Scholarly article on topic 'Sociological Research in Algeria: Between Theoretical Language and Social Reality'

Sociological Research in Algeria: Between Theoretical Language and Social Reality Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Faradji Mohamed Akli

Abstract Undoubtedly, the field of social sciences research in general and sociological research is particularly hard hit by the vicissitudes experienced by the theoretical discourse in the field of investigation of the sciences of man and society and its corollary, the practical discourse. This great influence has profoundly shaped the direction of sociological research from classical doctrines to empirical propositions developed by contemporary sociologists. Our paper attempts to analyze the relationship between the theoretical choice of academic social science research and practical content held within academic institutions. In other words the proposed paper proposes to examine the impact of theoretical languages and practices on methodological orientations compared with deferent languages of sociological research in Algeria since the first studies.

Academic research paper on topic "Sociological Research in Algeria: Between Theoretical Language and Social Reality"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 185 (2015) 352 - 356

3rd World Conference on Psychology and Sociology, WCPS- 2014

Sociological Research in Algeria: Between Theoretical Language

and Social Reality

Faradji Mohamed Aklia*

*Faculty of humanities and social sciences, University of Bejaia Algeria

Abstract

Undoubtedly, the field of social sciences research in general and sociological research is particularly hard hit by the vicissitudes experienced by the theoretical discourse in the field of investigation of the sciences of man and society and its corollary, the practical discourse. This great influence has profoundly shaped the direction of sociological research from classical doctrines to empirical propositions developed by contemporary sociologists.

Our paper attempts to analyze the relationship between the theoretical choice of academic social science research and practical content held within academic institutions.

In other words the proposed paper proposes to examine the impact of theoretical languages and practices on methodological orientations compared with deferent languages of sociological research in Algeria since the first studies.

© 2015The Authors. Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center Keywords: theoretical language, social change, methodological orientation.

1. Introduction

Sociology in Algeria has been experienced some important steps in its evolution after independence, it was included in higher education in the beginning 1970s, but it took its roots in anthropological production.

Many traces the started sociology in Algeria in 1971, when it was included in higher education officially as an independent discipline in the Algerian university, also in that date, there is already a body consisting of Algerians young sociologists, including the University of Algiers, and a fine and generous sociological production of Algerian society, although invisible and inaudible. The term "sociology" has appeared in Algeria from the official school

* Faradji Mohamed Akli. Tel.: +0-870-156-6709. E-mail address: faradji_makli@yahoo.fr

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.437

statement Durkheim in France in 1884, Mr. Sabatier already exempted course "native sociology" in Algiers. And from throughout the 20th century, the term sociology "Muslim" or "Berber" and sometimes "Algerian" sociology asserts itself, however, as a discipline and teaching full, when René Maunier, a brilliant sociologist of the Durkheimian school, is responsible for a course entitled "economics and Algerian sociology" at the Faculty of Laws of Algiers.

1.1. The origin of sociology and the changes in academicals teaching

Sociology as a discipline made its first appearance during the colonial period in 1958 at the Algiers University, single university in Algeria. Since sociology has emerged in academic curricula capitalizing nearly a half-century of existence. Sociology really grows until the 1960s. First investigations of land to the years 1957-1958, they are coordinated by Pierre Bourdieu and related to employment, housing and consumption in Algeria.

Teaching sociology experienced also different periods of evolution in both quality and quantity change, sociology is taught today in more than 21 universities and academic centers that accounts Algeria, and there are 22 sociological departments in different universities and academic centers of the country, and during the period from 1958 to 1967 in Algeria, sociology was taught only at the University of Algiers, which remains the only university in the country, it was a section that was administered by the Faculty of humanities, it was alone after the independence occurred in the teaching of sociology which has expanded to other universities so that 1967 Oran and Constantine in 1971.

During this period, the license of letters and humanities contains four specialties: sociology, social psychology, economics, demography and ethnography of North Africa . CLAUDINE CHAULET, Algerian sociologist, reported that the Algerians were very few teachers, classes were provided mostly by French and Arabic cooperating many of whom came by choice in revolutionary Algeria, there is indeed a very favorable scientific and political report and almost affective sociology in Algeria. No other discipline has attracted much attention and reflection, never interrupted, seminars, texts produced by sociologists on Algerian sociology since its autonomous institutionalization in 1971, but the disciplinary euphoria, however, did not cross a decade.

The transformation of higher education from the use of French language to Arabic in the period between 1970and 1980 was a bad reality for sociologists.

Regress of knowledge sources due to poor production in Arabic "the generalization of dual network, whose long-term effects will be more important than structural reform, however, could hide for time that the transformations for school rhymes, structures, pedagogy, knowledge, programs, participation, were part even before the issue of adaptation to socio-economic changes.

With the Arabization of sociology, the Arabic-speaking discovered that the curriculum does not change, however, we are witnessing the start of cooperating French teachers and their replacement by teachers from Arab countries (Egypt, Syria, Iraq) experiences of bilingual teaching in sociology are tempted to bypass the cleavage.

