Scholarly article on topic 'Optimal Cluster Head Selection Based Energy Efficient Technique for Defending against Gray Hole and Black Hole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks'

Optimal Cluster Head Selection Based Energy Efficient Technique for Defending against Gray Hole and Black Hole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

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{"Black-Hole Attack" / "Cluster Head Selection" / "Energy Efficiency" / "Gray-Hole Attack" / LEACH / "Network Delay" / "Network Lifetime" / "Packet Delivery Ratio" / Throughput / "Wireless Sensor Networks."}

Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Snehal P. Dongare, R.S. Mangrulkar

Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), is prone to various types of attacks and security threats. Due to its dynamic topology, highly decentralized infrastructure and resource constraint sensors, proper energy utilization becomes a challenging issue. Such entities are responsible to make WSNs susceptible to various types of denials of service attacks which results in disastrous consequences like energy-hole creation in the network. Various cluster head selection based energy efficient protocols have been proposed to improve the lifetime of WSNs. In most of the energy efficient techniques, different approaches for energy utilization by sensors are proposed to extend lifetime of WSNs. The earlier scheme is defend against cooperative Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attacks that lead to performance degradation in WSNs containing mobile sensors. In order to overcome this, an energy efficient technique is presented in this paper to mitigate the impact of both kind of attacks simultaneously, on improving cluster head selection mechanism. Here, an energy efficient technique, on detecting and preventing compromised node to be a part on network communication in WSNs. The honest nodes is also determined to entrust as cluster head during packets transmission phase. The simulation results compare proposed protocol with state of the art LEACH protocol, which argues that the proposed scheme effectively minimize the chance of compromised node to become the cluster head and significantly improves network performance using networks dynamics viz. Packet Delivery Ratio(PDR), throughput, end-to-end delay and energy utilization in WSNs.

Academic research paper on topic "Optimal Cluster Head Selection Based Energy Efficient Technique for Defending against Gray Hole and Black Hole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks"

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Procedia Computer Science 78 (2016) 423 - 430

International Conference on Information Security &Privacy (ICISP 2015)11-12 December 2015

Nagpur, INDIA

Optimal Cluster Head Selection Based Energy Efficient Technique for Defending against Gray Hole and Black Hole Attacks in

Wireless Sensor Networks

Snehal P. Dongarea, Prof. R. S. Mangrulkarb

aM.Tech. (Computer Science and Engineering),Department of Computer Engineering ,B. D. College of Engineering,Sevagram-442102, WARDHA (M.S.) INDIA

"snehal.dongre@gmail.com

bAssociate Professor and Head,Department of Computer EngineeringB. D. College of Engineering, Sevagram-442102, WARDHA (M.S.) INDIA,

brsmangrulkar@gmail.com

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), is prone to various types of attacks and security threats. Due to its dynamic topology, highly decentralized infrastructure and resource constraint sensors, proper energy utilization becomes a challenging issue. Such entities are responsible to make WSNs susceptible to various types of denials of service attacks which results in disastrous consequences like energy-hole creation in the network. Various cluster head selection based energy efficient protocols have been proposed to improve the lifetime of WSNs. In most of the energy efficient techniques, different approaches for energy utilization by sensors are proposed to extend lifetime of WSNs. The earlier scheme is defend against cooperative Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attacks that lead to performance degradation in WSNs containing mobile sensors. In order to overcome this, an energy efficient technique is presented in this paper to mitigate the impact of both kind of attacks simultaneously, on improving cluster head selection mechanism. Here, an energy efficient technique, on detecting and preventing compromised node to be a part on network communication in WSNs. The honest nodes is also determined to entrust as cluster head during packets transmission phase. The simulation results compare proposed protocol with state of the art LEACH protocol, which argues that the proposed scheme effectively minimize the chance of compromised node to become the cluster head and significantly improves network performance using networks dynamics viz. Packet Delivery Ratio(PDR), throughput , end-to-end delay and energy utilization in WSNs. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open accessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the ICISP2015

Keywords:Black-Hole Attack; Cluster Head Selection; Energy Efficiency; Gray-Hole Attack; LEACH; Network Delay; Network Lifetime; Packet Deli-very Ratio; Throughput Wireless Sensor Networks.

