Scholarly article on topic 'Planning Practices For The Protection Of Cultural Heritage: Lessons Learnt From The Greek UNESCO Sites'

Planning Practices For The Protection Of Cultural Heritage: Lessons Learnt From The Greek UNESCO Sites Academic research paper on "History and archaeology"

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Academic research paper on topic "Planning Practices For The Protection Of Cultural Heritage: Lessons Learnt From The Greek UNESCO Sites"

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EUROPEAN SPATIAL RESEARCH AND POLICY Volume 22_2015_Number 2

10.1515/esrp-2015-0028

Marilena PAPAGEORGIOU*

PLANNING PRACTICES FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE: LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE GREEK UNESCO SITES

Abstract. As in all countries worldwide,in Greece too,sites selected to become part of the UNESCO's world heritage are representative samples of the country's monumental heritage and therefore constitute exemplars of planning adopted for their spatial protection.

By the case study conducted in the Greek UNESCO sites, it was revealed that, despite the fact that most of the monuments are subjects of multifile zoning, little is accomplished for their spatial protection. This iseither because zoning; and planning launched by the Ministry for the Environment is abient or taking; too long; to get approved or because zoning deriving from the Ministry ofCultufe is voit of spatial regulations. This means that on the one hand thee Ministry for the Environment should proceed ai a fasfer pace to the elabosation ot Local Spatial Plans that are necessary especially in the case ofmonumenis Sa aural setaings, while on the oSher hand the Ministry rt Culture should immediately proceed to the revision of Protection Zones A and B, so they fall into the guidelines of the new Law 33028 and they acquire spatial restrictions and regulations; a condition that can only be achieved with the collaboration among Spatial Planners and Archaeologists and among competent bodies.

Keywords: monumental heritage, cultural landscapes, spatial planning, UNESCO sites, Greece

1. INTRODUC TION

Heritage is a changing and variant concept, tackled differently among nations and with the passage of time. According to the UNESC O C onvention (19)772), heritage is defined as the 'built and natural remnants of the post'. However, it is commonly argued lately that heritage (natural and cultural) is not strictly material, but has intangible elements too (Vecco, 2010).

* Marilena PAPAGEORGIOU, Universriy of Thessrly, Department ofPlanning and Regional Development, Volos (Greece), e-mail: mpapageorgiou95@hotmail.com

Despite the fact that natural heritage has long been appreciated and considered in spatial planning, cultural heritage has been neglected for a very long time (Kunzmann, 2004). Lately though, governments and societies increasingly recognize the value of cultural heritage, both as a factor of societal and community well-being (Tweed and Sutherland, 2007) and as a factor of sustainable development (Kunzmann, 2004; CoE, 2005). At the same time, cherishing natural and cultural memories from the past is considered to be a sine qua non for strengthening territorial identities of cities and regions (Geppert, 2014).

Since cultural heritage is increasingly considered to be an invaluable asset - offering many opportunities and benefits to the countries and cities (Greffe, 2004) -more and more policies are beginning to include the cultural dimension in their concepts. Indeed, cultural landscape as a concept, as well as the importance of cultural heritage, were both included in all latest policies of the Council of Europe (such as the European Landscape Convention in 2000 and the Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, 2005). However, mere reference is never enough.

Cultural landscapes (either in the urban or in the rural space) are living environments for thousands of inhabitants, tourists, entrepreneurs and farmers. Therefore, pressures posed by their activities and the way they use the land are very particular and may become threatening to the landscape qualities and the cultural resources (Vos and Meekes, 1999; Kurz, Ruland and Zech, 2014). To the end of preventing further degradation of such resources and qualities, spatial planning can play a significant role, since it is of its nature to combine conservation and development at the same time.

But, what are the spatial planning tools and techniques that serve both goals (conservation and development)? According to Kozlowski and Vas-Bowen (1996), Buffer Zone Planning (BZP) is considered to be the one to fill in the gap between conservation and wise management in planning. After all, lessons learnt from the experience in natural conservation areas confirm that buffer zone planning is an ideal method for implementing gradual protection in the surrounding area of a protected space, without hampering all types of activities and development outside its bounds.

