Scholarly article on topic 'The Investigation of English, Russian and Kazakh Computer Terms Borrowings to be Acquired at English Class'

The Investigation of English, Russian and Kazakh Computer Terms Borrowings to be Acquired at English Class Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Meiramova Saltanat Akimovna, Mussagozhina Kuanysh Kanatovna

Abstract This study is an attempt to analyze the terms related to Software and its components in the English, Kazakh and Russian languages and the difficulties of their acquisition in English class to benefit for students on Computer science major so that they can absorb more knowledge and information while listening. In this lexical-semantic group all software programs are included, such as different computer programs, operating systems, files, documents and attachments. Next, the investigation was based on the dictionary of computer studies and Russian-English-Kazakh polytechnic dictionary and in the end terms were sorted out from them. Further, to analyze computer terms, classification of Tabanakova (2007) was chosen, because of its convenience, so computer terms were divided into the following ways of borrowing: English terms (untranslatable terms), transcription/transliteration, semantic equivalents, calques (loan translation). Findings from the study revealed that in the Kazakh and Russian languages, 3 ways of borrowing have almost the same quantity of terms, but the most widely used means in Kazakh is semantic equivalents and in Russian transcription/transliteration. This paper concludes that the Kazakh language tries to give equivalents to most terms, that is why the dominating means in the lexical-semantic group “Software” is semantic equivalents. In addition, the means of borrowing are changed nowadays, before they were transcription/transliteration, but now they use such means as semantic equivalents or calques. Finally, the authors try to develop educational technologies to best effect, as well as create an effective employability culture.

Academic research paper on topic "The Investigation of English, Russian and Kazakh Computer Terms Borrowings to be Acquired at English Class"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 (2015) 94 - 102

GlobELT: An International Conference on Teaching and Learning English as an Additional

Language, Antalya - Turkey

The investigation of English, Russian and Kazakh computer terms borrowings to be acquired at English class

Meiramova Saltanat Akimovnaa*, Mussagozhina Kuanysh Kanatovnab

aSeifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, 010011 Astana, Kazakhstan _bGumilyov Eurasian National University, 010000 Astana, Kazakhstan_

Abstract

This study is an attempt to analyze the terms related to Software and its components in the English, Kazakh and Russian languages and the difficulties of their acquisition in English class to benefit for students on Computer science major so that they can absorb more knowledge and information while listening. In this lexical-semantic group all software programs are included, such as different computer programs, operating systems, files, documents and attachments. Next, the investigation was based on the dictionary of computer studies and Russian-English-Kazakh polytechnic dictionary and in the end terms were sorted out from them. Further, to analyze computer terms, classification of Tabanakova (2007) was chosen, because of its convenience, so computer terms were divided into the following ways of borrowing: English terms (untranslatable terms), transcription/transliteration, semantic equivalents, calques (loan translation). Findings from the study revealed that in the Kazakh and Russian languages, 3 ways of borrowing have almost the same quantity of terms, but the most widely used means in Kazakh is semantic equivalents and in Russian transcription/transliteration. This paper concludes that the Kazakh language tries to give equivalents to most terms, that is why the dominating means in the lexical-semantic group "Software" is semantic equivalents. In addition, the means of borrowing are changed nowadays, before they were transcription/transliteration, but now they use such means as semantic equivalents or calques. Finally, the authors try to develop educational technologies to best effect, as well as create an effective employability culture.

© 2015 The Authors. PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Hacettepe Universitesi.

Keywords:Computer terms; vocabulary acquisition; listening; educational technologies

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +77055736482; fax:+ 7 7172 384 407. E-mail address: saltanat.m@mail.ru

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Hacettepe Universitesi.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.492

1. Introduction

Technology moves so fast that new words penetrate to our life every day. In this context we refer to Robert Dubuc's (1997) comments that "a lot of words from the general language are constantly being borrowed by different disciplines to name new concepts and designate new realities. In the process, their meaning is broadened, narrowed or otherwise changed (p. 39-40)." In other words, the stream of new terminology overwhelms users of personal computers, and creates new problems on mastering computer language that require linguistic competence in the context of multidisciplinary knowledge.