1. INTRODUCTION

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), is a distributed system consists of Base Stations (BS) and large number of mobile Sensor Nodes (SN) that integrate micro sensing, computing and wireless communication capabilities, which are capable of detecting various events related to its surrounding environment such as speed, temperature, pressure, difference in displacement, light, etc. This paper proposes multi-hop inter-clustering protocol that selects most optimal Cluster Head (CH) with maximum residual energy at each round of CH selection mechanism along with preventing compromised node to become CH, which leads to better performance than LEACH. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II provides an overview of the original LEACH protocol. Section III explains the security constraints in WSNs introducing Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attacks, whereas other previous enhancements of LEACH related to mentioned attacks along with their performances are discussed in section IV. Section V focus on implemented work where detecting attacks and its impact on WSNs has been elaborated. The conclusion and future direction for further work is presented in section VI.

1877-0509 © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the ICISP2015

doi:10.1016/j.procs.2016.02.084

2. LEACH PROTOCOL

LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is a common clustering algorithm that allows dynamic selection of cluster heads for distributing energy utilization among all of the sensor nodes in WSNs. LEACH is divided into number of rounds for selecting cluster heads. LEACH uses one hop inter-clustering to reach the faraway BS which misses the cooperation among cluster heads which is a major drawback of LEACH as more energy is consumed by the sensor nodes that are far away from the BS. Multi-hop inter-clustering algorithm leads to better performance in terms of energy conservation that leads to increase in lifetime of WSNs. At the beginning of each round of CH selection normal node chooses a random number x between 0 to 1 and checks if it is less than a certain threshold value T (n)[20],then it is converted from normal node to CH node, where the threshold function is defined as follows:

i-T~—mVneG

Tin) = j l-P*{rmod[—)J (1)

VO, otherwise

where P is the desired percentage of CH which is a predefined value (e.g. P=0.01), r is the current round number, and G is the set of nodes in the last 1/p rounds, that has not been selected as CHs. The main purpose to design and develop an energy efficient technique for WSNs is to improve the network lifetime and to increase the overall performance of network. In order to achieve this goal, many energy efficient techniques are available based on different parameters viz. , to improve CH selection approach, to reduce energy consumption of individual nodes, on improving inter cluster communication mechanism along with an optimal technique of cluster formation, residual energy based approach ,on calculating threshold value to select optimal set of CHs on considering various network topological parameters like average distance between sensor nodes and BS, area of the field and number of sensor nodes deployed over field.LEACH is better than conventional routing protocols as the responsibility of CH is distributed around all the sensor nodes, and also data aggregation by CH from member nodes reduces energy dissipation of the network. But LEACH still ignores the residual energy at each node during the CH selection stage and also the impact of malicious attacks encounter in the WSNs. This ignorance motivates to work on this challenging issue.

3. SECURITY CONSTRAINTS IN WSNS

0 Sensor Nodes

0 Cluster Heads

• Malicious Node

■ Packets Drop

Figure 1. Design Overview of Attacks in WSNs

WSNs encounters number of security threaten attacks .A Gray-Hole (Packet Drop) attack or Black-Hole (False Report) attack is a type of denial-of-service attack accomplished by dropping packets. The attack can be accomplished either selectively by dropping packets for a particular specified network destination, a packet drops for every n packets or for every t seconds, or for randomly selected portion of packets, which is called Gray-Hole attack or in bulk, by dropping all packets. A malicious node may falsely

route and drop all the packets on the way and thus consume much of energy available, unnecessarily, such attack is referred as Black-Hole attack.