2. National Sociology pre-disciplinary stage in the disciplinary status

Administrative and technical to overcome the French colony in 1962, required the independent of Algeria flexible and generous academic and educational policy of access to university, passing exams and various competitions, and finally successes to diplomas For many graduates, sociology is a discipline that trains the professionals of the administration, national companies and institutions;

Public (education and rehabilitation centers, tourist facility, cultural center ... etc..) Or even allows the integration of higher schools like police and gendarmerie.

The image of sociology as a state or bureaucratic discipline has improved around 1970 with the draft redesign of higher education in 1971 and it is said that "the teachings of sociology should reflect in their objective concerns, the development process related with Political orientations."

The development of a progressive and "revolutionary national culture" , from his second invention, the Algerian sociology is seen as a kind of factory of decolonization, that will support the development and industrial revolutions, agricultural and cultural, then in vogue. At the same time it is also expected of the discipline it replaces,

it washes and corrected the error, the affront represented neighboring disciplines such as anthropology and ethnography, has considered then and now as science and disciplines collaborator of colonial power. This handful of disciplines all attached to the land, language and culture, which have been rejected elsewhere after this reform 1971.

Thus there is a misunderstanding in Algerian society, its religion, its employees, its history, its diversity, and its ethnic, linguistic and political differences as contradictions, are completely absent, forgotten, rejected, etc... Unthought-of all program of eight semesters account the mastery of sociology, one course which occupies an entire semester is devoted to Ibn Khaldun, no court no unit value deal of Arab societies, Africa, Islam, Maghreb , immigration and colonization etc., one is only two modules are related to Algerian society in this case, the social analysis of the history of Algeria, and the study of charter the Algerian revolution, but the most heretical and even more serious lack is that today even, no work of researchers who have worked on Algerian society as Algerian or North African like; (Mr. Mammeri, A. Sayed, P. Bourdieu Berque, P.Pscon, A.Khatibi, A. Hammoudi, A. Laroui, F. Bellil M.Haddab etc..) is this not in the courts or in programs or even in different directions suggested bibliographic students sociology and the humanities and social sciences in general. This omission of self and his unreal and finally uprooted the discipline of national social realities to bring it to an activist, more militant ideological besides ideology, this omission itself also appears in the practice of land such that it is given and submissions made in the directed or written or published by Algerian sociology texts, because all put at the center of their land rather the state.

Organic groups (workers, students, teachers, users of the city, the inhabitants of modern housing etc..) that ordinary people and were more interested in cities than in the countryside, and talked over the state and society .

Finally, this self-omission as from the outset broke the chain of production and generation of master and national disciplines, only dissertations license occupying the entire top half, giving a bit of prestige, and reality field of discipline. These memories license are also indicative of the passion and interest of students to sociological practice (unemployment, suicide, etc.) and ethnology (weddings, Kabyle house, the village, poetry, rituals etc.). Their choice of objects of memory mastery or DEA, often overlap their origins. in the same situation, the problem of ethnic and social change, Such as rural-urban cultural specialties and frequently attract girls, while industrial sociology (labor) is often chosen by urban students and rarely by girls.

3. Social Crisis of sociology (1982-2000)

In 1983, there was a free fall in the rate of success in the baccalaureate. It should be well connect to the fall in oil prices and the emergence of the first outdoor social unrest in Algeria. Then, the students were involved directly, as the case of universities of Tizi-Ouzou or Constantine, despite a restrictive admission policy. Since the baccalaureate of 1983, the number of students continues to increase, while the level seems to be declining, and the notice even teachers of sociology, a regression even more scandalous in the new universities inside.

3.1 Problems of sociological research

The first recorded observation demonstrates the apparent lack of a policy on sociological research in universities and institutions on the national level. This phenomenon is spreading to all the human sciences in general and sociology in particular. Underdevelopment of sociological research is related to several factors including:

• The marginalization of sociological research by officials has procreated in companies generally, and students in particular, Belief that development remains in the natural and technological sciences, sociology and therefore is considered for students having failed in other disciplines.

• Lack of funding and investment in sociological research.

We can also note that, the limited resources and opportunities available to the research, and the lack of research structures flexible and autonomous.

3.2 The lack of sociological research centers, inadequate holdings

• The dependence of the university to the interests and concerns of the state, and the strong control imposed by the latter in respect of the academic production "state defines not only research subjects according to their expectations and interests of time, usually from a utilitarian perspective, but also closely monitoring production areas: universities, institutes, research centers ... in addition, the dissemination of knowledge, because the books and are edited by domestic companies under the direction of policy makers, is closely monitored "

• The lack of freedom of expression, and the refusal of projects that involve civil society and political power. Sociology needs to develop a socio-political system based on freedom of thought and expression, something that is lacking in our society, and in most Arab countries The such as freedom of expression is still lacking in most Arab countries it is forbidden to Arab sociologists discuss topics, or use critical approaches that could undermine Islam or political regimes, unless they agree to be treated apostates, disbelievers, or discourage for Israel and "Western imperialism" and earn sequestration or condemnation harvesting.

