Scholarly article on topic 'Determine the Environmental Factors Influencing Increase Security in Residential Design'

Determine the Environmental Factors Influencing Increase Security in Residential Design Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Environmental security" / "residential complex" / "increased monitoring"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Mahsa Rahmania, Mahnaz Mahmoody Zarandib

Abstract Nowadays, housing and establishment of security are the most important factors in creating a satisfying life. We, to investigate the hypothesis that the possibility of drafting patterns organization of mass and space for the promotion of security, at the beginning we are familiar with a number of theorists have proposed theories in this area. After reviewing them as well as examine some of the architectural role in promoting security in space, spatial framework for organizing and enhancing monitoring, and thus increase the security specified in the templates for the design of residential security offered to the hypothesis.

Academic research paper on topic "Determine the Environmental Factors Influencing Increase Security in Residential Design"

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 201 (2015) 234 - 242

Asian Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies, AcE-Bs2015, 20-22 February 2015,

Tehran, Iran

Determine the Environmental Factors Influencing Increase Security

in Residential Design

Mahsa Rahmaniaa, Mahnaz Mahmoody Zarandibb*

aDepartment of Architect Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin bMember of Academic Staff (Isamic Azad University North Tehran Branch)

Abstract

Nowadays, housing and establishment of security are the most important factors in creating a satisfying life. We, to investigate the hypothesis that the possibility of drafting patterns organization of mass and space for the promotion of security, at the beginning we are familiar with a number of theorists have proposed theories in this area. After reviewing them as well as examine some of the architectural role in promoting security in space, spatial framework for organizing and enhancing monitoring, and thus increase the security specified in the templates for the design of residential security offered to the hypothesis.

© 2015PublishedbyElsevierLtd. Thisisan openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityofAMER(AssociationofMalaysianEnvironment-BehaviourResearchers)andcE-Bs(Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Environmental security; residential complex; increased monitoring

1. Introduction

From the beginning of appearance, human being was searching to obtain a place to inhabit and to rest in that. Nowadays, housing is specific concept of a place for habitation and security. Existence of security, however, means one of the most important constructing factors of living quality, so that in Mazlou classification of needs is located in the second level of importance after physiological needs. The concept of security implies to immunity of people from crimes risks in the living environment. The occurrence of crimes in terms of location, time, and method of formation are not accidental evermore, but most of the time depends on structure and characteristics of place of

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +989122950786a; fax: +982155576189. E-mail address: mah_rahmani63@yahoo.com.

1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.172

crime; therefore, it is possible considered the surrounding environment as one of the most important and effective factors on formation of security. The surrounding environment includes a wide spectrum of types of places such as public, semi-public, semi-personal and personal spaces. In other word, every activity and behavior has its privacy and specific territory and mutually every space has its privacy and respect. Therefore, the concept of security against crime should be considered that influences on stability of environment with respect to physical aspect and it should be looked at as one of the main priorities of professionals and designers in formation of architecture and designing of housing to be able to consider appropriate strategies for designing housing units and specifying the effective components on their environmental security.

The historical and tourism cities in Iran have particular position in the world. In fact the historical texture of the city is the main core of quality of birth of a city during the period of time of its mutation and elevation. Nowadays, these types of textures for lack of accordance with time are inefficient and problematic. In the traditional textures for existent aging the area has provided the ground for insecure spaces and with respect to quality it result in weakening the quality of the environmental security of the area.

One of the immunization solutions of these textures is man injection and causing the activity compaction for physical organization and increasing of supervision in the result of increasing supervisor in these sections that for providing them it is possible to design a housing apartment considering components and influential factors on place analysis to increase security in the housing designs and finally in the studied area to reach at a secure environment.

2. Principals and theoretical framework

Understanding definitions related to the residential in the process of the research are very influential. Housing can be divided in the two kinds of one family and residential. Residential are a set of houses consisting of a number of housing units in one floor that is in a similar level or several floors that are connected through to entrance, or by means of streets or common yards (Ardalan et al, 35, 6791-9007). It should be considered that designing of residential doesn't means just setting a number of housing units side by side.

