Scholarly article on topic 'Evolution of Architectonic Spatial Environment in Latvian Rural Populated Areas Due to Natural and Human Interaction'

Evolution of Architectonic Spatial Environment in Latvian Rural Populated Areas Due to Natural and Human Interaction Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Engineering
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{identity / nature / "rural populated areas" / "sustainable spatial development"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Silvija Ozola

Abstract The natural environment of the Baltic Sea coast became the life habitat of people who settled there. By changing the water and greenery systems and creating architectural structures a new functional environment was established. Nature elements began to appear in the architectonic spatial structure of rural populated areas. In the 13th century new administrative political centers in the territory of Latvia were created, and population developed around them. Fortresses lost gradually their purpose, and manor centers and farming developed, where all necessary things and food for daily life were made. Natural environment changed due to human activities, but the planning of inhabited areas and architectonic structures gave every Latvia ethnographic region characteristic features and identity. On November 18, 1918 Latvia Republic was proclaimed, and since 1920 the land reform was started in the countryside – the structure of national economy and understanding of the environmental aesthetics changed. New administrative centers were created whose architectonic spatial environment was determined by national characteristics. In 1990 Latvia Republic regained its independence and on May 1, 2004 it joined the European Union. The type of land ownership changed in the country. The formation of an appropriate spatial environment for a sustained development of Latvian rural populated areas became topical. Topicality of the research: changing the type of land ownership, transport system and agricultural production traditions, at the same time trying to preserve the cultural heritage and natural values, new conditions have been created in which it is necessary to find successful solutions for the planning which would promote the preservation of the identity of Latvian inhabited rural areas and provide a sustained development. Aim of study: analyze the planning of Latvia rural inhabited areas and evolution of the architectonic space building in order to assess the dynamics of mutual relationships between nature and people.

Academic research paper on topic "Evolution of Architectonic Spatial Environment in Latvian Rural Populated Areas Due to Natural and Human Interaction"

(I)

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Engineering 118 (2015) 251 - 259

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering and Construction

Evolution of Architectonic Spatial Environment in Latvian Rural Populated Areas Due to Natural and Human Interaction

Silvija Ozola

Riga Technical University, 4 Vanes Str., Liepaja, LV-3417, Latvia

Abstract

The natural environment of the Baltic Sea coast became the life habitat of people who settled there. By changing the water and greenery systems and creating architectural structures a new functional environment was established. Nature elements began to appear in the architectonic spatial structure of rural populated areas. In the 13th century new administrative political centers in the territory of Latvia were created, and population developed around them. Fortresses lost gradually their purpose, and manor centers and farming developed, where all necessary things and food for daily life were made. Natural environment changed due to human activities, but the planning of inhabited areas and architectonic structures gave every Latvia ethnographic region characteristic features and identity.

On November 18, 1918 Latvia Republic was proclaimed, and since 1920 the land reform was started in the countryside - the structure of national economy and understanding of the environmental aesthetics changed. New administrative centers were created whose architectonic spatial environment was determined by national characteristics. In 1990 Latvia Republic regained its independence and on May 1, 2004 it joined the European Union. The type of land ownership changed in the country. The formation of an appropriate spatial environment for a sustained development of Latvian rural populated areas became topical. Topicality of the research: changing the type of land ownership, transport system and agricultural production traditions, at the same time trying to preserve the cultural heritage and natural values, new conditions have been created in which it is necessary to find successful solutions for the planning which would promote the preservation of the identity of Latvian inhabited rural areas and provide a sustained development.

Aim of study: analyze the planning of Latvia rural inhabited areas and evolution of the architectonic space building in order to assess the dynamics of mutual relationships between nature and people.

© 2015 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review underresponsibility of organizing committee of the International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering and Construction 2015

Keywords: identity; nature; rural populated areas; sustainable spatial development

1877-7058 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering and Construction 2015 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.424

1. Introduction

The origins of the populated areas and building traditions on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea can be traced back to ten thousand years when moving along the banks of the big rivers the first people came to this area. The number of inhabitants was increased by the members of the Baltic ethnic group belonging to the Indo-European language family, who arrived from the southwest, south and southeast. An inhabited space by the Baltic tribes or minorities was formed.

