Scholarly article on topic 'Achievement to Physical Characteristics of Security in Residential Neighborhoods'

Achievement to Physical Characteristics of Security in Residential Neighborhoods Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Maryam Sadat Naghibi, Mohsen Faizi, Mehdi Khakzand, Mehdi Fattahi

Abstract Refer to Maslow security is one of the most fundamental human needs, and crime is a crucial issue of the human society. Some of the urban environment and physical characteristics have been investigated in Deh-Vanak. In this regard, it could be referred to CPTED method. The purpose is to identify criteria and principals that are about the sense of security.Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods concluded that there is a significant relationship between the characteristics such as lighting, public services, a presence of individuals, vegetation, and safety.

Academic research paper on topic "Achievement to Physical Characteristics of Security in Residential Neighborhoods"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 201 (2015) 265 - 274

Asian Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies, AcE-Bs2015, 20-22 February 2015,

Tehran, Iran

Achievement to Physical Characteristics of Security in Residential

Neighborhoods

Maryam Sadat Naghibi*, Mohsen Faizi, Mehdi Khakzand, Mehdi Fattahi

a Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) , School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Tehran, 1684613114, Iran Abstract

Refer to Maslow security is one of the most fundamental human needs, and crime is a crucial issue of the human society. Some of the urban environment and physical characteristics have been investigated in Deh-Vanak. In this regard, it could be referred to CPTED method. The purpose is to identify criteria and principals that are about the sense of security.Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods concluded that there is a significant relationship between the characteristics such as lighting, public services, a presence of individuals, vegetation, and safety.

© 2015TheAuthors. Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityofAMER(AssociationofMalaysianEnvironment-BehaviourResearchers)andcE-Bs(Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Security; physical characteristics; CPTED; Deh-Vanak

1. Introduction

Feeling of safety is a crucial and fundamental need, ever bonded to the life, as scientists believe that it is one of the essential needs of the human being (Eldrige, 2005). Also, the conception of safety is an acute aspect of quality of life. Maslow classified security after basic physiological needs (Vasile et al., 2011). Carr (1992) believes that urban spaces are associated with social activities as well as urban properties. According to his point of view, a city needs an open space that people feel free mentally (Setyowati et al., 2013). Various fields have been studied relating to the connection of urban space and residents such as environmental psychology, human geography, urban studies, sociology, urban forestry, leisure sciences and tourism, and landscape architecture (Harting et al, 1991).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +98-912-2705508; fax: +98-21-77240468. E-mail address: maryamn15@yahoo.com.

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.175

The concept of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is concentrated in areas that often crime happens and investigating methods of decreasing crime (Taylor & Harrel, 1996).

This paper researches into finding criteria that could promote the sense of security in urban space and improve the quality of life, without undamaging the identity of urban texture. The primary goal is improving environmental capabilities of parishes for welfare and safety. This issue would be achieved by researching into questions: how would we design public space to promote the sense of security; what would users suggest; and what are main indexes of creating security?

2. Literature review

There are five theories in physical environment prevention that Siti Rashidah (2012) and Abdul Mohit & Hannan (2012) introduced them namely; 'Eyes on The Street' (Jacob, 1961), 'Defensible Space' (Newman, 1972), CPTED or 'Crime Prevention through Environmental Design' (Jeffery, 1971), 'Situational Crime Prevention' and 'Broken Window' (Wilson & Kelling, 1982). Crowe (2000) defined CPTED as "the proper design and effective use of the built environment which can lead to a reduction in the fear of crime and the incidence of crime, and to an improvement in the quality of life" (Cozens, 2002). Ray Jeffery (1971) introduced CPTED in 1971. In his surveys, he studied road layouts and land uses developed for public safety. This study was expanded by Newman in 1972 that presented the 'Defensible Space' theory. This method was affected by studies on environmental, physical construction on acts of crime (Rasidah et al., 2012).

CPTED is based on five major components, territoriality, surveillance, access control, maintenance and target hardening and support activity. Territoriality defined as a concept of reinforcing the nation of proprietary concern and a 'sense of ownership' in lawful users of the space and reduces the chance of offending by unlawful users. Surveillance is supported by physical design that enables the capacity to elevate informal and natural surveillance chances for people. If offenders realize that they are observed they are less possible to offend. Access control is a concept that decreases the chances of crime by throwing down access to potential target as well as the illustrating risk of offending to offenders. Maintenance and target hardening is to elevate a good image of the neighborhood to ensure that the physical environment continues to operate efficiently and transmits the positive signal to all users. Support activities defined as the use of design and sign to show the usage of public space to residence (Siti Rasidah et al., 2012; Abdullah et al., 2011; Shamsuddin et al., 2014; Zen & Ali Mohamad, 2014)

According to Siti Rasidah (2012), there are natural surveillance and mechanical monitoring. Natural surveillance covers the local community actions, building physical opening, and police patrol (Cozens et al., 2005).On the other hand, mechanical monitoring in tools such as CCTV (Kajalo & Lindblom, 2010), improve lighting system at night in case of reduce feeling of fear of crime (Perkins et al., 1993).