But quality should be appropriate by means of designing the neighboring units, Because crimes events with respect to the place, time, and the method of forming are not always accidental and most of the time they depended on structure and features of place of crime.

Security is a word with specific characteristics mental and dimensions that refers to composure and welfare in constructing the environment (Bemanian, 1388. P.22). In fact, whatever is considered so secure should be able to provide relaxation and mental release. It means that it should provide senses in human being to guide him/her toward liberating from fear and panic. Accordingly the following items can be interpreted as the meaning of security:

• Security means welfare, resting, and immunity (Amid, 6711, p. 651).

• In the Persian dictionary security means freedom, welfare, and lack of fear and invasion.

• Also, security rooted from security, relief of the heart and being ensured.

• In addition, security is gotten from secure, that in Ragheb's view in the Book Mofradat means welfare, and

should security and removal of fear and panic.

• In the oxford dictionary, the word of security is defined as «being in preservation, liberating from anxiety or

worriment and disquietude. »

Mantesqe also believes in the concept of peace and security, because security is the result of peace and peace is the first law of nature, and there for the supreme principal in human governments is creation security that in this definition, by security that government should provide for people is not just preserving of life but it is preserving social and civil freedoms.

Supplying and feeling personal security in the first level goes back to the person and the person might feel being insecure for two reasons: one for lack of correct training in the family that is the basis of forming the person's personality and the other might be for condition of society and the person might feel insecurity for some factors in the society.

Anyway what was important is that the concept of security is developed gradually by developing the human civilization, so that security is not anymore a place for border threats of foreign threats, but it has new dimensions

that because of the type of problem and by obligation of lack of them in the structure of society causes formation of problems and specific issues. Also, security in the current meaning can be sought in development and related concepts not in the rate of military forces and weapons (Bemanban, 9007, p.93).

According to the place of security in residential in the model of impact of quality of environment in forming them we can consider the diagram 1

Fig. 1. Security in residential environments.

The history and background of the urban criminology should be studied from Chicago sociology school and primary studies of urban ecology. The urban ecology for the first time in 1916 was emerged for urban analyses and according to this matter pathology of living spaces and foundation, quality, dispersion of crimes, diseases, insecurities of the living environments in different areas of the world were studied.

Researchers believed that one of the most important and influential factors that affects security is surrounding environment. The surrounding environment includes a wide spectrum of different public spaces to personal ones. In other words, every type of activity and behavior has its privacy and territory and mutually every space has its privacy and respect.

Definition of the term "private" always has been side by side with the term "public" and depended on it, so that one has no meaning without another. The root of the English term "private" is the Latin term of "privus" that means single, person, personal."

There are some researchers as necessary part of human life. For example: private privacy lets people to share their intimacy and thoughts on the basis of laws that themselves define and neglect something that is inevitable from our humanity. The private domain is a part of human life that is controlled by individual in the personal capacity and over views and general science and formal or administrative control. For this reason private spaces are parts of spaces that belong to individuals for personal use out of public access. A part of private domain is represented in the private spaces, though it is possible to involve over private spaces like public libraries or parks that a part of human being's personal life is represented in those public places (Madani Pour, 1391).

The term general that is rooted from the Latin term "Populus" in the meaning of "people" has a wide meaning. The equivalent terms that in the oxford dictionary are represented for this term as are: belonging to people, dependency or tendency to one population or nation or considering their interests; the entire meanings for the term "public" and a number of people that includes the concepts of society and "country" and related issues.

This term in relation to "society" refers back to society with regional or different racial scales and includes one group, one united society in a framework that is used less today that means the entire human race (Madani Pour, 1391).

Public and private respectively refer to social and personal relationships. As Allen Silver indicates "personal" is private and "non-personal" is public. In a definition that we offered about private area, "public" is located in the realm of individuals who are not intimate, that is something in which occur beyond the personal territory of individuals and intimacy circle of friends and his family. But, this territory itself is divided to "non-personal" and "interpersonal" territories (Pakzad, 1388). These spaces in our culture have specific hierarchies. In a simple term it is possible to divide the present spaces into three general categories with respect to the way of using them:

• private spaces are those parts of urban spaces that are owned or governed personally by individuals and used. Spaces like: housing apartments, yards, and private gardens.