In the Western Europe in the 5th—10th centuries during the feudal state formation no new cities were founded. In the lands ruled by the Baltic tribes a diversity of populated areas existed - rural settlements and with natural barriers protected, but less fortified settlements, as well as hardly accessible castle mounds which were protected by steep slopes, ravines and water obstacles. On the castle mounds fortified wooden castles were built for the chieftains, but at the foothills an urban settlement or ancient town was developed which was different from a rural village with a fortress placement. The planning of the ancient town surrounded by defense buildings was influenced by the placement of the lands allocated for building. The Baltic people were the only ones who made building complexes or farmsteads surrounded by fences: at first there was only one building, but when there was a necessity for other rooms, small, separate buildings were built near the house next to each other without any prior plan. Nature elements began to appear in the architectonic spatial structure of rural populated places, and the natural environment was changed by a human being's activities.

2. Fortified Living Space in Natural Environment

In the beginning of the 13th century the regions populated by the Baltic ethnic groups got into the Holy Roman Empire's range of interests. Multifunctional buildings - financially and economically independent stone fortresses -were built on the highest points of the navigable river banks for the control of strategically significant water roads and trading places surveillance, at which the front castles were developed in the 14th and 15th centuries, where the servants' housing and outhouses were built. The fortified building complexes became the administratively political centers and population developed in their vicinity - an urban settlement with craftsmen and traders' housing. The fortresses gradually lost their defense function and turned into the rulers' homes. In the 14th century the knights and vassals, who did not want to live daily any longer in the cramped and uncomfortable homes, were given tenure to build new homes near the fortress: subsistence farms were created in the rural environment for the food supplies and production of the things necessary for household. During the centuries the opinion was established that only a fortified dwelling can be safe, therefore the first fortified manors and freestanding residential towers were built, promoting the formation and development of the building types. The compact construction volume of the fortified manor complex reminded of a fortress: the buildings were placed around the courtyard where one could get in through the entrance built in the gate tower. During the Livonian time the centers of manors and half-manors were formed. Due to the interaction of traditions a qualitatively new living environment was created.

3. Regional Living Space amidst Interaction of Traditions

Lots of fortified dwellings and populated places in the Livonian Confederation were destroyed during the Livonian War (1558-1582), which ceased to exist at the end of the 16th century. On March 5, 1562 the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was founded (Ducatus Curlandiae et Semigalliae; 1562-1795) under the Polish subjugation. The last Livonian Master Gotthard Kettler (Godthartt Kettler; 1517-1587) became the first Duke of the new state whose responsibility was to create a new governmental system, providing the integrity of the Duchy's territory and to take care of the dynastic succession. The Prussian Duchy (1525-1618) was chosen as the role model for the newly founded Duchy's development, and in the capital city Königsberg (nowadays Калининград) on March 21, 1566 he got married to the Princess Ann (1533-1602), the Duke Albrecht's VII (Albrecht VII; 1486-1547) from Mecklenburg daughter. Goldingen became the Duke's place of residence. A fruit and pleasure garden was made near the fortress (German: Baum und Lustgarten) with special places where to sit and contemplate and have a rest;

plantings were arranged in boskets [1]. The Duchess Elizabeth Magdalena (Elisabeth Magdalena von Pommern; 1580-1649) had acquired some knowledge in horticulture, and she owned several manors and each of it had an orchard. When living in the Dobele Castle she cultivated (1643-1649) a big garden with a medicinal plants nursery on the castle mound, setting an example for the landscape architecture. The Duchess Louise Charlotte (Luise Charlotte von Brandenburg; 1617-1676), got inspired by the gorgeous garden and she also started to create gardens in her manors [2]. Near the Duchy's capital city Mitau (nowadays Jelgava) a spacious pleasure garden was made at the River Platone, but in the city centre towards the southeast of the Holy Trinity Church the small or kitchen, herbal, flower garden and fruit garden was made, where several blocks separated by footpaths appeared closely next to each other. A big garden with a greenhouse was made in the Vürzau Manor (round 1700) belonging to the Duke. Till the end of the 18th century the plantings in the Duchy were made according to German traditions.