3.1. Gray-Hole ANDBlack-Hole Attacks in WSN

In WSNs, it is not viable to identify and protect each individual node from variety of attacks. To make entire network system unsecure, different types of security threats mostly during packet transmission phase are possible. Attacks on routing data can be done in two phases; in first phase, attack on routing protocol by jamming or flooding of information to a node. For example, Hello Flooding Attack, Acknowledgement Spoofing Attack etc. and second phase belongs to attack on delivery of packet transmission by creating a shortest, predefined path in order to divert traffic towards it. Black Hole attack is one of the examples that falsely advertise a shortest route to the destination and divert entire traffic to go through that compromised node. In this research work, an efficient and trust based secure routing protocol to detect and defense single and cooperative Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attack is presented. The approach is straightforward and trust based to determine trust level of nodes in order to prevent compromisednodes to become CH. In this paper, an efficient and trust based secure routing protocol to detect and defensesingle and cooperative Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attack is presented. The approach is straightforward and trust based to determine trust level of nodes in order to prevent compromised nodes to become CH.

4. RELATED WORK

Sheela D. et. al. proposed a technology that uses mobile agent as security solution that will defense against Black-Hole attack for WSNs. The proposed scheme is built to overcome the impact of Black-Hole attack using multiple BS by using mobile agents. The author proposed a mobile agent which is a program segment which is self-controlling. Authors also implement a simulation based model to recover from Black Hole attack in WSNs [2]. Ganesh R. Pathak et. al. proposed a secure routing algorithm to mitigate the impact of Black-Hole attack in the overall performance of WSNs [1]. Authors accomplish, a secure packet transmission protocol where trust based approach is used to defend against single and cooperative Black Hole attack. They proposed a protocol estimate trust metric to determine honesty of nodes during secure route discovery phase during packet transmission. Mahmoud M. Salim et. al. proposes an improved CH selection approach based on selecting maximum residual energy node as CH in their next round of CH selection mechanism and significantly increases the lifetime of each sensor nodes and hence of whole network [7].Yiping Yang et.al. presented an Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm (EECA) adapted two steps CH selection mechanism for WSNs, where in first step the node with the highest residual energy is selected as Anchor CH, and the Candidate CHs are determined according to their residual energy as well as the distance from the Anchor CH. In second, The Candidate CHs compete to be the CHs via a delayed broadcast mechanism. After finishing the Optimal CH selection mechanism, the Cluster formation begins. EECA [8] thus not only provides reasonable distribution of CHs with higher energy utilization but also efficiently balances the energy consumption levels of nodes and prolongs the network lifetime.

5. IMPLEMENTED WORK 5.1. Gray-Hole and Black-Hole Attack Detection Model

Sink Node

Figure 2. Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attack detection model

Wireless Sensor Networks is a large network of sensors which have the ability to communicate with each other. Since these sensor nodes are required to transmit the data from one sensor to other, routing and network management are done cooperatively by these nodes themselves. While transmitting sensed information, security is main concern in WSNs along with the energy efficiency approach. In WSNs of information transmission, AODV is a source initiated Advance On-Demand Vector Routing Protocol. Each sensor node has a routing table that maintains the information of next hop node to route to the destination. When a source node wishes to route a packet to a sink node, it uses the specified route if a fresh enough route to the sink nodes available in its routing table. If it is not, it will search route discovery phase by broadcasting the Route Request (RREQ) message to its intermediate neighbor nodes, which is further propagated until it reaches an neighboring node with a fresh enough route to the sink node specified in the RREQ, or to the sink node itself.In Gray- Hole attack, malicious nodes try to stop the packets in the network by refusing to forward or drop the packets passing through them for considerable periods. Each intermediate node within the range of CH on receiving the RREQ makes an entry in its routing table for the node that forwarded the RREQ message, and the source node. The sink node or the next hop node with a fresh enough route to the sink node, uni-casts the Route Response (RREP) message to the neighboring node from the node where it received the RREQ message. The node will update an entry for the neighboring node from which it received the RREP packets, and then forward the same in reverse route. On receiving the RREP, the source node will updates its routing table with an entry for the sink node, and the node from which it received packets for RREP. The source node starts routing the data-packets to the sink node through the neighboring node that first responded with an RREP packets. A Gray-Hole attack is different than that of the Black-Hole attack, in that during the packet transmission phase, it drops the packets for some specified interval of time.