• semi-personal and semi-public spaces are those sets of spaces in the cities that for limitation in purpose and application are used by specific groups of people. Spaces like: residential and their yards, clubs and exhibitions.

• Public spaces are those sets of spaces that the entire citizens without any control and etc... have the right to enter and exist. Spaces like streets, parks, squires, markets and mosques. A set of spaces for having performance scale, and also various and wide dimension of their addresses have the most shares among public living of citizens. Therefore, qualitative promotions of these spaces more than other spaces result in a healthy society (Pakzad,

1388). Home and family as two intermediate family institutions and formed them; therefore it is tries according to the concept of security against crime that influences on stabilization of environment physically, it is as one of the main priorities of professionals in formation of architecture and designing a secure housing.

As mentioned one of the main constructing factors that is an appropriate quality for life is "security." The concept of security refers to immunity of people from the risks of crimes, and contradiction actions to ethical regulations.

In the surrounding environment. Therefore, according to the concept of security against crime that influences on stabilizing environment with respect to physical aspect is considered as one of the main priorities of professionals in formation of architecture and designing housing and in between we deal with appropriate strategies for designing residential and specifying useful physical components on environmental security of residential.

In most of the countries, housing projects like housing project of Proeit-Igeo in the Cent Louise or housing project of Ronen Point in the England are exist that changed to a criminal place and endangered social security. This issue cased developed societies to improve the place quality and increasing the sense of security of people for achievement and analysis of its formation issues.

"Security" and related terms for all people are the most important issues, because security as a reality is represented as one of the main rights of people. Doubtless no element is more important that security in the society for flourishing talents and developing society and creativity and also valuable activities are not achievable without security. Generally, human being to reach at high human purposes is seeking to satisfy physiological needs. In other words, the subject of security

Starts from individual and lasts to society and international system.

2.1. Specifying views

Jin Jacobs cleverly studied street aggression, and in his view crime and environment are adapt system and they are observable and controllable, therefore, usual care of inhabitants will be the main obstacle of occurrence of crimes. To secure streets he indicated in his book that public spaces are distinguished from each other and also the street performance should be very divers.

Jin Jacobs indicated that one successful physical Characteristic should have three main features:

• Border and area: existence of one specific border between public and private spaces and lack of intrusive effect of public and private spaces in each other.

• More sense of dependency in the public space is suitable to have eyes protecting streets and public spaces.

• Permanent users: they should have usual walking ways, to add the eyes that are protecting streets and public spaces and people who are in the buildings side by side with streets may intend to see pedestrian way. For example in the England for promoting security in the general spaces of the city the policy of compound uses are

encouraged and a compound of small j obs of houses and offices in the urban areas and creation of apartments in the in the up stores are applied in the designs to increase the rate of activity and consequently security (ibid). Elizabeth Wood is one of the most prominent individuals whom defended visualizing the theory of physical designing in the society. Wood believed that managers of housing areas never cause stopping of destructive actions of unconsidered renters and even a small group of them. She aimed at increasing the quality of life of inhabitants and increasing beauty of housing environment tried to change designs of these environments and for access to her purposes believed in improving the facades of buildings in the view of inhabitants. Also create spaces for inhabitants to gather that result is in increasing the possibility of supervising inhabitants. The belief of wood about social control of the housing environment depends on attendance and supervision by inhabitants (Robinson, 1996:14).

Schomo Angel is another theorist that always emphasize on importance of physical environment to prevent occurrence of crime. He tried to specify ownership, decreasing or increasing of access to the place and doing some activities about supervision and care of citizens and police that occurs via physical environment, that it is possible to have direct influence in the process of affaires. Angle, by publishing the book of attenuation of crime indicated that how citizens can prevent occurrence of crime actively (Boniad Amani, 1388:44).

