Scholarly article on topic 'The Relationship Between Turnover Intention and Demographic Factors in Hotel Businesses: A Study at Five Star Hotels in Istanbul'

The Relationship Between Turnover Intention and Demographic Factors in Hotel Businesses: A Study at Five Star Hotels in Istanbul Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Turnover intention" / "Hotel businesses" / "Demographic characteristics"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Begüm Dilara Emiroğlu, Orhan Akova, Haluk Tanrıverdi

Abstract The study aims to determine the relation between the demographic factors (eg. age, gender, marital status, education) and the factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department and the turnover intention of employees working in hospitality industry. Surveys were used as the main data collection tool in the study. The study has been conducted in the various departments of five-star hotels in Istanbul and with a total of 297 hotel managers and staff from different ranks. In the data analysis of the study, t-test and ANOVA tests have been performed in order to determine the relationship between the demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, education and the factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department and turnover intention. The result of the study indicates that the demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, education, as well as the factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department are determinants for turnover intention.

Academic research paper on topic "The Relationship Between Turnover Intention and Demographic Factors in Hotel Businesses: A Study at Five Star Hotels in Istanbul"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 207 (2015) 385 - 397

11th International Strategic Management Conference 2015

The relationship between turnover intention and demographic factors in hotel businesses: A study at five star hotels in Istanbul

Begüm Dilara Emiroglua , Orhan Akovab , Haluk Tannverdic, a*

a,b ,cistanbul University, istanbul, 34126, Turkey

Abstract

The study aims to determine the relation between the demographic factors (eg. age, gender, marital status, education) and the factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department and the turnover intention of employees working in hospitality industry. Surveys were used as the main data collection tool in the study. The study has been conducted in the various departments of five-star hotels in Istanbul and with a total of 297 hotel managers and staff from different ranks. In the data analysis of the study, t-test and ANOVA tests have been performed in order to determine the relationship between the demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, education and the factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department and turnover intention. The result of the study indicates that the demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, education, as well as the factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department are determinants for turnover intention.

© 2015TheAuthors. Publishedby ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the International Strategic Management Conference Keywords: Turnover intention, Hotel businesses, Demographic characteristics

1. Introduction

The staff working in tourism industry have to deal with the needs of customers as well as to cope with uncertain conditions at work (Kim et al., 2009: 612). That hotel industry is an industry based on human labor and that employees need to communicate with customers constantly which create interpersonal conflicts, staff stress and burnout (Hu and Cheng, 2010: 1337). High job stress that brings about a decrease in job commitment is considered as a factor that impacts the employee turnover considerably (Tiyce et al., 2013:127).

The major problem in the hotel industry is high turnover rate (Faldetta et al., 2013:584). Employee turnover rate in the hospitality industry often averages around 200 % to 300 % per year (Demir et al., 2007: 477). According to National Restaurant Association, the overall turnover rate in the restaurants and hospitality industry in U.S was 66.3 percent in

* Corresponding author. Tel. + 90-0542-630-9052 fax. +90-0212-440-0166 Email address: oakova@istanbul.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the International Strategic Management Conference doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.10.108

2014, a % 10 increase compared to 2010 (National Restaurant Association, 2015). Likewise, average annual employee turnover rate was % 64 percent in 2010 (Australian Tourism Labour Force Report, 2011). In a study conducted in Istanbul Hotels in Turkey in 2013, the average employee turnover rate at the hotel was found to be 21.9 percent (Hatipoglu et al., 2013:31). Long working hours, low training, low salaries, stress, inadequate working conditions, poor management and lack of job opportunities, which is widely seen in the hotel industry, have led to leave employee jobs (Albattat and Som, 2013:64).