Poorly maintained neighborhoods show that the space is less defended and provided a situation for acts of crime (Cozens, 2002).

By definition of Oxford, crime is an action or omission that constitutes an offense and is punishable by law. According to Anderson & Jenion, (2008) crime has various cumulative effects on the aspects of finance and physiology (Abdullah et al., 2011). Saarinen (1984) suggests that the need for feeling safe is different from one to another as feelings depend on the attitude, desire, memory, expectation, the particular situation, actions and, experience. Razniak & Razniak (2014) defined security as one of the primary needs of human society that specify its function and develop.

The conception of safety is an acute aspect in the quality of life. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs is stated that man need to achieve certain levels of needs to be satisfied in life. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the aspect of safety is one of most essential needs alongside love, respect and self-development (Vasile et al., 2011; Saeednia, 2011; Saeednia & MD NOR, 2012; Cinar & Cubukcu, 2011; Asad Poor Zavei & Mohd Jusan).

In British Crime Survey (2005), among the items for measuring the feeling of safety are: (a) feeling secure when out walking in the neighborhood at night; (b) frequency of nocturnal outings within a particular period; (c) feeling safe when out during the day and (d) feeling secure being home alone at night.

Public open space has a positive influence on people's quality of life as one of the important urban environment elements (Naasution & Zaharh, 2011). Public open space is defined as a space that we share with strangers, friends,

and relatives. Urban public spaces are accessible to people and provide the ground for their activities (Jalaladini & Oktay, 2012; Nasution & Zahrah, 2011; Zakariya et al., 2014; Nasution & Zahrah, 2014).

According to Nasar & Fisher (1993) the physical environment is more important than the social environment. The fact is that physical environment design cover elements that may be a revision through planning and design for reducing opportunities for occurring crime. Outdoor lighting, reducing blind spot, surveillance cameras, personalizing the environment, creating territorial space, gating the area, building walls and improving the appearance could increase sense of safety and reducing the feeling of crime (Blakely & Snyder, 1997). Light, open space, and access to the real refuge are three most important physical characteristic of the environment to feel safe (Harting et al., 1991).

3. Methodology

The object of this research is investigating efficient characteristics that specifically effects on security in Deh-Vanak. The area that is selected for this field includes spaces in one of the old neighborhoods and green spaces in the north of Tehran, Deh-Vanak with a population of 2000 people. Nowadays, this area is limited to Niyayesh Highway from the north to Chamran Highway from the west.

For assessing the relationship between physical characteristics of Deh-Vanak's urban spaces and security, the study is set a questionnaire, formed of visual and multiple choice questions.

It seems that CPTED elements are not the only factors that affect safety. Other environmental and psychological factors such as socialization of space and place attachment have a strong influence on safety by promoting neighborhood's interaction.

The following characteristics have been extracted as the most important factors in providing safety.

Based on researchers, the reviews led to the extraction of elements for assessing the effect of vegetation such as height, density, maintenance, Visibility, view-obstruction. And, darkness and ability to recognizing people have extracted among the other factors of lighting. Neighbor relations have mentioned for urban furniture, activities, and rituals.

By field observations and survey, population and routes were identified as the other important factors in providing safety. Questions are designed in two groups: "visual Questions" and "multiple choice questions". Visual questions were intended to ensure the validity of multiple-choice questions. The questions are based on factors of population interactions and routes characteristics that extracted from field observation and survey in the Deh-Vanak area.

The researchers distributed the questionnaire randomly in phase one as a pilot study among 80 residents of the neighborhood in fall 2014 and in phase two as an expletive study among 120 residents of the area in winter 2014. The answers are experimentally measured adjustment and analysis of the questionnaire survey prepared the study. The final obtained results have been rated based on the Excel and SPSS software and presented by using descriptive-inferential analysis.

4. Outputs

Because of Iranian culture female participants did not participate well in the survey. On the other hand, as Maruthaveerana et al. (2014) have referred to Farrall et al. (2000) state that; there are no studies that only focus on males. By general socio-demographic predictors to account for fear of crime masks potentially significant individual psychological factors that should be conducted. Therefore, the sample was composed of 158 male (79%) and 38 females (19%).

