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Procedia Computer Science 79 (2016) 1044 - 1050

7th International Conference on Communication, Computing and Virtualization 2016

Development of Next Generation Encryption Algorithm for Data Transmission in 3G/4G network

Yogita Ganagea ,Vikas Kaulb

aPG Student, Thakur College of Engineering and Technology,Mumbai-400 101,India bAssistantProfessor,, Thakur College of Engineering and Technology,Mumbai-400 101,India

Abstract

Security plays an important part in communication systems. This work focuses on Development of Next Generation Encryption Algorithm enhanced by using variable key cipher where a stream of sub keys of AES is generated from the original key with feedback from previous cipher block and each sub block is encrypted with different sub keys. The use of variable key cipher makes the system nonlinear and creates confusion in the use of keys.

The above technique is projected to develop more resistance to attacks and structural analysis, thus increasing the complexity of the system. Performance of the system will be evaluated on the basic of Encryption time, Decryption time, throughput and CPU usage.

© 2016 The Authors.Publishedby Elsevier B.V. Thisis an open access articleunderthe CC BY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICCCV 2016

Keywords: AES ; S-box; 4G; IV; VKC

1. Introduction

Due to the powerful increase in the internet and other modes of electronic communication, electronic security has turned increasingly important. The science or art which surrounds the principles and methods of converting an intelligible message into unintelligible and then reconverting those messages back to their original form so as to store messages secure is called Cryptography. Cryptography is used to secure e-mail, messages, credit card info, and corporate data within the context of any application-to-application communication.

aEmail id: yogitabe2014@gmail.com, bEmail id: kaul.vikas@thakureducation.org.

1877-0509 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICCCV 2016 doi:10.1016/j.procs.2016.03.132

Two types of cryptographic systems have been developed for these purposes that are listed below.

Symmetric cryptography: It uses the equivalent cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext & decryption of cipher text.

Asymmetric cryptography: Asymmetric cryptography or public-key cryptography is the one in which a pair of keys (k1, k2) is used to encrypt and decrypt a message so that it reach securely.

2. Background

2.1 Advance Encryption Standard

The Rijndael proposal for AES described a cipher in which the block length and the key length can be separately stated to be a number of bits (128,192, or 256). The AES specification uses the equivalent three key size options but restrict the block length to 128 bits.

A numbers of AES parameters depend on the key length. The input to encryption and decryption algorithms is just 128 bit. The block is depicted as square matrix, which can be expressed by bytes as 4X4 matrix. This block is copied into state array, which is altered at each stage of encryption and decryption.

12S Bits ciphcrTcxt

Fig. 2.1 Advance Encryption Standard

Four stages are used, one of permutation and three of substitution:

• Substitute Byte: Each byte in matrix is changed using 8-bit substitution box i.e. S-box.

• ShiftRows: A linear mapping that rotates on the left all the rows of matrix.lst row is keep as it is, 2nd row rotates by 1,3rd row rotates by 2 and4th row rotates by 3.

• MixColumns: Every column of input matrix is multiplied by the mix Column matrix that provides the corresponding column of output matrix.

• AddRoundKey: Round key was merged with state. For each round key is acquired from main key through key scheduling; the round key is added by merging each byte of state with corresponding byte of round key using bitwise XOR.

3. Related Work

In Jan 2013, this paper [1] proposed to develop a more powerful algorithm for cryptography. This algorithm is based on AES to generate many keys from symmetric key, resist modern attacks on symmetric key cryptography. Parameter used in paper is Time Complexity, and Security. In April 2013, this paper [2] has discussed security issues of 4G networks as the recent expansion of wireless network technologies and the emergence of novel applications such as mobile TV, Web 2.0, and streaming content have led to the likeness of the (pre-4G) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) protocol to become viable with the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). In Feb. 2015, this paper [3] generated a new method of self-invertible matrix. In addition, a new method of generating sparse matrices based on a polynomial function and the process of conversion of this matrix without using standard matrix inversion algorithms is also presented. In Feb. 2015, this paper [4] at first new cryptography (Encryption and Decryption) algorithm has been generated by using some comparison of components like throughput of key generation, to generate Encryption text and to generate Decryption text. In July 2015, this paper [5] algorithms uses different length of the encryption keys, from 64-bits up to 256-bits.with the Longer encryption keys, also increase the robustness of the algorithms against the brute force. In Feb. 2015, this paper [6] introduced security enhancement for data transmission in 4G networks. Provide end to end secure communication by increase the complexity of the system. S-box enhanced in AES and Round structure used. Static S-box is made dynamic using cipher key. The inverse S-box is also modified accordingly.

4. Methodology

Idea behind this work is to provide end-to end secure communication and make the system more rebellious to brute force attack and structural analysis, thus increasing the complexity of the system. Objectives of this work to Provide end-to-end security in 3G/4G networks.

5. Proposed Algorithm

The Methodology planned in this research work is based AES with the feedback from previous cipher block to generate the stream of sub keys from real key, these steps explain the algorithm Step 1: Input the symmetric key, we name it as real key.

Step 2: Generate from the real key the first Pseudorandom sub key K1 using Pseudorandom key generator. Step 3: Encrypt the first plaintext block P1 by AES using K1 which generated in previous step. Step 4: Generate from real key the second key K2 using key generator. Step 5: Encrypt the Second block of plaintext P2 by AES using K2.

Step 6: Generate the next sub key to encrypt the corresponding Plaintext block and repeat this step until encrypt the last block in the plaintext PN with sub key KN.

