Operation Principle

2.1. Power stage

The proposed single-stage PFC converter is briefly illustrated in Fig.1. Although the power stage circuit has only one switch, two conversion stages can be identified. In fact, input inductor L1, rectifier D1, D2, switch Q1 and internal energy-storage capacitor Cp form a DCM boost power stage, while switch Q1 , the transformer T1, freewheeling diode D3, output rectifier D4 and output-filter capacitor C2 make up a forward power stage. Referring to Fig.1, the operating principle of the proposed converter can be explained as follows;

When Q1 is turned on, L1 is energized by the rectified input voltage and inductor current iin increases. At the same time, the primary of the transformer T1 is energized by Cp. D4 is forward biased. Thus, the energy is being transferred to the output.

When Q1 is turned off, energy stored in L1 is being transferred to Cp and ¿¿n is decreasing to zero. D3 is forward biased and Cp is energized by the demagnetization winding of T1 to restore the transformer core. As a result, iD3 is also decreasing to zero. D4 is reverse biased and output is supplied by C2.

To achieve low harmonic distortions in ¿¿n , L1 is usually operated in the DCM [10]. The proposed converter operates in a mode switching between DCM and BCM. This obviously further reduces the input current distortion. The control scheme will be discussed in the following section.

AC INPUT

AC1 POS

AC2 NEG

D2 ►f-

-' OOO ' I ■

"T* \ " n1.

,, lin ± + II

DiU +zL c\.

:t C2 * 1

DC OUTPUT —o

Fig. 1 proposed single-stage converter

2.2. CRM &DCM

Converters in critical conduction mode operation are generally accepted for low-power PFC applications. At CRM, such as Boost, a turn-on switching process is initiated when the output diode current falls to zero, while a turn-off switching process is established when the peak transistor current reaches the threshold level set by the controller output. This ensures the converter operating at the boundary of Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) at the expense of variable switching frequency over the AC line period.

Referring to Fig.2, the proposed converter operates in a different way from the conventional CRM and DCM. The turn-on switching signal is set out when the current through Cp rather than the output diode current falls to zero. This makes sure that the core returned to its initial state during every switching cycle. A turn-off switching process is also established when the peak transistor current reaches the threshold level set by the controller output.

The operation principle is determined by which current falls to zero first, the current through Lj or the current through D3. If the current through Lj falls to zero firstly, Qj will not be turned on until the current through D3 becomes zero. Therefore, the converter operates in DCM. On the contrary, when current though D3 decreases to zero first, the turning-on of Qj is activated when the current through Lj falls to zero. Thus, the converter operates in CRM. As a result, as depicted in Fig.3, the operation of the proposed converter switches between DCM and CRM during a half-line period. In Fig.3, vi is the rectified input voltage and iin is the current through Lj. It is obvious that the current through Lj stays at zero in part of the half-line cycle, while it drops to zero but without dwelling at zero in the rest, which indicates that the operation of the converter switches between DCM and CRM.

Fig.3 current through Lj

3. Steady-state analysis

As plotted in Fig.3, the input voltage is Vm\sinwt\. The peak inductor current is enveloped by rectified sinusoid

ipk(t) = Ipk\sinwt\ (1)

Ipk* (2)

Pin is input power. When the transistor is conducting, the peak transistor current can be expressed as:

ipk(t) =T ton(t)Vm\sinWt\ (3)

The transistor "on" time can be obtained by substituting (1) into (3).

t0n(t) V Ton (4)

This equation shows that the transistor "on" time of CRM is constant. When the discharging time of Lj is equal to the demagnetizing time of the demagnetization winding of Tj, the converter comes to the boundary of the DCM and CRM.