In global computerization period, new possibilities for educational practices are created by increasing flexibility in education. Taking advantage of information technologies for increasing efficiency in foreign language teaching, computer terminology acquisition in particular, is a challenge for our country's language education which overcomes certain difficulties nowadays.

The focus of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of computer terms borrowing in the field of lexical-semantic group "Software" in the English, Russian and Kazakh languages and to explore difficulties of their acquisition in English class. Then, the paper provides an analysis of how English terms of Computer science related to Software are borrowed into Russian and Kazakh. Next, the classification of computer terms according to means of borrowing is studied and developed. The practical part presents the results of the comparative analysis related to Software vocabulary. Practical analysis comprises computer terms related Software retrieved from the dictionary of computer studies (1998) and Russian-English-Kazakh polytechnic dictionary (2010), acquisition of which effects on academic success to be studied and could be used successfully with many learning methods as well. The terms of computer science examined in this paper collectedfrom these particular dictionaries according to the lexical-semantic group "Software" to benefit materials in profession-oriented vocabulary learning, promote the motivation, increase students' language exposure and make education interesting.

Foreign language teaching and vocabulary acquisition are a long term and consistent phenomenon which has impact on students' cognitive language development and awareness. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to find out the widely used means of computer terms borrowing in the Russian and Kazakh languages, belonging to Software, and to determine the difficulties of computer terms acquisition at English lessons in order to help students on computer science imbibe knowledge information while listening.

1.1. A brief overview of computer terms borrowings in English, Russian and Kazakh

Practice shows that English is often considered to be computing lingua franca. Moreover, the Latin and Greek languages are considered the main lexical sources, and computer science vocabulary is borrowed mostly from the English language consequently. Vidisheva (2002) in her work "CTpyKTypHHeBH^HKOMnbroTepHHXTepMHHOB b aHraHHCKOMfl3MKe" made an analysis of some aspects and came to the following results: a synchronic analysis of computer technologies terms showed a significant amount of borrowings of Latin origin and the terms, which are formed on the basis of Latin elements.Andadiachronicanalysishasrevealedthatthemostone-lexemetermsareformedbyinterlinguistics borrowing. According to Evelina Jaleniauskiene, VilmaCicelyte (2011), information technology is the specific field where new terms are appearing on a daily basis and represents not exceptionally massive enlargement of new terms but as well as quick alterations in its terminological system.

The adaptation to Russian realia is the main characteristic feature, which differentiates borrowings from foreign words. Cultural influence of the USA on Russia appeared in many spheres of life. As Turko (2007) described, in the middle of the last century, many borrowings appeared after the appearance of ECM (electronic computing machine) came from English into Russian. Tabanakova (2007) claims that the complexity of texts translation, particularly in the sphere of informational technologies lies in the fact that many computer terms related to non-equivalent vocabulary, in other words they do not have a regular correspondence in the Russian language (except taxonomic articles in dictionaries).

Nowadays, the original and international terms are not completely investigated in the Kazakh language. There are some reasons of this: firstly, borrowing is a long process which requires much time and secondly, lack of scientists-

etymologists as Hudaibergenova states (2003). In addition, 4 means of a term formation in the Kazakh language are differentiated afterwards: 1) lexical-semantic; 2) morphological; 3) analytical or syntactical; 4) calque. As Aitbaiuly and Boranbaev (2006) notice, many English computer terms enter the Russian language, which are borrowed into the Kazakh language only after the adaptation process in particular.