Table 1. Gender.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid female 38 19.0 19.32 19.32

Male 158 79.0 80.68 100.0

Total 196 98.0 100.0

missing system 4 2.0

Total 200 100.0

Although data collected from people with deferent education level that sorted in five categories. Table 2. Education.

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Degree

diploma Associate

Bachelor Master PhD Total

37 8 8 200

49.5 24.0

18.5 4.0 4.0 100.0

49.5 24.0

18.5 4.0 4.0 100.0

49.5 73.5

92.0 96.0 100.0

After setting the questionnaire and reviewing the answers, the data from survey questionnaires were coded into SPSS software for descriptive statistical analysis. The weighted average was determined for each question. In SPSS, 1 is defined for very low, 2 for low, 3 for high and 4 for very high. To achieve the weighted average of each factor, the entire sample's weight are added and then divided into sample counts. According to quantitative results, lighting is the most important factor in creating a sense of security in Deh-Vanak. Quantitative analysis of the result concluded that in a hierarchical approach, there is a significant relationship between the characteristics such as lighting, public services, and the presence of individuals, vegetation, and safety.

Table 3. Weighted average for each characteristic.

Vegetation Urban Furniture Lighting Land Use Road Network Population

2.98255 3.5 3.8537 2.755 2.875 3.125

5. Discussion

Data and the results were analyzed separately for each characteristic:

• The results of the survey on affection of the vegetation on creating security:

72.5% of residents was opposed to the idea of reducing the light by planting trees, and 60.5% of residents believes that planting trees will cause in reducing the visibility of the area. Planting trees, shrubs, and bushes will effect on people interest to the area, but they won't be effective on the brightness of the area and even they may reduce the visibility and, intensify the abnormalities.

• Influence of urban furniture on security:

Public services (such as newspaper stations, ATMs, public telephones) can have a significant role in developing safety in the area. 69.5% of the respondents report that they would feel more secure if these services could be available all along the route. According to 85% of the respondents, the variety and distribution of these services will increase population, communications in the neighborhood and environmental security. The quantity of elements such as benches should be proportional to the number of users. This statement was approved by 89.5% of the respondents. Due to the lack of official attention to the urban furniture, these elements became useless and caused insecurity among 72.0% of interviewees. The elements such as sentry stations and the public phone will increase the quality of the surveillance in the area and also will increase the number of population. As a result, the security will be developed. 85.5% of the respondents would feel more secure by the sentry boxes around and 69.5 % by public phone along the alternate routes.

• The results of the survey on affection of the lighting on creating security:

Environmental lighting is one of the practical elements in causing safety in the areas. According to the survey, adequate and appropriate outdoor lighting is a major factor in developing social interactions. This statement was approved by 96.0% of those who surveyed. The study also showed that residents are not satisfied with the lighting of their area at night especially at the entrance of the streets.93.0% agreed the statement that outdoor lighting can allow most pedestrian to recognize faces in more details and increase visibility and also facilitate walking. 89.0% of residents agreed that the dark corners in neighborhoods cause crime zones and will result in insecurity.

• The results of the survey on affection of population on security:

84.5% of respondents believe the increasing of the number of population is one of the important factors in developing safety in the area, and also 82.0% of them believe that developing social interaction among neighbors will help this statement. Crime rates are low in those neighborhoods where neighbors know each other for a long time. Of course, simultaneously both high pedestrian traffic and low pedestrian traffic will result in crimes. Based on answers, activities that maintain a continuous presence in local areas and create active places, increase security in neighborhoods. Based on 82.5% of respondents, people feel less secure in vacant and deserted areas. Deh-Vanak also has places for locals to gather there and improve their social connections to each other and hold ceremonies and national festivals to improve neighborly relations. These kinds of activities are effective.

• The results of the survey on affection of ceremonies and rituals on security:

Based on answers, most of the residents have the intention to attend in ceremonies and rituals in squares, vacant areas, and especial places. According to interviews, ceremonies and rituals can detract presence of delinquent and increase security in empty places and unusable areas.

• The results of the survey on affection of activities on security

If the local businesses locate within the neighborhood, due to the presence of people in a familiar environment, a sense of safety will spread among residents. Answers show that residents have the intention to attend in activities that are located at the edge of their area rather than at the spatial nodes. In order to increase the sense of belonging and social control, the neighborhood should have shopping centers. 97.5% of respondents believe the hostelry centers can improve security in the area.

• The results of the survey on affection of routes on security

Route networks have a significant role in the security of urban spaces because routes width can provide crime situations. Preventing motorcycles to enter, separating the routes and creating activities along the routes can make a significant role in the security of the routes.

• Evaluate facilities and elements of the neighborhood according to responses and interviews:

Green areas were not created to make peace and security for residents. Lack of supervision by police, inappropriate lighting at the entrance of the streets and lack of attention to urban furniture caused insecurity in the area. Deserted buildings and ruined places create more insecurity than residential building with low quality and high-rise building.