When an a employees leave their jobs, organization not only lose human capital but also endure the costs associated with high turnover of employees (Yang, 2008: 433). High employee turnover rate increase costs and affect productivity negatively (Lam et al., 2002:218). Therefore, the employee turnover is regarded as a negative factor that impacts quality of service, and mood of employee as well as profitability and other activities (Kim and Jogaratnam, 2010: 319). The effects of employee turnover on the organization are classified into two groups as direct and indirect effects. The direct effects may emerge when the costs of training and hiring new employees increase. Whereas, the indirect effects occur when the j ob satisfaction, organizational commitment, productivity decrease and subsequently the quality of service and reputation of the organization decrease (Faldetta et al., 2013: 584; Foreman 2009: 356; Hemdi and Nasurdin, 2004: 64). These adverse effects lead to degradation of quality of service subsequently and loss of customers (Hemdi and Nasurdin, 2004: 64).

One of the most important factors in the success of the tourism industry are employees. The competitiveness of tourism organizations and their survival depends on the quality of the services that they offer. In this case, tourism industry not only need to have trained staff that perform their roles effectively but should also need to retain their staff (Subramanian and Shin, 2013: 1751). For that reason, the factors that affect the turnover intention needs to be determined in order not to lose employees, to ensure their satisfaction and to meet their needs (Kim and Jogaratnam, 2010: 319).

Due to all these factors, turnover intention is of major importance in hospitality. Therefore, the study aims to determine the effect of the demographic factors and factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department on turnover intention.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Turnover Intention

Turnover intention is considered "to be conscious and deliberate wilfulness to leave the organization" (Tett and Meyer: 1993:262). Turnover intention is the intention to resign from his or her current job and the tendency to seek employment in other organization of an employee (Jung et al., 2012: 2148). In this regard, turnover intention represent that the personal estimate of the probability of an individual leaving work in the near future (Cho et al., 2009:374). Turnover intentions are divided into two categories: voluntary turnover and involuntary turnover (Albattat and Som, 2013: 63; Lam et al., 2003: 162). Voluntary turnover intention is the decision of an employee to leave the organization. Involuntary turnover intention, on the other hand, is the departure of an employee initiated by the employer (Lam et al., 2003: 162). Both the impact of the personnel's voluntarily turnover and personnel's involuntarily turnover to organization is enormous. Leave to job effects directly customers' perception of service quality degradation, the reduction of employees' job satisfaction and morale, increased of staff training costs and personal improvement (Cho et al, 2009:374)

The reasons of employee turnover can generally be divided into three categories as work-related factors (e.g. job satisfaction, wage, performance, organizational commitment), individual factors (e.g. age, education, gender, tenure) and external factors (e.g. unemployment rate, perceptions of employment, presence of trade union (Foreman, 2009: 357).

One of the most important factors of employee turnover is salary. Except the wage, the reasons of employee turnover are employees feeling the job or workplace is not what they expected, there is a mismatch between the job and person, there is too little coaching and feedback, there are few growth and career opportunities, employees feel devalued and unrecognized, employees feel stress from overwork and have a work/life imbalance, there is a loss of trust and confidence in senior leaders (Yazinski, 2009).

Despite being an undesired situation for organizations, turnover intention plays an important role since it is a determinant to minimize the negative impacts on organizational productivity (Kim et al., 2005: 175). High employee

turnover rate is a major problem in hospitality industry (Lam et al., 2002: 218). Researchers have tried to uncover the reasons for employee turnover in the hospitality industry (Cho et al., 2009: 374).

Wood and Macaulay (1989) have conducted a study to determine why employees work in hospitality leave their jobs. According to them, reasons for employees' turnover are quality of supervision, lack of communication, working conditions, not to be compatible with company culture, low pay and few benefits, lack of clear definition of responsibilities, no direction on what to do (Gustafson, 2002:108). Getz (1994) highlighted that the hospitality industry involves common and undesirable characteristics such as low wages, poor working conditions, lack of occupational safety, lack of promotion opportunities and all these factors result in increasing staff turnover rate. Hai-Yan and Baum (2006) indicated that employees do not desire to work for a long time in hotels due to demanding responsibilities, low wage, and other uncertain promotion opportunities, which leads to low quality human resources.