1.2. Vocabulary acquisition

It is well-known that the term 'acquisition' in the language context refers to the ability that is acquired step by step and using it purposefully in academic environment communications. That is why foreign/second language acquisition is acquired not learned. In this context foreign/second acquisition is the result of interaction in another communicative situations or environment and experiences that acquired by the young child (Yule, 1996). While learning is an accurate process made to gain the knowledge in the field of language aspects. That is why foreign/second language is learnt not acquired due to close interaction and interdependence. In other words it could not be acquired without learning, for instance, physics could be learnt not acquired. Thus, vocabulary learning provides the effective acquisition of all the four language skills. Vocabulary acquisition is always considered as the main issue of foreign language learning and teaching. It leads to information understanding and speaking a foreign language better. According to Richards and Renandya (2002), much more attention is given to vocabulary teaching and learning nowadays then it was done before.

The main source for vocabulary acquisition is to listen and reading authentic texts in the classroom. As defined by Meiramova (2012), the acquisition of academic vocabulary is an essential purpose for many of students who are preparing for communication in academic and scientific areas. According to Nation (2006), in order to comprehend a written text learners have to acquire about 8000 to 9000 words and for speaking abilities they need approximately 6000 to 7000 word family vocabulary consequently. In this context, we suggest that academic vocabulary could be acquired through intensive listening and reading authentic texts at English lessons.

1.3. Listening difficulties faced by learners

It is interesting to refer to Hamidi and Montazeri (2014) that listening is the first obtained skill by people. Howat-tand and Dakin (1974) consider listening as the aptitude to figure out and comprehend what other people are saying. This includes the comprehension of a speaker's accent or pronunciation, his grammar, vocabulary, and the meaning of his speech. As a result, listening comprehension has a great importance in language learning.

Foreign language learners always face many problems and difficulties in listening. Especially, some scholars state that vocabulary deficiency is one of the initial reasons why people have listening difficulties (Goh, 2000; Rost, 1990).Underwood (1994) identified seven possible problems in listening comprehension as: (1) control lack of the speakers speaking speed, (2) not being capable of getting things recapitulated, (3) the limited learners' thesaurus, (4) impossibility to distinguish the signals, (5) difficulties in explanation, (6) incapacity to focus, (7) acquired habits of learning. In this context, many problems in listening are caused by lack of vocabulary.

It is obvious that auding or hearing is a complex activity. The majority of difficulties appear in real life and communication, because it is impossible to return and rewind conversation. Ur (1984) points out that "in ordinary conversation or even in much extempore speech-making or lecturing we actually say a good deal more than would appear to be necessary in order to convey our message. Redundant utterances may take the form of repetitions, false starts, re-phrasings, self-corrections, elaborations, tautologies, and apparently meaningless additions such as I mean or you know." Thus, listening can be considered as an important skill in foreign language students' arrangements.

1.4. Computer vocabulary acquisition before listening

One of the important factors in computer vocabulary comprehension is that learners should have background knowledge in this sphere. As Ma and Kelly (2006) described, the main vocabulary learning problems contain remaining the new vocabulary in memory, acquiring new meanings, the right use of vocabulary, and including idioms

into one's vocabulary. According to Mustafaa, Sainb and Abdul Razakc (2012) vocabulary learning occurs if learners encounter new vocabulary while listening or reading during English class. It is obvious that Information Computer Technology (ICT) students should be aware of computer terminology, in order to comprehend authentic texts. Bonk (2000) says that good comprehension while listening depends on vocabulary competency. Sun (2002) examines problems in listening comprehension of the Taiwanese college students. The results show that new or unknown vocabulary confuses students while listening and leads to listening comprehension failure. Consequently, the lack of computer vocabulary knowledge of ICT students can be accounted for difficulties in listening comprehension of authentic texts on the basis of computer terms.

In order to overcome such problems, it is necessary to use vocabulary tasks in pre-listening activities. In the words of Ehsajou and Khodareza (2014) "teaching some new vocabulary as pre-listening, supports the learners with unfamiliar vocabulary instruction that will be covered in the listening task". It is obvious that learners are explained unfamiliar vocabulary before listening tasks. Also teachers should focus their activities on vocabulary acquisition and learners will have fewer problems in listening. As Ellis (2006) comments "vocabulary is seen as more helpful for the successful performance of a task than grammar". Consequently, for successful listening comprehension, it is helpful to pay attention to vocabulary tasks.