The former knights of the German Order and Bishops' vassals became the landlords: they obtained pieces of land and made manor farms and gardens. Corrals, bird cages and fishponds were placed in the plantings surrounded by hedges and ditches [3]. In the second half of the 16th century Jürgen Georg von Frikss (?-1600) built a fortified castle with a courtyard in Nurmhusen. The territory of the fortified manor was surrounded by a defense wall, in which a square design stone gate tower, covered with a four-pitched roof, was also included, and on its second floor the guard's home was made [4]. Manor centers were established in the rural environment.

Since 1560 the privileged knight's manor in Kalleten was managed by the Order vassal Gerhard I (Gerd) von Nolde (?-1597). The Duke Wilhelm did not acknowledge the estate rights of the Livonian landlord von Nolde's (Nolle) family to the Kalleten Manor tenure. However, similarly to the manors belonging to the Duke himself, also the Noldes' family created a household with a complex of buildings and a large park and hunting garden nearby. By the end of the 18th century in the Duchy the whole plantings were carried our according to German traditions.

In the second half of the 18th century each ethnographical region of Latvia (Fig. 1) - Courland (Kurzeme), Semigallia (Zemgale), Middleland (Vidzeme) and Latgallia (Latgale) - obtained its own characteristic planning of hamlets and language of architectonic forms, whose qualitative features are the scale and relations of spatial forms.

Fig. 1. Map of Latvia with four ethnographic regions [https://www.google.lv]

Semigallia or Zemgale due to the fertile lands and more favourable historical conditions became economically the most developed region of Latvia where single-homestead settlements dominated, but along the border of Lithuania and on the coast of the Riga Gulf - villages. In Semigallia a residential building was situated in the centre of the yard which was surrounded by a garden. On one side of the residential building barns and granaries were placed. The buildings together formed a closed yard. Further on the other side of the residential building a threshing barn was built, but even further behind the barns a bath house was situated [5].

In Courland or Kurzeme the prevailing type of farmers' settlements was single-homesteads, but there were also lots of dispersed villages. The system of two or three yards was popular: the residential building was in the centre, but between it and the stockyard - the work or "dirty" yard. The "clean" yard was made between the residential building and barn. People of the residential building could easily get into both yards through the communicating hall in the central part of the building. There were also other types of the yard planning, in which the layout of the buildings depended on the size, terrain and other factors of the farm. All buildings were placed round the yard, bet several rooms of different character - residential and outbuildings - were joined under one common room in one building [5].

Middleland or Vidzeme farmers' material culture was based on the ancient inhabitants' - Latgallians and Livs -material culture which during the historical development was influenced by the Selonians, Estonians and Slavs living in the neighbourhood. Due to the interaction of different national cultures and historical and social-economic conditions several local regions with their own material cultural peculiarities were formed in Vidzeme, where during the 18th and 19th centuries there were two types of farmers' settlements: single-homesteads and dispersed villages, which sometimes were rather closely built up. In single-homesteads and villages buildings were placed around an irregular yard, where on one side the residential building was placed, but on the others- outbuildings. The barn was sometimes built in the garden, but the granary was placed further from the other buildings, as if forming a special threshing barn's yard [5].

In Latgallia or Latgale the farmers' material culture was based on the regional ancient inhabitants' - Latgallians -culture. Due to the cultural interaction of strong Latvian and Slavic people - Russians, Poles, and Byelorussians - in all areas of life and regions lots of local peculiarities appeared. In Latgallia the prevailing types of farmers' settlements were terraced villages and dispersed villages. Each type had several versions: a street made the planning of the terraced village; a cruciform or T-shape layout was also possible. Within the borders of the villages farmsteads had several options of layouts: buildings were built around a rectangular yard which was formed by two parallel buildings built facing with their side walls the street, or all buildings, facing the street with their side, were placed according to the principle of two yards - the residential building in the centre, on one side from it - the barn, on the other side - the granary. Sometimes the residential building and barn were placed so close together that the roof pitches touched each other. A closed stockyard was situated between the buildings, but the barn and other buildings were placed further [5].