Table 4.1. Key Generator

Key Generator Keys Cipher Key

K1 AES(IV) C1=k1 K2 AES(C1 XOR IV)=C2 C2=k2 K3 AES(C2 XOR IV)= C3 C3=k3 KN_AES(C4 XOR IV)= CN_KN

The entire research work could be fragmented into the following modular sections as follows:

• Encryption Module

• Decryption Module

• Key Generator

Real Key

Initial Vector

(128 Bit)

Plaintext

K1(128 Bit)

Plaintext

(128 Bit )

AES i i i i

K2(128 Bit)

i Plaintext

--------

(128 Bit)

K1(128 Bit)

Fig. 5.1 Key Generator

Fig.5.1 shows the proposed methodology to be adopted for encrypting the multimedia data. The overall operations are highlighted.

6. Expected Outcome

• The performance evaluation to be done based on parameters: o Time to Encryption and Decryption o Throughput,

o CPU usage and focus on speed.

• The Encryption time is considered as the time that an encryption algorithm takes to generate a cipher text from plaintext. Encryption time is used to calculate.

• The Decryption time is considered the time that a decryption algorithm takes to generate a plain text from a cipher text. Decryption time is used to calculate the throughput of a decryption scheme which indicates the speed of encryption.

• The Throughput of the encryption scheme is determined as the total plain text in bytes encrypted divided by the encryption time.

7. Experimental Results

The results carried out till the date is based on conversion time. Computer configuration used is Microsoft Windows 10, Intel core i3, 170 GHz, 4GB RAM Calculation of results is based on parameter such as Conversion time of Binary to Text, Text to Binary, Image to Binary, Binary to Image, Number to binary and Binary to Number and also throughput is calculated.

1. 12 KB size text file is used for calculate results:

Table 7.1: Time for conversion Text to Binary and Binary to Text

Conversion Text to Binary Binary to Text

Time in Seconds 0.002 Sec 0.004 Sec

Throughtput 2.5 Mbps 5 Mbps

Throughput ■ Textto binary ■ Binary to Text

Intel Core ¡3

Fig 7.1 Graphical Representation of Result for Text File conversion

2. 4 KB size of Image file is used for calculate results:

7.2 Time for conversion Image to Binary and Binary to Image

Conversion Image to Binary Binary to Image

Time in Seconds 0.044 Sec 0.043 Sec

Throughtput 4.4 Mbps 5 Mbps

Throughtput ■ Image to Binary ■ Binary to Image 5 4.4

Inte 1 Core ¡3

Fig 7.2 Graphical Representation of Result for Text File conversion

3. 12 KB size of Number file is used for calculate results:

7.3 Time for conversion Image to Binary and Binary to Image

Conversion Number to Binary Binary to Number

Time in Seconds 0.004 Sec 0.006 Sec

Throughtput 2.24 Mbps 3.24 Mbps

Throughput ■ Number to Binary 1 Binary to Numbe 3.24 2.46

Intel Core 13

Fig 7.3 Graphical Representation of Result for Image File conversion

8. Conclusion

In this paper, we introduced new powerful algorithm for cryptography. This work is based on AES .Next generation encryption algorithm is enhanced by using variable key cipher where a stream of sub keys of AES is generated from the original key with feedback from previous cipher block and each sub block is encrypted with different sub keys. The use of variable key cipher makes the system nonlinear and creates confusion in the use of keys. This technique makes the algorithm more rebellious to brute force attack and also protect from structural analysis, thus increasing the complexity of the system. Performance is evaluated based on conversion of Text file, Image file and Number file and result calculation is done on the configuration is Intel core i3, 170 GHz, 4GB RAM. Maximum throughput obtained is for text file which is around 5 Mbps and compatible with 3G network.

References

[1] Karsanbhai, G.R, Shajan, M.G, "128 bit AES implementation for secured wireless communication," in Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC),IEEE 2011,pp.497-501, 22-24 April 2011

[2] S. Sahmod, W. Elmastry, S. Abudalta,"Enhance the Security of AES Against Modern Attacks by Using Variable Key Block Cipher" in International Arab Journal of e-technology, Vol. 3 No.2, Jan 2013

[3] Bikos A, Sklavos N., "LTE/SAE Security Issues on 4G Wireless Networks," Computer and Reliability Societies (IEEE) Vol.11, no.2, pp.55-62, April 2013.

[4] Chhotaray, S.K.; Chhotaray, A.; Rath, G.S., "A new method of generating public key matrix and using it for image encryption," in Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), IEEE, pp.453-458, 19-20 Feb. 2015

[5] Nilesh D., Nagle M., "The new cryptography algorithm with high throughput," in Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI) IEEE, pp.1-5, 3-5 Jan 2014

[6] Scripcariu, L., "A study of methods used to improve encryption algorithms robustness," in Signals, Circuits and Systems (ISSCS) IEEE , pp.1-4, 9-10 July 2015

[7] Guo Guang-liang, Qian Quan, Zhang Rui, "Different Implementations of AES Cryptographic Algorithm," High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), (CSS), and (ICESS) 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on , pp.1848-1853, 24-26 Aug. 2015

[8] Kaul V, Bharadi V, Choudhari P, Shah D, Narayankhedkar S.K, "Security Enhancement for Data Transmission in 3G/4G Networks," in Computing Communication Control and Automation IEEE pp.95-102, 26-27 Feb. 2015.