In this context, the present paper explores spatial planning practices launched in Greece for the conservation and protection of its cultural and monumental heritage. The paper records both the policies and measures with a spatial dimension implemented by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture, as well as the planning tools and zones launched by the Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, aiming at the spatial protection of the built heritage of the country. The efficiency of these tools and measures is particularly tested in the case of the Greek UNESCO sites, which are monuments of world importance and value, and therefore constitute exemplars of planning practices in every country. Following this analysis, the paper ends with the evaluation of the Greek framework (policies and planning tools) and with critical conclusions on spatial protection guidelines for the appropriate and optimal protection of the built and monumental heritage.

2. POLICIES AND TOOLS FOR THE SPATIAL PROTECTION OF GREEK MONUMENTAL HERITAGE

Greece is a country with a long and important history that is reflected not only in its numerous writings and myths, but also in its rich and magnificent monumental heritage spread all over the country and sometimes abroad. Indeed, according to a study conducted in 2010 (Beriatos et al, 2011), Greece counts more than a few thousand archaeological sites and another few thousand monuments of modern times.

The protection and preservation of the ancient Greek civilization and its countless monuments has been the concern of the Greek State since the liberation of the country from the Ottoman rule at the beginning of the 19th century. However, it was not before the beginning of the 20th century that Greece began to formulate clear policies and tools for the protection and conservation of its rich cultural heritage (monumental and intangible) (Pavlogeorgatos, 2003; Trova, 2003).

Today, policies and tools for the protection of the monumental heritage of Greece fall mainly under the jurisdiction of the competent Ministry of Culture, which is charged with the responsibility to proactively act for the protection, not only of the monuments found within the Greek territories, but also of the Greek monuments detached from Greece, or originally constructed abroad. At the same time, extra tools are also provided by the Ministry for the Environment, which is the competent Ministry for spatial planning tools and regulations for the protection of all kinds of valuable resources of the country.

2.1. The Spatial Dimension of Legislation Launched by the Ministry of Culture

The liberation of Greece from Ottoman rule (beginning of 19th century) is considered to be the milestone for Greek antiquities to acquire adequate attention (Pavlogeorgatos, 2003). Indeed, the first Greek Law setting specific rules for the preservation of the Greek monumental heritage was adopted in 1834. However, it was not until the end of the 19th century (1899) that the notion of protection was set as a sine qua non when dealing with the antiquities of Greece (Karybali-Tsiptsiou, 2004).

The Law of 1899 was amended several times, until it was totally revised in 1932. Codifying all previous legal documents, this Law 5351 of 1932 remained in force for seventy consecutive years and was the first to include spatial regulations for the protection of the antiquities in Greece (Christofilopoulos, 2002).

Indeed, article 23 of Law 5351 prohibited any construction and intervention at a distance of less than 500m from an ancient monument, unless previous permission was given by the Ministry of Culture. This means that in Greece it was realized early that optimal protection cannot be achieved if limited to the strict location of a monument. However, this early concern for launching a buffer zone of 500 m was not inspired in favor of the protection of cultural landscapes. On the

contrary, it was inspired in favor of the protection of underground space against any inappropriate construction that would result in harming the monument or its non-revealed parts in the proximity.

The first time that direct reference to the protection of cultural landscapes was made in Greece was in 1950. Following the European practice, the Hellenic Ministry of Culture introduced through Law 1469 the Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty, i.e. a zone applicable to areas combining exceptional natural and cultural heritage of all periods of time. These zones though - as launched by L.1649 - were only of semantic and not of practical use, since no spatial planning restrictions or obligations accompanied their designation.1

Today, after the amendment of the Greek Institutional Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in 2002 (Law 3028 of 2002), the new regulations with spatial dimension that were launched regard the following Protection Zones (applicable to all kinds of monuments in Greece, both of ancient and modern times):

- Protection Zone A: Zone of Absolute Protection that usually includes the strict location of the monument or archaeological site, in which all kinds of interventions and constructions are prohibited (with the exception of actions taken for the restoration and protection of the monument).