In the vicinity of the Winda Port a dockyard was made by the help of Dutch ship technicians and industrialists, for whose needs the Duke Jacob in the rural environment created factories or manufactures of metal, wooden, textile and chemical substances.

4. Multicultural Living Space

Due to the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on May 15, 1795 the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became the Province of Courland in the Russian Empire, where Latgallia and Vidzeme had already been included. Since 1795 the whole territory of Latvia was included in the Russian Empire. The landlords of German origin obtained a huge impact and power in the higher power structures of the Russian Empire, who started to build monumental castle complexes designed by architects in the centres of manor farms. The aesthetic considerations became important in the rural environment formation: in the early 19th century an appropriate type of a building was developed for each functional need. Buildings were combined in one united complex with the natural environment, replacing the regular planting with landscape parks, where from the zigzag footpaths one could see broad view perspectives. On August 25, 1817 the Russian Emperor abolished serfdom in the Province of Courland, but the peasants were still kept in the local landlords' custody. The number of farmsteads arranged specially for family needs increased gradually, but agricultural production changed the natural environment.

Due to the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on May 15, 1795 the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became the Province of Courland in the Russian Empire, where Latgallia and Vidzeme had already been included. Since 1795 the whole territory of Latvia was included in the Russian Empire. The landlords of German origin obtained a huge impact and power in the higher power structures of the Russian Empire, who started to build

monumental castle complexes designed by architects in the centres of manor farms. The aesthetic considerations became important in the rural environment formation: in the early 19th century an appropriate type of a building was developed for each functional need. Buildings were combined in one united complex with the natural environment, replacing the regular planting with landscape parks, where from the zigzag footpaths one could see broad view perspectives. On August 25, 1817 the Russian Emperor abolished serfdom in the Province of Courland, but the peasants were still kept in the local landlords' custody. The number of farmsteads arranged specially for family needs increased gradually, but agricultural production changed the natural environment.

The cultivation of apples, pears and plums became popular in the Russian Empire round 1850. In the Baltic horticulture was most developed in Courland where the climate was suitable for the formation of the first experimental gardens. The landlord's son Simanis Klevers (1834-1922) from the "Briezi" farm in Kalleten Parish became the gardener's apprentice (1851-1854) in the Kalleten Manor after finishing Gramzda Church School (1848-1850) and, after the first acquired knowledge in horticulture, he arrived in Riga at the gardener J. E. Schreiber in Zasulauks, where he acquired for two years the skills of garden crops cultivation and garden design preparation. When the Crimean War (1853-1856) ended, the president von Offenberg from the Courland Domain Court introduced the people with the order to create vegetable gardens and apple orchards next to schools during the scarcity and famine years. Simanis came back to the Kalleten Manor, changed the big Kalleten Park, made fruit and vegetable gardens, built six houses to cultivate foreign plants (1855-1862). Klevers, the strenuous gardener of the Kalleten Manor, was the first one who in 1859 wrote the first edition of the book "The Little Vegetable Gardener" ("Mazais saknu darznieks") in Latvian about horticulture, flowers and their growing techniques, where he gave some advice on how to sow, grow and store vegetables. In the 60s of the 19th century the national awakening movement became strong in Courland. Representatives of the intelligentsia encouraged farmers to become economically independent. Simanis Klevers started to perform the chief gardener's duties (1868-1877) and he considered that every Latvian has to cultivate a garden next to their house and create own farm. He issued the first edition of the book "A Crop-grower's Orchard" ("Zemkopja aug¡u koku darzs"; 1871), in which he taught how to grow trees from seeds and cultivate an orchard, but pieces of advice on fruit tree grafting and care were given in the book "The Little Apples' Gardener" ("Mazais abolu darznieks"; 1872). In 1877 Simanis Klevers obtained a piece of land in Durbe and in 1878 made a nursery of ornamental plants, an orchard and a tree school with 50 apple-trees, 50 pear-trees, 20 cherry-tree and 20 plum-tree species of mother trees in order to create appropriate species and planting material for the local weather conditions. In the second half of the 19th century the landscape of manor and public parks was enriched with ornamental plantings. Klevers in the first part of his book "The Friend of the Baltic Gardens" ("Baltijas darzu draugs") collated his experience of growing perennial flowers, ornamental trees and exotic foreign plants suitable for the local weather conditions, and also the construction of green houses and cold frames. In 1893 Durbe was awarded the city charter and Simanis Klevers, the founder of many apple-tree gardens, was elected to be the chief of the town in July 1894. In 1899 Riga Department of the Imperial Russian Horticultural Society was founded and one of its founders was also Simanis Klevers. The Latvian Society was managed by the gardener, seeds seller Fricis Lasmanis and Simanis Klevers became the Honorary Member of the Imperial Russian Horticultural Society Riga Department, awarded with the governmental medal "For your diligence," who lived and worked in town Durbe till World War I.