"Oscar Newman" The entire old works, specially the works of Jacob, in the works of Oscar Newman in 1972 entitle dependable space has been reached in the peak. In other words, the defendable space beyond being a program in the environment of struggling against crime is a usage of verdicts that Jacob believed in. in the view of Oscar Newman for creating defendable spaces, every space should have some responsive, and the spaces without responsive became the place to perpetration crimes. He specifies some hierarchies for spaces. In his researches & studies, he found that commitment crime in the public residential is most of the time happen in a place that criminal actions are seen hardly and public asses to these places will not occur simply. Also, Newman represented his ideas about care and application of environment and supporting physical environment in a hierarchy covering four areas that are specified by means of some walls (Public spaces, semi-public spaces, semi-private spaces, private spaces)" (Benam and Violwis. 1379:44). On the basis of Newman's ideas deter of crimes and decreasing of crimes:

• ability of physical designing in creating one "territory of the sense of ownership" in the person (reinforcing natural instinct of ownership and territory)

• ability of physical designing of environment in creating supervision position and care of citizens

• ability of physical designing in informing about separation of public from privacy, semi-public or semi-private spaces

• ability of physical designing of environment in encouraging citizens to attendance in public spaces and preservation of freedom of transportation to public spaces and preserving personal property.

• ability of physical designing to hardening criminal purposes and give up of them from committing crime

• ability of physical designing to persuading the sense of responsibility of citizens to public spaces (Heshmati, 1380:44)

"The theories of Alice Coleman" these theories were followed by works of Alice Koleman. She also inferred that the design of public housing result in different social problems. Colman infer that this type of housing is along with different unfair behaviors such as writing on walls, and throwing wastes. Generally she considers such issue very important in causing social problems. Like Newman she believes that crime and criminology and etc... happen in the areas that their inhabitants cannot dominate and supervise on housing units properly (Dikenez, 1377: 217).

"Clarke" states that another type of prevention for the first time was introduced by an English man named Clarke that is in line with previous ideas of Jefery and Newman (1992) that resulted in favoritism of them. Also it is based on this issue of the condition of crime and therefore, crime can be changed or transformed via designing and modifying the physical environment.

Clarke together Crinesh is the initiator of the theory of rational choice in criminology. In this view criminals are logical decision makers that by means of doing crime think about economic and financial issues and conditional prediction from crime with awareness from this subject tried to decrease opportunities of doing crime.

Creating defendable spaces has one social ideology and it is the fact that physical structure of urban areas should be so that care or control of the levels around blocks with different applications are down, that by levels around seeds, streets, and lands around buildings and corridors and also enable people to use their spaces appropriately to benefit from a real and valuable life (Kalantari, 1382:89).

2.2. The role of architecture in promoting security in the space

2.2.1. The effect of size and form of space on controlling inhabitants

The size and form of space are two physical influential forms on controlling inhabitants. The size of space is an influential factor in variables of security and social welfare. Aristotle believed that the living space should not be so great that causes panic and the helping sounds not to be heard behind walls.

Mumford the thinker of 20th century studies social relations and limitations of the size. The main subjects of Maford ideas are formed by organic human being. It means balanced personality is in mutual relationship with nature and the entire sections and elements of surrounding environment.

Mamford poses dimensions and human scales in designing and considered the wall as the symbol of unity and security of tradition. Paying attention to human scales by other theorists, The Colines reference in the current great gatherings most of the people feel insecurity and anxiety and prefer small and old places of gathering that in psychology it is called fear of open spaces or Agora Fobia (Tavalaei, 1379: 19).

On one hand the subject of crowded and need for privacy is posed in small spaces that in the case of crowded we can say that high crowded do not mean mere high number of population, while it is possible to decrease crowded by creating flexible environments (Mortazavi, 1387: 85).

In the case of space form we can say that doubtless lack of visual observation is the result of space form that has very appropriate conditions for purposes and behaviors of criminals and wrongdoers. Such spaces away from the eyes of individuals who are against criminal behaviors or at least punishing looks toward wrongdoers showed that more important is providing security places for

Criminals and wrong doers away from the eyes of law enforcement officials.

Therefore, the physical structure of space or the form of space have influential role in creating a defenseless space, and so paying attention quality of form and space is very influential. In

Definition from quality of form and space Couin Linch analyzed different features in the book the city face such as representation and readability and ... (Lynch, 1389: 25).