- Protection Zone B: Buffer Zone extending to such a distance as to include areas that interact with the monument and its surrounding landscape. According to the provisions of the Law, in this Zone, measures must include land-use restrictions and regulations, ensuring that the monument is protected from any kind of visual, aural and olfactory nuisance, as well as other nuisances that are provoked by inappropriate action and excessive construction activity.

Table 1. Codification of spatial planning tools for the protection of monumental heritage of Greece

Spatial planning tools under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Culture

1932 1950 2002 Buffer zone of 500m radius Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty (in 2011 transferred to the Ministry for the Environment) Protection Zone A and Protection Zone B

Spatial planning tools under the jurisdiction of the Ministry for the Environment

1983 1997 Zones for Building Activity Control Local Spatial Plans (at the Municipal level)

Source: processed by the author.

1 This deficiency of Law 1469 of 1950 was finally confronted in 2011, when 'Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty' were incorporated in the Institutional Law 1650 for the Environment (amendment of 2011, by Law 3937), becoming a concrete type of Protected Area of natural heritage in the country.

2.2. Spatial Planning Tools for the Protection of Cultural Heritage

Apart from the Ministry of Culture, responsibility for the spatial protection of built and monumental heritage in Greece lies also with the Ministry for the Environment. Former Laws for Spatial Planning (of 1997 and 1999), as well as their reformation in 2014 (Law 4269/2014), consider both natural and cultural heritage as invaluable assets of the country and therefore highly prioritized in terms of protection, when planning at all levels. However, among all levels of Spatial Plans, those achieving better conservation of monumental heritage are the Local Spatial Plans (at the Municipal level) which have a more regulatory nature (compared to the rest that are more strategic).

Other zones of a regulatory nature that also serve the spatial protection of monumental heritage in Greece are the Zones for Building Activity Control, applicable to peri-urban and rural settings only. Introduced in 1983 (by Law 1337), 'Zones for Building Activity Control' are now considered to be obsolete planning tools and therefore no new designations of such zones take place. However, the few existing ones (about 30 in the whole country) are still the only ones to provide spatial regulations for several monuments that are located in rural areas, in which no Local Spatial Plans yet exist.2

Finally, one should not forget that after 2011, on the responsibility of the Ministry for the Environment, lies the 'Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty'. As a concrete type of the Natural Protected Areas System, designation of a 'Landscape of Outstanding Natural Beauty' should be followed by a special spatial plan, providing the appropriate land use and building regulations for the protection of the cultural landscape in question.

3. MANAGEMENT AND SPATIAL PLANNING IN THE WORLD CULTURAL HERITAGE OF GREECE

3.1. Key Information on the UNESCO Sites of Greece

The UNESCO World Heritage Convention was adopted in 1972 and came into force in 1975. According to the official site of UNESCO, within the scope of the Convention, until the year 2014, 188 world sites were listed as world natural heritage, 745 sites were listed as world cultural heritage and 29 as mixed (natural and cultural) heritage sites.

2 Local Spatial Plans at the Municipal level are progressing at a very slow pace in Greece. In fact, according to a study made in 2014 in the University of Thessaly (Greece), only 16% of Local Spatial Plans were approved and only 31% were then in progress.

Fig. 1. The UNESCO sites of Greece Source: processed by the author

The UNESCO World Heritage Convention was ratified by the Hellenic Parliament in 1982. Since then, 17 designation acts (including 21 sites in total) took place in Greece between 1986 and 2007.3 Among these, 19 are cultural heritage

3 According to the official site of UNESCO, Greek Properties submitted in the Tentative List are the following: i) Late Medieval Bastioned Fortifications in Greece, ii) National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli, iii) Ancient Lavrion, iv) Petrified Forest of Lesbos, v) Archaeological site of Ancient Messene, vi) Minoan Palatial Centres (Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, Zakros, Kydonia), vii), Archaeological site of Nikopolis, viii) The broader region of Mount Olympus, ix) Archaeological site of Philippi, x) The Area of Prespa Lakes: Great and Small Prespa which includes Byzantine and post-Byzantine monuments, xi) Gorge and Samaria National Park, xii) Fortress of Spinalonga, xiii) Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea, xiv) Zagorochoria - North Pindos National Park, xv) Ancient Greek Theatres.

sites and 2 are registered as mixed sites (i.e. natural and cultural heritage sites). Despite the fact that Greece for the moment has no sites belonging to the natural heritage category, it is placed in a rather high position of the UNESCO ranking, considering both the size of the country and also the fact that many ancient Greek monuments - according to contemporary political geography - are now registered as sites of neighbouring countries.