In Black-Hole attack, it exploits a trustworthiness of a network by promising routing of data packets to the sink node, reporting falsely that it has a shortest path but in reality it drops all packets and consequently threatens reliability .A Black-Hole is a malicious node that falsely replies for any Route Requests (RREQ) without having active route to specified sink and drops all the receiving packets. If such compromised node works together as a group, then the damage caused will increase significantly. Such attack is sometime referred as cooperative Black-Hole attack. The primary goal of the proposed energy efficient technique is to detect the compromised node and prevent it to become a part of network communications. In both of the discussed attacks, if compromised node is selected as an CH that aggregates the data from member nodes of cluster, it may definitely reduce the energy of that node unnecessarily that will seriously affect the lifetime on sensors in each round of CH selection mechanism and hence of the whole WSNs. Also such selection of CH in WSNs significantly affects network throughput, end-to-end delay and packet-drop ratio. It significantly detects the injection of both discussed attacks and also reduces the impact of those attacks in WSNs with respect to the above discussed performance parameters. In the implemented work presented here, detection and prevention of the above two types of attacks is being carried out on following discussed algorithm.

5.2. Notations used for Implemented Algorithm

1. SNCH: Source Node CH.

2. SeqNo. : Sequence Number of CH.

3. NHNCH: Next Hop Node CH.

4. INCH: Intermediate Node CH.

5. TFGH/TFBH: Trust Factor for Gray-Hole/Black-Hole.

6. DNCH: Destination Node CH

7. FRqCH: Further Request for CH

8. FRpCH: Further Reply by CH

9. RIE: Routing Information Entry

5.3. Algorithm for Detection and Prevention of Black-Hole and Gray-Hole Attack

1. Select Maximum Energy Node as CH in first Round of CH selection using equations in 5, 6.

2. SNCH broadcast RREQ packet.

3. INCH receives RREP, RIE of INCH.

4. IF Received timestamp of RREP by INCH< TFGH, Make current INCH as Gray-Hole attacked node. OR

IF DNCHSeqNo>last(DNCHSeqNo) but HopCountLast(DNCHSeqNo) > TFBH at Node INCH ,ake Current INCH as Black-Hole Attacked Node and delete RIE of INCH from Source Routing Table. ELSE Route Data Packets to INCH. CurrentIN = NHNCH.

5. IF INCH is found Compromised Node, Broadcast FRqst CH to NHN CH.

6. Receive FRpCH and RIE of requested NHNCH.

7. IF NHN CH is not malicious,

Route data packets to selected NHN CH. NHN CH = SNCH.

8. Repeat from step 1 while NHN CH is not DNCH.

Whenever the node wants to make a transmission, it not only sends a RREQ in search of sink node but also in search of the restricted IP simultaneously. As the Black-Hole or Gray-Hole nodes send RREP for any RREQ, it replies with RREP for the restricted IP(RIP)also. If any of the routes responds positively with a RREP to any of the RIP then the source node start initiating

with the detection procedure for these malicious nodes. In the presented research work, LEACH an energy efficient multi-hop, inter-clustering routing protocol is being implemented to achieve significant increase in the lifetime of network.In this protocol, an inter-clustering communication among CHs is carried out based on the selection of most optimal CH with maximum energy in the clusters along with preventing attacked node from becoming CH. Algorithm for selection of CH at each round of CH selection is based on detecting compromised node first and preventing such node to become CH in the next round of CH selection mechanism. Such compromised node which may not effectively participate in the WSNs is being prevented from being CH to extend the lifetime of network and always achieve optimal selection of CHs and increases the performance of network related to packet drop ratio, throughput and end-to-end delay in WSNs.

6. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The implemented work for the proposed protocol has been categorized in three phases; in first phase the performance of WSNs with injection of two types of attacks on some nodes with respect to energy utilization is considered. In second phase, further work is implemented in which, the compromised node has been detected and prevented to become CH and in third phase, the performance in these two phases has been compared with the presence of attacked nodes. Performance is measured in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), throughput, end-to-end delay at several intervals for existing system.In this paper NS2 simulator has been used to evaluate the performance of WSNs before preventing the compromised node to become CH and after detecting and preventing of that identified malicious node from being CH. After recognizing the malicious node, the energy efficient algorithm presented here effectively prevents that particular node from being the part of network communication in the WSNs.

Table 1. Simulation Parameters

No. of Nodes 10,50

Simulation Area 1500*1500m

Initial Energy of Sensor Nodes 1 J

Simulation Time varies 20 s-1000 s

Transmission Range : 250 m

Packet Size 1024 bits

Pause Time 10 s

Maximum Speed 10,20,40 60 ,100(s)

Traffic Source CBR

Channel Type Wireless

Simulation Time 2500s

Packet Count 10000

Routing Protocol AODV

Data Rate 5Kb/s

Channel Range 11Mbps

The performance in both cases is measured in terms of data packets delivered to the sink node and delay caused during this transmission and also measuring the energy consumption at each node as the simulation time t progress during the communication phase in the WSNs. For this purpose, these two attacks are assumed randomly deployed in a network and act individually as well as cooperatively. With the presence of both attacks, the performance is analyzed with respect to packet delivery ratio (PDR), throughput, and end-to-end delay at several intervals for existing system. In the proposed work, the compromised node is effectively prevented from being a part of network communication at each round of CH election mechanism in WSNs.

In Fig.3, the average energy at each node is plotted against the simulation time t. Here the comparison is performed about 20 micro seconds of simulation time. Since the possibilities of malicious node to be a CH is prevented in the implemented work that may consume much energy in holding and diverting the packets rather than forwarding to the intermediate or sink node, the energy of each sensor is efficiently save to extend the lifetime of whole network.

In Fig.4, the graph for throughput in the network, where the number of packets on y-axis, per unit time of considered simulation time on x-axis has been plotted.

In Fig.5, the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) before and after attack removal is shown which is plotted against the PDR calculated with respect to simulation time progress.

Fig. 6, shows the performance of packet transmission among CHs during communication phases in WSNs in terms of end-to-end delay is plotted.The good-put of network is calculated with only real packet transmission that considers only those packets information which actually has been taken part in real data transmission. It does not calculate on retransmitted packets or even packets on considering only either sent or received information is available and not both.

* M se ^ am—

Figure 3. Graph for Average Energy Consumption in the Network

Figure 4. Graph for Throughput vs. time t

Figure 5. Graph for Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) Vs. Time t

Figure 6. Graph for End-to-End Delay in the Network

7. CONCLUSION

This research work presents energy efficient technique which is an effective solution based on some predefined trust values, to detect Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attacks in WSNs and generate a secure routing path from source to the sink node on avoiding detected malicious node during data transmission phase. The proposed protocol prevents the compromised node to become CH during the CH selection mechanism that significantly improves various network dynamics viz. packet delivery ratio (PDR), end-to-end delay. The comparative analysis is done using energy consumption by the existing LEACH protocol along with injecting malicious nodes in WSNs and the proposed protocol after detecting and preventing compromised node to become CH. From this research work, it has been concluded that the proposed protocol significantly improves the selection of CHs along with Gray-Hole and Black-Hole attack detection, and prevents compromised node to become a part of communication trajectory in WSNs. The

proposed protocol argues to be more energy efficient than the existing one. The simulation results signifies the performance of proposed protocol, preventing compromised node to become CH and is robust against both single and cooperative Gray-Hole and Black Hole attacks in WSNs.

8. FUTURE SCOPE

This research work can be extended further to modify the proposed algorithm to increase the communication among sensors on reducing communication overhead and hence to reduce network bandwidth consumption in the whole WSNs and also for to provide security over packet transmission phase along with reducing energy consumption in WSNs.

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