2. Methods

To analyze computer terms among many other classifications we choose the classification of Tabanakova (2007), because of its convenience. This one is developed on the basis of «Computerra» and «Chips» magazines, a company CISCO CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate), also Engcom and Internet sites (2007).

To adapt to our conditions, we add transliteration, because it means sounds mapping of one language into a writing system and doing so all analyzed computer terms are divided into the following ways of borrowing in our worked classification:

• English terms(untranslatable)

• Transcription/transliteration

• Semantic equivalents

• Calque (loan translation)

English terms (untranslatable terms) mean the whole calque of English spelling. The names of huge corporations (Nvidia, Microsoft, Apple, Samsung, AMD), the names of technological standards and the names of software programs are related to English terms. The second means is borrowing through transcription that is a transformation of sound form of the original text in terms of Cyrillic alphabet. The usage of semantic equivalents or functional analogue is the third means. This means is the replacement of Kazakh or Russian root that corresponds in meaning to the English term. For example: data- .qaHHHe-MMiMeT, fold - nanKa-^op^HH. The terms, consisting of two or three words Tabanakova proposed to translate by the replacement of the composite parts of lexical elements in an original text on the basis of lexical correspondence with the Russian and the Kazakh languages. It is the basis of the forth means of borrowing of lexical and morphemic calque. For example: colour print, screen resolution. This means represents a combination of means, mentioned above.

Software and its components are analyzed as well. The reason of the analysis selection is that in this lexical-semantic group all software programs are included, such as different computer programs, operating systems, files, documents and attachments. This process is not only related to computer technology, but also to a programming sphere.

Analysis and research have been done on the materials of computer terms dictionaries, such as the dictionary of computer studies (1998) and Russian-English-Kazakh polytechnic dictionary (2010). Computer terms are sorted out according to the lexical-semantic group "Software".

3. Findings and discussion

The analysis of the corpus are summarized in Tables 1 to 3 in order to clarify discussion and focuses on three aspects: the means of borrowing in Russian (Table 1), the language of borrowing (Table 2) and the means of borrowing in Kazakh (Table 3).

3.1. The analysis of Russian computer terms borrowing

Table 1 Russian Computer Terms

The means of borrowing Number of terms % of Corpus

Trans cripti on/trans literati on 77 38,5

Calque 43 21,5

English terms 14 7

Semantic equivalents 66 33

Total 200 100

Table 1 above reveals that the majority of the means way of borrowing fell into transcription/transliteration category (38, 5%). The computer terms that were borrowed through transcription/transliteration are the following: analog - аналог; buffer - буфер; byte - байт. The second widely used means of borrowing is semantic equivalents (33 %). The use of calque accounted for 21, 5 % of the collection, for example: command line - команднаястрока; audio-book - аудиокнига; data base - базаданных. The group "English terms" has the least number of terms (7 %), such as ruby; README; WYSIWYG; unicode. It can be explained by reasons such as: the place of birth of computer technology, the sphere of science and a modern tendency for borrowing.

3.2. The language of borrowing

The following table shows computer terms in the Kazakh language, it displays the results of the study concerning the lexical-semantic group "Software" on the borrowed terms from English, Russian into Kazakh. From the Table 2 it is obvious that most computer terms are borrowed from the English language (90%), from Russian - 10 per cent.

Table 2 Kazakh computer terms

The language of borrowing Number of terms % of Corpus

English 180 90

Russian 20 10

Total 200 100

The terms which are borrowed through transcription/transliteration from the Russian language are 4 %. They are examples of these terms:flowchart - блок - схемы-блоксхемы; controller - диспетчер-диспетчер; digital-цифровой-цифрлш; font - шрифт-шрифт; kernel - ядро-ядро; landscape mode-горизонтальныйрежим-горизонтальд1ре:шм; scope - индикатор-индикатор.