The majority of UNESCO sites found in the Modern Greek territory regard monuments of the classical era; some of them are monuments of the Byzantine era (Monasteries, Medieval Fortresses etc), while only one is a monument of modern times (the Old Town of Corfu). The majority of them are non-living (uninhabited) monuments, while very few are living and inhabited/populated. However, it should be noted that sometimes human pressure in uninhabited monuments is much stronger, due to the tourism factor.

3.2. Spatial Protection Practices in the UNESCO Sites

In order to evaluate planning practices for the spatial protection of the Greek UNESCO sites, thorough research was conducted in several databases, both of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and the Hellenic Ministry for the Environment. These databases, as well as databases from the official site of UNESCO, are included in a special section of the References at the end. The information collected from these databases is presented in table 2.

Table 2 includes all 21 Greek UNESCO sites (categorized according to their character and location in urban or rural settings) and all existing spatial zones and tools (both under the jurisdiction of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and the Ministry for the Environment) for the protection of the monumental heritage of Greece. However, Buffer Zones of 500m radius (introduced by the Law of 1932) are not included in the Table, since they do not require previous designation and they apply automatically in all cases. Evaluating the information included in Table 2, it is concluded that:

- the vast majority of the monuments not only have Protection Zones A, but also Protection Zones B (buffer zones) for the optimal protection of the monument in question. Exception to this rule concern only a few monuments, located in urbanized areas that have no Buffer Zones;

- the vast majority of designations regarding Protection Zones A and Protection Zones B were made before 2002 (that is the year of the existing new Law for the protection of cultural heritage);

- when a monument is close to a settlement(s), Buffer Zone B usually includes part (or the whole) of the settlement(s);

- in monuments found close to the coast, Buffer Zones B include part of the marine space;

Table 2. Spatial protection applied to the Greek UNESCO sites

Greek UNESCO sites Protection Zone A Protection Zone B Landscape of Outstanding Natural Beauty Local Spatial Plan Zone for Building Activity Control

M Acropolis y y - y -

c3 <u § ■g Historical centre (Chora), Monastery of Saint John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse in Patmos y y - - y

.S3 Medieval city of Rhodes y - - y -

<u "Sa Daphni Monastery y - - y -

M Old Town of Corfu y y - y ** -

-¡y 'do Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessaloniki y - - y ** -

Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae y - y - -

Archaeological site of Delphi y y y - y

Sanctuary of Asklepeios at Epidaurus y y + - * -

Meteora (mixed site) y y - y ** -

M ft Mount Athos (mixed site) y y - X X

lu s Archaeological site of Olympia y y y - -

!3 Medieval Castle of Mystras y y - - -

, Ö Delos island y y + - X X

<u "Sa Monastery of Hossios Loukas y y - y -

c s Monastery of Chios y y - - -

£ '¿0 Pythagoreion of Samos y y + - - y

Heraion of Samos y y - - y

Archaeological site of Aigai (modern name Vergina) y y - y -

Archaeological sites of Mycenae y y y * -

Archaeological sites of Tiryns y y - - -

* Local Spatial Plan in progress ** Local Spatial Plan under revision + Protection Zone B exceeding to marine space X not applicable to the area, due to autonomous/peculiar status

Source: processed by the author.

- in the total of the UNESCO monuments located in urbanized areas, either an Urban Plan or a Zone for Building Activity Control is in value. On the other hand, only half of the monuments located in rural settings are subject to spatial planning regulations, either imposed through a 'Local Spatial Plan' or a 'Zone for Building Activity Control';

- in some cases of exceptional monuments, the Ministry of Culture proceeded to an extra designation, such as the 'Landscape of Outstanding Natural Beauty'.