Based on field observations, vacant areas caused security problems for residents. The walking routes are not suitable for improving social connections and promoting neighborly relations.

Fig. 1. Effects of the vegetation on security (Numbers are sorted by respondents).

Priorities indicate the importance of green spaces in creating the security of the urban environment. Studies show that most of all, bushes and green spaces with low and medium density create security in the environment. Green spaces with high density that disturbs visibility cause insecurity and people feel unsafe in those areas, so people intend to choose areas without trees in compare to those that are covered with the long and dense cover. In this figure, participants are asked to choose which type of vegetation makes them feel safer in the neighborhood.

Fig. 2. Effects of building's height on security (Numbers are sorted by respondents).

In figure 2, participants are asked to choose which type of buildings height makes them feel safer in the neighborhood. The findings indicate that most buildings with one or two floors create the most sense of safety in urban areas. An increase in the height of buildings in this area makes buildings with two or three floors also have high priority in building safety. But this conclusion doesn't match increasing more levels. Due to the considerable increase in population in high-rise buildings, people feel more security compared with buildings with four to five floors.

Fig. 3. Effects of the lighting on security (Numbers are sorted by respondents).

In figure 3 participants are asked to choose in which light setting they feel safer to go out in the neighborhood. And as they respond Factors such as lighting cohesion reduce the contrast between bright and dark areas and using multiple lights instead of a single light creates more harmony. If light settings make all parts relatively similar, more security could be felt in comparison with a variety of lighting in the environment.

Fig. 4. Effects of route's width on security (numbers are sorted by respondents).

Wider routes are efficient in the sense of security as the participants respond to the above series of illustrations. The participants are asked to choose the one that makes them feel safer. Streets traffic volume in residential neighborhoods effects on burglary and theft. It is reasonably considered that open areas with long view distances, make more sense of security in the area. According to the survey in Deh-Vanak, route's width is not suitable. Also, sidewalk and roadways are not properly detached. It can also affect the area's security increase.

Fig. 5. Effects of the urban furniture in security (numbers are sorted by respondents).

The equitable distribution of public services can be a deterrent for anemic behavior. Places with a large number of elements have the most attraction for people, so they create more security. Inadequate distribution of public services in Deh-Vanak can also play a significant role in the lack of security. In this series of illustrations, participants are asked to choose that the existence of which urban furniture makes them feel safer in the neighborhood. Among the elements, kiosks are more important than others. After that, public phones, benches, and flower boxes are also effective.

6. Conclusions

Quantitative analysis of the result concluded that in a hierarchical approach, there is a significant relationship between the characteristics such as lighting, public services, presence of individuals, vegetation, and safety in Deh-Vanak area.

The results indicate the importance of green space in the security of the urban environment. Planting trees and bushes effect on place attachment, but it should be done without reducing visibility (does not obstruct the view of access routes).

A variety of urban furniture increases population, neighborhood communications and environmental security. Number of elements such as benches should be proportional to the total number of users. Official's lack of attention to the urban furniture caused inefficiency and feeling insecurity among respondents.

Activities tend to be located at the edges of neighborhoods compared to spatial nodes. In order to increase the sense of belonging and social control, neighborhoods should have economic centers. Security will be increased by replacing the unrelated activities with the local ones and construct centers for providing the daily needs of residents.

Circadian activities cause the continuous presence of people and public scrutiny in different parts of the neighborhood. Promote community relationships can be useful on psychological aspects of safety. Darkness facilitates the perpetration of the crime. Adequate and appropriate outdoor lighting is an important factor of increasing social interaction. So lighting must provide security in the streets, paths, and urban spaces.

Route's width can provide crime conditions. Preventing the entry of motorcycles, separating the routes and creating activities along the way can play a significant role in safety. Using signs along the roads, improves the legibility of routes.

As a result, suggested strategies would create security in Deh-Vanak area as follows: According to the social differences that led to the disruption of norms, ceremonies and rituals can detract Presence of delinquent and increase security on vacant lands. Sports grounds, playgrounds, day markets and weekly markets can be replaced with abandoned open spaces, to decrease delinquents and sense of insecurity in residents. Due to the presence of people and public scrutiny in different parts of the neighborhood a sense of security for residents will be increased.

Organizing green spaces to create public places, promotes neighborly relations and place attachment to the environment. Considering suitable lighting in areas where plants and trees have been planted and removing dark corners that cause the possibility of trapping people will have a useful role in providing security.

The findings indicate that more than three-floor buildings are undesirable elements, which is better to consider in the future plans.

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