6 % of terms are borrowed through calque from Russian, the examples of them are the following: backup-резервнаякопия-резервтшкеш1рме; borrow-oтpицaтeльныйпepeвoд-тepicтacымaл; character set -кодировка-кодтау; clipboard-cиcтeмныйбyфep-жYЙлiкбyфep; firmware-программно-аппаратноеобеспечение-программальщ-а^параттывдызметету; shareware - условно-бесплатноепрограммноеобеспечение-

шарттытегшпрограммалывдамтамасызету; tube-электроннаялампа-электроодышам; voxel-объемныйэлемент-келемд1элемент.

Kazakh terms (11 %) are borrowed from the English language through the use of semantic equivalents but these termsare borrowed through transcription/transliteration or calque in the Russian language, the examples are the following: buffer - буфер-аралым; command - команда-буйрьщ; cursor - курсор-мецзер; decoder-декодер-^упият; filter - фильтр-сузп; lamp - лампа-шам; peripheral - периферийный-шеткерп; system-система-жуйе; version - версия-нус^а.

2 % of Kazakh terms are borrowed through calque from English, but in Russian they are borrowed through transcription/transliteration. For instance: file manager-менеджерфайлов-файлбас^арубагдарламасы; navigation bar-навигационныйбар-навигацияльщта^та; program dump-дамппрограммы-программашыгару; system monitor-системныймонитор-жуйелшмонитор.

3.3. The analysis of Kazakh computer terms borrowing

Table 3 Kazakh computer terms borrowing.

The means of borrowing Number of terms % of Corpus

Transcription/transliteration 62 31

Calque 53 26,5

English terms 14 7

Semantic equivalents 71 35,5

Total 200 100

Thus, the widely used way of borrowing in the lexical-semantic group "Software" in the Kazakh language is semantic equivalent (35, 5%). For example: anchor-33Kip; array-алап.

The second is transcription/transliteration (31 %), for instance: binary-бинарлы; code-код; design-дизайн; file -файл.

The third is calque (26, 5 %), for example: audio book-ayдиoкiтaп; computer game-компьютеройыны.

The group "English terms" has the least quantity of borrowing and accounted only for 7 % of the borrowed terms, such as: ASCII; Microsoft.

3.4. Educational technologies to best effect

To identify the best educational technologies focused on computer vocabulary acquisition and enhancing we choose the effective ways of using computer-mediated resources to be interfaced, and different computerized glossing formats used in the form of graphic representations and written annotations of computer vocabulary as well. In order to fix new vocabulary, ICT students should group computer vocabulary in accordance with their functions, similarity, the length of terms and words. The analyzed data can be used in grouping computer vocabulary according to the means of borrowing and semantic features of terms as well. According to Ellis (2006) "activating learners' content schemata or providing them with background information serves as a means of defining the topic area of a task". Then, it is worth noting that we use the texts of small forms enriched with computer terms from the analysed data. In pre-listening and post-listening activities ICT students are engaged in conscious-raising activities with repeated exposure to language by working in small group discussion or in pairs. During while-listening activities, they perform form-focused exercises and self-correcting. To check the students' comprehension different question-reply, reasoning-gap, spot the differences exercises and one sentence essay could be used. Computer vocabulary acquisition-aimed exercises increase ICT students' language exposure, promote creative and thought-provoking skills by communicating effectively in the professional area, and so far creating an effective employability culture in future.

Selected examples of exercises worked out to the texts of small forms:

Text 1: Software

Software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide instructions for telling computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer. Program software performs the function of the program it implements. Computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software. System software provides the basic functions for computer usage and helps run the computer hardware and system. It includes combinations of the following: device-drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities and window systems. Programming software usually provide tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. Application software is developed to aid any task that benefits from computation.