3.3. The Case of the Archaeological Site of Delphi

The sanctuary of Delphi is a unique artistic achievement and one of the most famous tourist destinations in the world. Located in the mountain of Parnassos in central Greece, the archaeological site includes multiple monuments dating back to the Neolithic era, with the most important being those of antiquity. The archaeological site of Delphi is a typical example of an uninhabited site, situated in a mountainous and rural setting. Due to its importance, the Hellenic Ministry of Culture proceeded to the enactment of several legislative acts (starting from the early 1970s).

In 1975, the site was designated as 'Landscape of Outstanding Natural Beauty', while in 1985, a 'Zone for Building Activity Control' (extending up to the sea), was launched by the Ministry for the Environment, for the optimal spatial protection of the monument and its surrounding cultural landscape.

The archaeological site of Delphi was designated as world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1987, while Protection Zones A and B were launched by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture after quite a delay, just in 1991. Since both Protection Zones A and B were designated before the year 2002, their delimitation was based on a totally different concept from that described in the amendment of the Institutional Law for Cultural Heritage (Law 3028 of 2002). As demonstrated in figure 2, Protection Zone A does not include only the strict location of the archaeological site (as L. 3028 suggests for all Protection Zones A). On the contrary, it includes a wider area, within which several modern buildings and facilities (such as mills) exist. Regarding Protection Zone B, it was designed so as to coincide with the limits of 'Zone for Building Activity Control', which was designated 6 years earlier (in 1985).

Due to the early application of spatial planning regulations to the wider area of the site (mainly by the 'Zone for Building Activity Control') the archaeological site of Delphi constitutes an intact cultural landscape and one of the best spatial protection practices in Greece. Indeed, planning regulations adopted, managed to suppress unnecessary and inappropriate building activity and to maintain the rural and natural landscape intact. In this however, largely contributed the fact that settlements found in the surrounding area of the site remained small-sized, with no special needs for development or extension.

Fig. 2. Spatial protection zones in the archaeological site of Delphi Source: processed by the author

3.4. The Cases of the Medieval City of Rhodes and the Old Town of Corfu

Rhodes and Corfu both constitute cases of living (inhabited) monuments located in an urban setting in the insular part of Greece. In fact, they both constitute parts of medium-sized cities that are inhabited and extremely touristic places.

Designated in 1998 as a UNESCO site, the medieval city of Rhodes consists of fortifications built from 1309 to 1523. On the other hand, Corfu - which is the last of the 21 Greek UNESCO sites (designated just in 2007) - is an urban and port ensemble that, although built in the 8th century B.C., it is better known from the Venetian period (mainly the 19th century). Given their cultural - and touristic at the same time - importance, both cities obtained Urban Plans for the first time in

the mid 20th century (which is considered to be quite early in the Greek reality). It was then too (decade of 1960), that their first designations as archaeological sites by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture took place.

Since the Medieval city of Rhodes is clearly delimitated by its fortification walls, only Protection Zone A was designated for the site. The fact that no Protection Zone B was designated in Rhodes can only be justified by the existence of the Urban Plan. This, however, is not the case in the Old Town of Corfu, in which both Protection Zones (A and B) were designated, including vital parts of the old urban tissue and leaving the rest of the modern urban tissue to be regulated by the Local Spatial Plan (which is currently under revision).

Fig. 3. Spatial protection zones in the Old Town of Corfu Source: www.unesco-hellas.gr

The fact that both UNESCO sites obtained Urban Plans at a very early stage, has largely contributed to their spatial protection, especially since they both constitute highly visited tourist destinations. Indeed, Urban Plans proved invaluable in terms of wisely organizing the building activity and the land-uses both in the site areas and in their surrounding urban space. At the same time, designation of Corfu and Rhodes as 'traditional settlements' (in 1978),4 made possible not only the preservation of their urban structure but also the maintenance of their architectural features, so as modern extensions or building activity is in accordance with the cultural sites.