The discharging time of Lj is:

= Lilpk\sinwt\

tds = VCp-Vm\sinwt\ ()

According to Faraday law, when Q1 is turned on, the change of the flux, A@ in the transformer is:

A . Vcpton

A0 = —--(6)

n1 is the number of turns of the transformer primary winding. When Q1 turns off, the core of Tj should be restored. Then, the demagnetizing time can be obtained as:

Vcp tdm Vcp ton

n3 the number of turns of the transformer auxiliary winding .Substituting of (4) into (7), the demagnetization time tdm is:

Z3 ^l^pk

tdm = Z--(8

When tdm = tdS, the converter is in the boundary of DCM and CRM. When tdm > tds, the converter operates in DCM. When tdm < tds, the converter operates in CRM.

When tdm = tds, The boundary condition is:

n3L1Ipk L1Ipk\sinwt\

ni Vm VCp - Vm\sinwt\

Further simplification yield:

n3 Vm\sinwt\

ni VCp - Vm\sinwt\

According to the discussion above, the working conditions of the converter are: DCM:

ni ^ Vcp

n3 Vm\sinwt\

As shown in (11) and (12), the proposed converter will operate in DCM when:

And it will operate in CRM when:

n3<Vm^\-1 (11)

n1 Vcp

>„ (12)

Vm\sinwt\^^cpn- (13)

1 + —

Vm\sinwt\ > -CPn- (14)

1+ih. n3

This conclusion is in accordance with the waveforms shown in Fig.3. When the rectified input voltage is in the vicinity of zero, the converter is in DCM. When the input rectified voltage rises from 0 to its peak value the converter enters into the CRM operation mode.

4. Simulation and experiments

The proposed scheme has been tested with simulation and experiment. The simulation was carried out by Psim9.0 and was designed to have a 220v input and 40V/1A output. The results of a closed loop simulation are illustrated in Fig. 4 to 7.

0 04 0.05 0 06 0 07 0 0S 0.00 0 1

Fig. 4 input voltage (220Vac) and input current (560mA peak)

__ ____ /\____ ____/-CX-

\____/ y

0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

Fig. 5 output voltage 40v (Ripple: 3v)

The simulation is implemented in a single closed loop control. The compensation is a capacitor. The power stage circuit is imitated to be controlled by L6561 which is usually used for the CRM PFC applications.

Fig. 4 shows that the input current is sinusoidal and is in phase with the input voltage. This proves that the proposed converter can have a high power factor switching between the CRM and DCM operation modes.

Fig. 6 input inductor (L: in Fig. 1) CRM

Fig. 7 input inductor (L¡ in Fig.1) DCM

The output voltage is shown in Fig.5. The output voltage is a stable dc output. Fig.6 and Fig.7 depict the details of the input inductor (L1 in Fig. 1) current. They prove that the converter operate differently. During partial of the operation, the inductor L1 current falls to zero and the converter operates in DCM. In the other part of the operation, the inductor current (Lj) falls to zero without dwelling at zero. This shows that the converter operates in CRM. This is the same as waveforms in Fig.3.

A laboratory prototype for the proposed converter at 8W output was built to verify the control strategy and evaluate the circuit performance while the output voltage is kept to 23V. The circuit diagram is given in Fig. 2. The MOSFET IRFPESO, diode MUR480 and PFC Controller L6561 are used in the prototype. The inductors (L;=1mH) and transformer (Tj) are realized in an EFD core. Experimental waveforms are shown in Fig. 8 to 10.

Fig. 8 shows that the input current is well regulated and is in phase with the input voltage. The output voltage shown in Fig.9 is stabilized at 23V with a ripple of 1V. The efficiency is almost 82%. Fig. 10 proves that the all the harmonics of the input current can meet the IEC61000-3-2 requirements for class C. The power factor is 0.98

Fig. 8 input voltage (140Vac) and input current (77mA rms)

5. Conclusion

In this paper, a single-stage and single-switch converter operating in DCM and CRM for power factor correction application is proposed and analyzed. This converter integrates the conventional two-stage into one. It greatly reduces the component count and cost for the ac/dc driver used in off-line applications. The front end PFC stage operates switching between CRM and DCM mode. This driver scheme is especially suitable for low power level offline driver applications, such as LED lighting driver.

Fig. 9 output voltage (23v) ripple 1v

Fig. 10 input current harmonics

References

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