On the seacoast collaboration in fishing industry promoted the formation of ancient populated places: fishermen's villages appeared next to each other, in whose building structure the fishermen's yards were the most important. At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century lots of fishermen's villages near Riga became the city people's place of recreation. The village inhabitants switched to the holiday-makers' service, and the first colonies of summer houses started to appear.

5. Latvian Living Space

On November 18, 1918 after World War I the Republic of Latvian was declared as independent. In 1920 the Constituent Assembly started a wide and radical land reform during which the lands belonging to landlords were nationalized and the agrarian reform was implemented. A new task was set - solve the issue of apartments and since

1920 the construction of residential buildings for one family was supported. Latvian citizens were awarded pieces of land to start their own farms. Residential buildings were built for individual family needs and near them the gardens were cultivated. Simanis Klevers' theoretical and practical activity promoted the development of horticulture during the formation of Latvia Peasantry. His suggestions, to combine the fruit and vegetable planting on the land planning around the house with the construction placement and to create a landscape garden, promoted the formation of a united construction and planting complex in Latvian farmers' yards. The construction and garden in a Latvian farmer's yard became as an inseparable unit. During the times of Latvia Republic the garden cultivation nearby the inhabitants' dwellings became traditional. Plantings caused changes in the urban and rural land distribution and planning of residential construction territories, leaving a space for gardens near the dwellings (Fig. 2). In Durbe the land for the construction of residential buildings was distributed so that it would be possible to cultivate an orchard and vegetable garden round the house. The blooming apple-tree gardens around the residential buildings created a specific landscape for Durbe town. In the countryside in the former manor complexes schools and institutions for health improvement were established.

The economic policy of Latvia Republic during the 20s and 30s promoted the formation of industrial centers in rural populated areas, allowing the development of only small local manufactures.

Fig. 2. Detached residential buildings with orchards in Valdemarpils, Courland 1930s. [Postcard TNMM 5253-1 from Talsi Regional Museum]

Fig. 3. Jaunauce's, the perspective village in Saldus Region, building complex with a store and canteen in 1970s. [Postcard from Silvija Ozola's collection]

6. Transformation of Natural Environment and Latvian Living Space

In the morning on September 1, 1939 World War II started in Europe with the German attack in Poland (01.09.1939-02.09.1945). On June 17, 1940 the Soviet Army came into Latvia and on July 21 the Soviet power was restored, but on August 5 Latvia was included in the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics. In Latvia Soviet Socialist Republic, which was ideologically and economically isolated from the Western culture, the environment adapted to the Soviet Union model and subjugated to a direct Moscow's dictation was created; the nationalization of property was started, implementing the ideas of socialism about a socially equal, free and just society based on public property, in which collectivism became the principle of people's common social life and work - people's solidarity and mutual help, their trust to public interests, unity and common goals which were based on personal interests' exposure to the public ones. Radical changes took place in the countryside: soviet state farms or "sovkhozes" -agricultural production companies - were founded, where the means of production and produced products belonged to the state, as well as the collective farms or "kolkhozes" - farmers' associations of social type voluntary work for a large-scale production implementation. Collective farms economic base was the cooperative public property on the means of production and the produced product. The common work excluded exploitation.