4 As 'Traditional Settlements' are usually designated villages, cities or parts of cities, with special architectural features, distinct urban form and unique social and historical characteristics, which may vary according to local geographical conditions and building traditions (Papageorgiou and Pozoukidou, 2013).

3.5. The Case of Meteora Mixed (Cultural and Natural) Site

The geological formations of Meteora is the first (of the two) mixed (natural and cultural) UNESCO sites of Greece, designated in 1988. Located in central Greece, Meteora archaeological site is a typical example of an inhabited monument (Orthodox Monasteries) in a rural setting, surrounded by a small-sized city (Kalam-baka) and a village (Kastraki).

It was first designated by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture as an archaeological site in 1929. For the optimal protection of the monument, additional designation of a buffer zone took place in 1967. A 'Zone for Building Activity Control' that was under process in the 1980s by the Ministry for the Environment was never approved. Spatial protection of the monument is achieved through regulations provided by an Urban Plan, which since 2012 is under revision in order to include the total area of the Municipality of Kalambaka.

Indeed, efforts made even by the first Urban Plan ensured that extension of Kalambaka city would take place on the opposite side of the monument area, as well as that building densities in the districts found in the proximity of the monument would remain lower than those in other parts of the city. Initial Urban Plan however, regulated only the strict area of the city of Kalambaka. That means that for a long time rural space and natural areas in the surroundings were left without planning regulations; therefore building activity in many cases proved a negative factor for the monument and its landscape. At the same time, urban regulations failed to protect architectural features of Kalambaka city, which is considered to be the reception pole and the gate towards the UNESCO site.

4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Greece is a country with a long and important history that is reflected in its cultural heritage (tangible and intangible) and its 'endless' list of designated monuments, dating from all periods of time. This importance of its cultural heritage was recognized early enough by the New Greek State, leading to successive enactments, which eventually formulated a strict and firm legislative framework.

On the initiative of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture, legislation regarding the protection of cultural heritage of the country was very soon enriched with a spatial dimension. In the beginning of the 20th century (in 1932), regulations proactive-ly protected the underground space of the area surrounding a monument (buffer zone of 500m), while by the 1950's protection expanded to the ground level and the cultural landscape as well (zone of 'Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty'). However, spatial protection of an area with a designated monument or site was never implemented, before the Hellenic Ministry for the Environment took action in the 1980s; then a series of 'Zones for Building Activity Control' and a series of Urban and Local Plans set spatial regulations and restrictions that on a secondary level protected several Greek monuments as well. Till then, all enactments launched by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture were dedicated either to designating a monument or site as protected, or to emphasizing its importance and value (when additionally designated as 'Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty'). This means that all actions undertaken for the monuments by the competent Ministry of Culture were void in terms of spatial protection, except for the case of the buffer zone of 500m. Even in this case however, conditional prohibition of constructions that is applied within it, results in a project-by-project and permit-by-permit approach that usually ends up working against the monument and its landscape value.

This deficiency in spatial regulations deriving from the Ministry of Culture legislation was finally confronted in 2002 (by the new Institutional Law for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Greece). By introducing Protection Zones A and B, the competent Ministry of Culture launched a zoning that would have clear reference to spatial rules and restrictions. However, few such zones were designated in Greece after the adoption of the Law, in 2002. The vast majority of such zones were designed before 2002, and still maintain the same limits as in their initial designation, circumventing the spirit of the new Law and its new concept regarding the spatial protection of monuments and sites. In addition, extra efforts of the Ministry of Culture in 2011 (to transfer the jurisdiction of 'Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty' to the Ministry for the Environment) failed too. Even today, 'Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty' are zones with no reference to spatial regulations, since the Ministry for the Environment has put on hold all such plans related to the protection of the natural heritage of the country.