2.2.2. The effect of visual features of residential

Comfort residential and an environment of main components are the basis of living environments, because for residency and living it should benefit some features and advantages to makes living and residency appropriate and to supply welfare and release and security. Also, space around the home should be a warm and intimate environment, to provide possibility of a suitable living" (Linch, 1389: 17).

2.2.2.1. Visual features

Visual problem surrounding inhabitants through to the feeling and perception can influence on their behavior and to result in problems in their behavior. Therefore, the yard should be designed correctly. Designing the artistic space is an environment that depends on visual and esthetic welfare of environment to see the construction space is situated in its proper place (Bahraini, 1386:57).

2.2.2.2. Colour in space

Colour always surrounded people and dominated on it, the world that we observe is composed of the two imaging element. These two elements are: form and colour that are cause and effect to each other (Bahadori, 1380:42). Colour is a phenomenon that exists everywhere and plays some roles, the entire communications are happening with help of colours and the entire visual receiving are done by means of colours. The brick and stone walls, colourful floors, wooden doors and windows and ... are selected according to the value of colours (Bahraini, 1386: 247).

Psychologist approved that the type of used colours in the place of living, working and our environment will influence on mental status of people.

2.2.2.3. Light and lighting in space

The rate of light in reverse spaces is different. Light in public spaces should be high and in the yard should be so that not to cause the sense of darkness and terrifying. Light is one of the influential factors in readability of space and we can say that improving the lighting decreases the fear of occurrence of such crimes and promotes the sense of security and calmness (Wekerle and Whitzman: 1995; 28).

2.2.3. Status of accesses

Features of access and communication networks have a considerable role in providing security and space immunity of places and neighbourhoods. Simplification of access to the place of On the basis of an iconic study from cities of England, Lourtek, Et al (1970) reported that approximately two third of the levels of living environments that crime happened had little doubt (Salehi, 1378,188).

By specifying the territory in which it was required to be along with controlling strategy this problem can be solved to provide its entire efficacy. Controlling assess in a simple terms means correct ordering of space and specifying the limits and borders of private and semi-private spaces from public spaces and its philosophy is to limit users of non-public spaces. These limitations are

symbolic or realistic as Oscar Newman advised that only little number of inhabitants should use one entrance or private entrance of building, this strategy is called categorizing strategy" (Heshmati, 1382: 55).

3. Research methodology

As mentioned one of the most important qualitative factors for living is existence of "security." The concept of security refers to immunity of people from dangers of crimes, and fault in the living environment. Events of crime with respect to place and time and also formation of them are not accidental, but to some extent depend on structure and features the place of crime. It is intended to benefit from a theoretical approach of environmental security to a suitable framework for creating the sustainable process of living in environment as a place for living and also as a place for human being to find out the reason behind current changes in the way of social life and the type of.

Housing. Therefore, it is tried, on the basis of the concept of security against crime and methods of promoting them and factors that influence of stabilizing the environment socially, as one of the main priorities of scientists is the way of their impact on formation of architecture and designing of housing.

On the basis different attitudes toward architecture and the issue that all of them are involved in formation of one issue and the fact that the author was not able to cover them entirely in one article, the main approach in this project deals with environmental security.

Other cases such as the impact of whether, technology, history and so on is to the extent that the considered approach and the subject of project are interrelated and studied.

In the present study, necessary information was gathered using analytical- descriptive method that by analysis and studying the theoretical approach promotion of environmental security was achieved by library method of data collection. In this study security of people and the way of their relationship to housing environment is very influential and the purpose of this research is to analyse and establish organizing patterns and space for promoting security.