3.3 The poor scientific training and dependence on abroad

• Priority is given by officials to natural and technological sciences, despite the availability of human and material resources, namely the lack of emphasis on social sciences in general and sociology in particular. This has negatively impacted on the development of sociological research and the lack of social recognition of the discipline, that is to say the lack of a clear policy in the field of sociological research. Also the separation between research and policy: the intellectuals are more interested to work with policy makers and politicians, for their part, do not care that produces intellectuals. Researches for policy-makers are put aside, and we do not put them at the service of development planning and public policy.

According to ALI EL KENZ, relatively low sociological practices are brightened their dependencies in relation to Western sociology, on one side, which does not correspond to our social reality because it is the result of a partnership which has its own historical and social problems, which knowledge must depend on the company that produces it. On the other hand, sociology continues to be alienated and distant from the social reality.

Lived, several factors have led to this situation, including its dependence on the state, the realization of abstract research and generally meets the objectives of the state and the lack of critical position "according to him, such as sociology in Arab countries, is exercised through the dependent academic institutions of government, and it is they who dictate his sociology research topics that address social needs, not sociologists themselves, the formation of a sociology which is characterized by a scientific discourse that addresses society becomes an impossible case ."

4. Conclusion

The analysis of the history of sociology in Algeria articulates with the colonial context that changed society; it gave birth to a new society that requires sociological readings. It is certain that the number of graduates in sociology has grown steadily since independence, but the role and political power has taken a monopoly and established him as the sole agent responsibility for ensuring the emancipation of the country and economic growth based on industrialization, urbanization, and agrarian revolution. Sociological research is performed in response to a request from the state, not the study of social practices on the other hand, it was for sociologists to support the construction of a strong state and the institutionalization of the single party, the pretext of national unity, excludes any form of political expression outside the formatted frames in power ;(State, social order, party). On the other hand, from an economic and social level, the objective was to legitimize the modernization of the country that gave the industry a central role in industrializing Algerian development ". This explains the absence of a real sociology face the profound social changes that require the intervention of the sociologist as a practitioner.

On the same time, the weakness of the sociological practice is also due to the lack of social demand for sociologists and lack of sociological practices in the field. This means is related with the absence of recognition of the usefulness of the discipline "if the Algerian society is still waiting for, Algerian sociology continues to work for a society that does not yet exist, even though this sociological department proclaims the anthropological approach ".

In this regard, several conferences were held in Oran emphasis on the role of sociology and its usefulness.

1 / the 24th international congress of sociology is taking place in Algiers in 1974, together sociologists third world under the theme "Development of Third World countries and sociological studies" issues that concern most managers are turning around. idea of changing the cultural and social structure, urbanization and the role of sociology in developing countries, including sociology always responds to the strategy of "state the alleged Arab sociology had nothing the Arab identity, or at the theoretical and methodological foundations, nor that of his scientific objectification. And the fault no responsibility foreign, on the contrary, they were Arab intellectuals who assumed full responsibility for the mistake ".

2 / this context is maintained until 1984, or held in Oran symposium on "the social sciences today" whose main objective is critical of the International Congress of 1974. This questioning is analyzed the issue of domination of politics on science, especially regarding sociology and weak social demand contact sociology.

3 / in April 1986, has organized another seminar in sociology as "social change in Algeria since independence" during the conference, the questions focused mainly on social change through which the society since independence, as they raised the issue of weak practice and production.

The participants in this symposium explain the failure of sociology in Algeria, on the one hand by the domination of politics over science and the opposition between political discourse and the discourse of sociologists, on the other hand, the absence or weakness of sociological practice is due to the ignorance of the discipline and the absence of a privileged environment for the sociologist.

4/ it succeed the conference in Algiers in 1997 "Algerian society and sociological practices." This conference is part of the deepening seminars history and aims in particular the empirical work, and put the focus on the role of sociology urban against the emancipation of large cities.

5 / sociology deal with social change:

Sociology is observed amplification of social phenomenon, and to understand and interpret them according to the direction to which its members. In the Algerian society has experienced profound changes, we set the absence of this original purpose of this discipline, something that represents a Hurdle for its development "sociology is seen in the Arab world as part of modern science, it seems although the situation is a reflection of the social reality of the Arab world. Thus it reflects the reality of underdevelopment, dependency and powerlessness to change.

6 /The current position of sociology in Algeria:

Despite the changes that affect society, sociology has not been taken, and continues to be marginalized. She was often seen by managers as well as foreign, provides ideas that are not coincided with their goals, so it must be placed under control. Its use is reserved for carrying out the research requested by officials such as a diffuse discourse, produced a work in development, today she asked about the reasons for its failure, and tries to analyze theoretical framework.

Back to work to produce scientific knowledge with the completion of fieldwork. Sociological research is also limited to reproduce the unknown of social change. We are only witnessing the development of the workforce and the expansion of universities and research centers. A number of research laboratories Have Been created at the University of Constantine, Algiers, Oran and Annaba. Also, the major concern of the state was trained teachers facing the speed growth in student's numbers.

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