As revealed by the case study conducted for the Greek UNESCO sites (which constitute exemplars in planning practices for the spatial protection of the heritage of the country), despite the fact that most of the monuments under protection are subject to multiple and complex zoning, little is accomplished for their spatial protection, especially in the cases of monuments found in rural settings. This is either because zoning and planning launched by the Ministry for the Environment is absent or taking too long to be approved or because zoning deriving from the Ministry of Culture is void of spatial regulations. This means that on the one hand the Ministry for the Environment should proceed at a faster pace to the elaboration of Local Spatial Plans (that are necessary especially in the case of monuments in rural settings), while on the other hand the Ministry of Culture should immediately proceed to the revision of Protection Zones A and B, so they fall into the guidelines of the new Law 3028 and they acquire spatial restrictions and regulations; a condition that can only be achieved with the involvement of Spatial Planners.

To conclude, despite the fact that Greek legislation provides adequate tools and zones for the spatial protection of the country's monumental heritage, simple designation and delimitation of such zones is never enough, if not followed by the implementation of spatial restrictions. Therefore, collaboration among Spatial Planners and Archaeologists and among competent bodies is not only necessary but also indispensable, if monumental heritage is to be appropriately and adequately protected. This cooperation is even more necessary in the case of the UNESCO sites, which are part of the world's cultural heritage. Addressing deficiencies of spatial protection for the UNESCO monuments can therefore become a unique opportunity for the establishment of close cooperation among Archaeologists and Planners, to their mutual benefit and to the benefit of the monumental heritage of each country.

REFERENCES

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CHRISTOFILOPOULOS, C. (2002), Cultural environment - spatial planning and sustainable development: shaping cultural (man-made) environment through spatial and urban planning: the city of the 21st century, Athens: P. N. Sakkoulas (in Greek)

COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2005), 'Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society'.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2000), 'European Landscape Convention'.

GEPPERT, A. (2014), 'Planning systems facing heritage issues in Europe: from protection to management, in the plural interpretations of the values of the past', European Spatial Research and Policy, Vol. 21 (2), pp. 9-12. GREFFE, X. (2004), 'Is heritage an asset or a liability?', Journal of Cultural Heritage, 5 (3), pp. 301-309.

KARYBALI-TSIPTSIOU, G. (2004), Monuments and their Habitat according to the Law

3028/2002, Athens-Thessaloniki: Sakkoula (in Greek). KOZLOWSKI, J. and VASS-BOWEN, N. (1997), 'Buffering external threats to heritage conservation areas: a planners perspective', Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 37 (3-4), pp. 245-267. KUNZMANN, K. R. (2004), 'Culture, creativity and spatial planning', Town Planning Review, 75 (4), pp. 383-404.

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landscapes', European Spatial Research and Policy, Vol. 21 (2), pp. 67-82. PAPAGEORGIOU, M. and POZOUKIDOU, G. (2014), 'Traditional settlements in Greece: spatial

planning and protection issues', Geographies, Vol. 24, pp. 107-125 (in Greek). PAVLOGEORGATOS, G. (2003), Conservation of material cultural heritage, Athens: Epikentro (in Greek).

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Legislative Documents

Law 5351 (1932), 'Antiquities' (Official Gazette 275/A/24.08.1932).

Law 1469 (1950), 'Protection of modern built heritage and works of art subsequent of 1830' (Official Gazette 169/A/7-8-1950). Law 1337 (1983), 'Urban development and planning of cities and settlements of Greece' (Official

Gazette 33/A/14-3-1983). Law 1650 (1986), 'Protection of the Natural Environment' (Official Gazette 160/A/16-10-1986). Law 3028 (2002), 'Protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage' (Official Gazette 153/A/28-6-2002). Law 3937 (2011), 'Conservation of Biodiversity' (Official Gazette 60/A/31-3-2011).

Online Databases for Cultural Monuments in Greece

http://www.unesco-hellas.gr - Hellenic National Commission for UNESCO (for Greek UNESCO sites) http://whc.unesco.org/ - UNESCO official site http://www.yppo.gr - Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism

http://listedmonuments.culture.gr - Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Permanent List of monuments)

http://odysseus.culture.gr - Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism (database MCT - ODYSSEUS) http://www.ypeka.gr - Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Climate Change (database of

Zones for Building Activity Control and Local Spatial Plans) http://itia.ntua.gr/filotis - National Technical University of Athens (Filotis Database for Landscapes of Outstanding Natural Beauty)