Process of this project is as follow:

• Introduction

• The theoretical aspects of the research

• Conclusion

4. Findings

According to the studies it is possible to offer criteria for establishing the mass and space for promoting security in the residential that are shown in the table 1:

Table 1. Components and measures affecting the spatial analysis for increasing security in the design of residential complexes.

compo nent Measure Theories and approaches Physical replacement

Jane Jacobs Eliza bet h Wood Skamo Angel Oscar Newman Alice Colman Clarke

Componen ts and Measures Affecting the Spatial Analysis for Increasing Security in the Design of Residential Complexes Physica 1 Size of space Emphasizi ng on smaller areas - Proper products - Connected and integrity in space - Domination and readability of space

Form of space Lock of using promoted design Represente d physical structure

Access The way of access to space Creating hierarchy of access to spaces - Controlling accesses - Causing hierarchy

Decreasing the way of access to the space Access limitation Access limitation

Visual-percept ion Territory determination Areas separation Identity for distinguish! ng spaces - Adding the sense of dependency to space - Decreasing visual obstacles - Possibility of vision area - Promotion of collective circles

Increasing of visual capabilities Simplicity of observatio n and visiting

Improving visual supervision Causing supervis ing on space Increasi "9 beauty of environ ment

5. Conclusion

According to the purpose of this study, that is specifying the physical components in environmental security of residential and offering of environmental criteria that are influential promotion of security, the research hypothesis is on the basis of this principle that establishing the organization pattern and space is for promotion of security in residential.

According to the stated materials, it is concluded that, whenever in designing criteria such as size and form of space-spatial ordering, accessibilities, territories, possibilities of visual are considered as parts of physical components,(create represented physical structure and possibility to supervision by inhabitants) Connected and integrity in space (Obviousness of place and space) domination and readability of space (Punctuation and marks for definition units and spaces) Controlling accesses (in two type : Sentry and with camera ) and informal (supervision by inhabitants) by appropriate lightening in the yards, entrance and parking) creating spatial hierarchy (existence public spaces such as Lobby on the ground floor and Semi-private and semi-public spaces like communal spaces

smaller in the higher classes) adding the sense of dependency to space (Increased sense of ownership over the place and create territory) decreasing the view obstacles and possibility of vision (supervision by inhabitants) are designed, Increasing of supervision for securing residential will be achieved.

Reference

Amid, J. Scientific Publications, I, 1345.

Ardalan, Nader, Louis, Sr.Khoze, Balkriahna, Moushe, & Safdi. Housing rights. Tehran: Yadavaran.

Bahraini, H. Process of Urban Designing. Tehran University Press.

Bemanian, M. Security and urban designing. Architecture and urbanism publication.

Boniad, A., L. Studying the relationship between urbanization and delinquency of young boys in Juvenile Institution of Tehran. Tehran: Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University.

Dickens, P. Urban sociology. translated by Dr. Hossein Behravan, Mashhad, Astan Ghods Razavi Press.

Heshmati, M. Strategy of defensible space in urban design to prevent and reduce crime, Tehran. MS Thesis, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Shahid Beheshti.

Jacobs, J. (1996). The death and life oof great American cities. New York: Vintage Books.

Kalantari, M. Study of Crime Geography in Tehran Regions. PHD Thesis, Tehran University.

Lynch, K. Good city form. translated by Hossein Bahraini, Tehran: Tehran University Press.

Madanipour, A. Publicand private spaces of the city, translated by Farshad Nori, Publication of Information and Communication Technology Organization, Tehran Municipality.

Mortazavi, S. Environmental psychology, Tehran: Tehran University Press.

Newman, O. (1996). Creating defensible space, Us. Department of Housing and Urban Development, office of policy Development and Research.

Pakzad, J. Theoretical principles and urban design process. Tehran, Department of Housing and urbanization, Department of Planning and Architecture, the Secretariat of the Supreme Council for Planning and Architecture.

Robinson, M. (1996). The theoretical of CPTED 52 years of responses to C. Ray Jeffry, Edited by: William Laufer and Freda Adler, Appalachian state university- Department of political science and criminal Justice.

Salehi, E. Environmental characteristics of safe urban spaces. Publication of research center of Planning and Architecture, p. 237.

Tavallaei, N. The integrated urban form: The study ofphysical integration in theory and practice. M.Sc., Urban and Regional Planning. University of Tehran, Iran, 1379

Wekerle, & Whitzman. (1995). Safe cities, guidelines for planning, design, and management. Van Nostrad Reinhold.