Text 2: What operating systems do?

One of the operating system's main tasks is to control to computer's resources-both the hardware and the software. The operating system allocates as necessary to ensure that each application receives the appropriate amount. In addition to resource allocation, operating systems provide a consistent application interface so that all applications use the hardware in the same way. By having a consistent application program interface, software written on one computer can run on other types of computers. Operating systems must accomplish the following tasks: processor management-the operating system needs to allocate enough of the processor's time to each process and application so that they can run as efficiently as possible. Memory storage and management- the operating system needs to ensure that each process has enough memory to execute the process, while also ensuring that one process does not use the memory allocated another process. Device management- devices require drivers, or special programs that translate the electric signals sent from operating system or application program to the hardware device. Application device-programmers use application program interfaces to control the computer and operating system.

Source: Gale (2009). Encyclopedia of Management.^* edition. Detroit.

1. Test your knowledge and your partner's knowledge by discussing the following questions in pairs: What is Software?

Name three major classes of software system. What is one of the main tasks of operating system?

2. Match each term in column A with its description in column B

1. Application software a.provide(s) a consistent application interface

2. System software b.a collection of computer programs

3. Software c.provide(s) the basic functions for computer usage

4. Operating systems d. isdeveloped to aid any task that benefits from computation

3. Make up sentences using the words in brackets

1 (Data/Program)_______

2 (Software/Storage)_____

3 (System/Application)______

4 (Computer/Interface)______

4. Complete the sentences with the words given in a box below.

Programming_Computer_Interfaces_Application_Software

1. System___provides the basic functions for___usage.

2 .____software usuallyprovide tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs.

3. The operating system allocates to ensure that each___receives the appropriate amount.

4. Programmers use application program___to control the computer and operating system.

4. Conclusion

The XXIst century is characterized by the appearance of electronic computing machines and developed computer technologies. Progressive development in this sphere of knowledge is connected with its terminology. It is worth mentioning that sector-specific lexis existed before and related to technic and computer science, now it is computer lexis which not only enlarge its volume, but begin to penetrate in usage. Active process of computerization dictates an adequate transformation of relevant texts from one language into another. Nowadays borrowing from English computer terminology is actual, because such terms appear very often, it is a very developing knowledge sphere, and one of the newest ones, like cybernetics, nanotechnologies and robototronics.

The lexical-semantic group "Software" has a general tendency to borrow computer terms through transcription/transliteration in the Russian language, but in the Kazakh language through semantic equivalents. It is found that in the lexical-semantic group "Software" the widely used means of borrowing in Russian is the usages of transcription/transliteration (38, 5 %), semantic equivalents (33 %) while in the Kazakh language 3 ways of borrowing have almost the same quantity of terms. The most widely used means of borrowing in the Kazakh language is semantic equivalents (35, 5%), because nowadays the Kazakh scientists try to give an equivalent to a term, this means that the Kazakh language is increasingly developing. The second in number used means is translation/transliteration (31 %), the Kazakh language borrows terms from the English language, and also from the Russian language by this means. The third way is calque (26, 5 %) and the last is English terms (7 %) (untranslated terms). The Kazakh language borrows some terms (10 %) from the Russian language, because Kazakhstan was part of the former Soviet Union, and continues to borrow terms from the Russian language.

Further, computer terminology is a part of special lexis of computer language. The terminology of this sphere has advanced special lexis, which proves quick tempo of its expansion among different social groups. Transcription/transliteration is a widely used means in other spheres, mostly in computer technology as well due to the appearance and active development of computer technologies. The father of computer technology development is the USA. Many terms are formed there. When computers appeared in the territory of the former Soviet Union, adequate analogs were not found to all terms, and then they borrowed terms through transcription/transliteration. Thus, every computer term has its analog, and this process takes course extremely dynamically and we hope that analyzed data will help to learn computer vocabulary better and overcome problems with vocabulary acquisition while listening at English lessons.

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