At the end of 40s and beginning of 50s social rearrangements were carried out in the countryside. Agriculture obtained the socialistic large-scale production character. After 1948, depending on the geographical location and other conditions, the biggest rural populated places became the farm centers of collective farms and soviet state farms, where the workers and employees' residential buildings, educational establishments, production enterprises, building, melioration and agricultural technology maintenance organizations were placed. Streets were constructed; electrification, centralized water supply and sewerage were installed. The development of agricultural production and its specialization set a requirement: taking into account the current experience, work out scientifically and economically proved district planning, in which the optimal size of collective farms and soviet state farms was determined, their external borders and the location of the new rural villages and their sizes were specified, envisaging also the type, character and procedure of the construction. Construction projects were developed for the rural villages, which were perspective in agricultural development. The spatial plan with functional zoning was included in the projects in order to place the building complexes which included manufactures, administrative and residential buildings, clubs, shops (Fig. 3), parks and sports grounds. In the perspective rural villages building was implemented according to a set program, placing purposefully social, residential and industrial buildings and engineering buildings. The imposed dogmatism of political ideas and slogans created a sharp fall in architecture, suppressing creative personalities. An architect became an official who observed obediently the technical and artistic principles dictated by the government. The building tasks and technology changed: socialism culture was created in Latvia during 1945-1955.

Farmers' homesteads, which were the origins of many ancient Latvia traditions, lost gradually their significance and became a major obstacle to rational production organization. The newly created agricultural production model influenced cruelly and even destroyed during the centuries obtained balance in the relations between the architectonic space created by people and the natural environment. One part of people from collective farms and soviet state farms started to move from their farmsteads to the farm centers - rural villages, which were made taking into account only the interests of individual farms, therefore they were small. In one farm simultaneously with the main village there were also built villages for the needs of separate brigades or farm departments. The residential construction included randomly placed detached housed with a 0.6 to 1.2 ha piece of land for each family, therefore the costs of the road and engineering communication creation were quite high. The development of industry promoted the development of several villages. Urban type settlements or townships appeared.

During the Soviet times the small fishermen's villages with seasonal type buildings were demolished: the populated places on the Baltic Sea coast became the villages of summer houses. In the 60s and 70s of the 20th century near the big cities the horticultural societies were founded enthusiastically, making a new trend in the development of summer houses' villages. In the territory of Latvia the Soviet Army's military objects such as army airports, missile bases, tank bases were placed, for whose dislocation places new specific requirements were set. In the vicinity of the populated places, not far from the military objects villages for the Soviet Army were made.

7. In Search for Spatial Identity

On May 1, 1990 Latvia Republic again declared its sovereignty and on May 1, 2004 it became the member state of the European Union. Due to the change of land ownership, sustainable development of spatial environment of rural populated places has become topical in the country, which is possible if national and municipality institutions, non-governmental organizations and business people get involved in the process, observing the partnerships and contributing to the development of populated places. When planning the development of villages, a diverse approach has to be encouraged, respecting the variety of territories- preserving the industrial and cultural heritage, contemporary culture environment, and local landscape in order to create new economic opportunities and strengthen the local identity, which is an essential prerequisite for a balanced development provision. Local scale activities are important for the promotion of a sustainable development, which contribute to environmental, social and economic improvements [6]. It is important not only to set the basic principles of a balanced development, but also to implement the intentions. When working out the spatial plan for the formation of the visual image, the priority has to be given to a human being, home and living space. In the regions, where the historical identity has

disappeared, people try to identify and preserve the typical landscape and renew the cultural-historical and natural objects in order to construct a new identity [7].

At the beginning of the 21st century near the biggest towns of Latvia new villages of mansions or "scraps" appeared, whose construction on the chaotically placed pieces of land in the urban and rural interaction area has created a new landscapes' structure. The visually, functionally and ecologically uniform and mono-functional formations, which are not connected with the surrounding rural and urban landscape, without their own or for Latvia untypical identity, quite often are developed in scenically the most beautiful places, creating a threat to the recognition, identity, natural and culture-historical values of Latvian traditional landscape. A fast, chaotic development of mansion villages in Latvia has never ever happened before in Latvia, which has encouraged the research of the landscape's aesthetic and ecological interaction, so that, when using the resources, one could respect the variety of the functions [8].

In Vidzeme village "Amatciems " was built, changing the landscape (Fig. 4), whose owner is Aivars Zvirbulis. The idea, construction and traditions of Latvian single-homestead were included in the planning of village "Amatciems". Territory of village is divided into 0,4 to 1,5 ha large piece of land. Few-storey residential buildings placed among the water bodies and clusters of trees integrate nicely into the landscape. Preserving the human scale in the spatial composition of separate buildings and houses, it is possible not only to amalgamate organically and cover all spatial expression components, but also guarantee an appropriate perception of the spatial composition.

Fig. 4. Village "Amatciems" in Vidzeme. Architects: Sarmite Bumbiere and Peteris Blums. [http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/5f/25/1d/5f251d0bd067a4b3c9f9b7e954f57a37.jpg]

8. Conclusions

1. In each period the society has formed spatial environment appropriate to its own needs. The modern architectonic spatial environment of Latvian rural populated areas has been formed due to the interaction of nature and human being during a long and complex evolution process. The historical environment is complex and its essence cannot be simplified. Only, when the society's development is understood and knowing its historical course and direction, it is possible to assess the dynamics of nature and people's mutual relations in order to find solutions for the provision of sustainable development of populated areas.

2. A human being does not live on a material wealth only. Spiritual values get more and more important into their daily lives. Developing the living environment, created due to the nature and human being's interaction, it is necessary to preserve the natural and historical context, which increases the informative social capacity of the environment.

References

[1] I. M. Janelis, Latvijas muizu darzi un parki [Gardens and Parks of Latvia's Manor Houses], Riga, 2010. [In Latvian].

[2] J. Juskevics, Hercoga Jekaba laikmets Kurzeme [Duke Jacob's Epoch in Kurzeme], Riga, 1931. [In Latvian].

[3] A. Busa, Augi un pukes Jelgava jauno lauku sakuma [Plants and Flowers in Jelgava at the Beginning of the New Term], in: Sena Jelgava, Riga, 2010, pp. 101-112. [In Latvian].

[4] A. Caune, I. Ose, Latvijas 12. gadsimta beigu-17. gadsimta vacu pilu leksikons, Riga, 2004, pp. 357-361. [In Latvian].

[5] Latvijas Etnografiskais brivdabas muzejs [Latvian Ethnographic Open-air Museum], Riga, 1978. [In Latvian].

[6] J. Jakobsone, Vietejas identitates - kulturvesturiska mantojuma saglabasanas ietekmejosie faktori lidzsvarotas attistibas konteksta: Kuldlgas piemers, in: Rlgas Tehniskas universitates Zinatniskie raksti: 14. serija, Ilgtspejiga telpiska attistiba, Riga, 2011, 2. sejums, pp. 85-89. [In Latvian].

[7] J. Brinkis, O. Buka, Teritoriala planosana un pilsetbuvnieciba, Riga, 2001. [In Latvian].

[8] D. Zigmunde, The Aesthetic and Ecological Interaction of the Latvian Urban and Rural Landscape, Jelgava, 2010. [In Latvian and English].

[9] Materiali par Latvijas buvniecibu, V kopojums, Riga, 1931, pp. V-2. [In Latvian].