Other researchers studying on the reasons of employee turnover in the hospitality industry found that the most important factors supporting the turnover intention are pay and benefits, job satisfaction as a whole, relationship with the coworkers, whether pre-employment expectations are met or not, tenure, job performance, internal motivation, job status (hourly vs. salary), job stress, complexity (Pizam and Thornburg, 2000), company factors (etc. job environment, company sub-culture, company decision-making, management style, owner's financial status), compensation and promotion channels (etc. higher paid positions, bonuses and incentives, career promotion systems), personal feelings, the nature of hotel industry, work content (etc. lack of motivation, excessive information processing, the monotony of daily work, change in philosophy of business operations (Yang et al., 2012), low salary, poor working conditions, job stress, injustice (Albattat and Som, 2013).

Some of the studies on turnover intention in tourism industry found out that demographic variables have an effect on turnover intention. Age was found to be a determinant on turnover intention, and a negative relationship between age and turnover intention was found; it was also argued that the turnover intention of older employees is generally low (Carbery et al., 2003; Ghiselli et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2010; Karatepe et al., 2006; Pizam and Thornburg, 2006;). Additionally, the studies on gender and turnover intention indicated that the factor of gender is a determinant for turnover intention (Carbery et al., 2003; Karatepe et al., 2006; Uludag et al., 2011). In some of the studies on the relationship between educational level and turnover intention, a positive relationship was found between these factors and it was concluded that the people with low educational level have a lower turnover intention (Carbery et al., 2003), whereas some of the studies found a negative relationship (Karatepe et al., 2006). Marital status was also revealed to be a determinant for turnover intention (Carbery et al., 2003).

Various studies on the turnover intention aimed to reveal the effect of the factors such as wage, tenure, position, working department other than the demographic characteristics on turnover intention and the relationship between them. Wage was found to be associated with turnover intention and it was concluded that low wage strengthens turnover intention (Albattat and Som, 2013; Carbery et al., 2003; Ghiselli et al., 2001; Pizam and Thornburg, 2000). Tenure was also found as one of the major determinant factors of turnover intention and it was revealed that the people with high tenure have generally have lower turnover intention (Karatepe et al.,, 2006; Nadiri and Tanova, 2010; Uludag et al., 2011). The factor of position was also revealed to be a determinant for turnover intention and generally it was revealed that people with low position have generally higher turnover intention more than people with high position (Carbery et al., 2003; Ghiselli et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2010). Likewise the position, the factor of working department were also revealed to be a determinant for turnover intent and it was concluded that the factor of working department affect to turnover intention (Gallardo et al., 2010; Pizam and Thornburg, 2000). Moreover, in many studies, job satisfaction was found to be one of the determinants for turnover intention and it was indicated that those with low job satisfaction have a higher turnover intention (Carbery et al., 2003; Hemdi and Nasurdin, 2004; Kim et al., 2005; Zopiatis et al., 2014). Organizational commitment and organization support were also found to be one of the determinants of turnover intention and there was a negative relationship between these aspects and turnover intention (Carbery et al.,, 2003; Cho et al., 2009; Yang, 2008).

3. Methodology

3.1. Purpose of Study

This study is deemed important in order to determine the demographic factors and factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department that have an impact on the turnover intention of the employees working at five-star

hotels in Istanbul and to identify the attitudes of staff towards their turnover intention. That said, the research hypotheses were determined as follows:

H1: There is a significant difference between the demographic factors and turnover intention.

H2: There is a significant difference between the tenure and turnover intention.

H3: There is a significant difference between the position and turnover intention.

H4: There is a significant difference between the wage and turnover intention.

H5: There is a significant difference between the working department and turnover intention.

3.2 Importance of the Study

One of the major problems in the contemporary tourism industry is the high turnover rate of staff. There are direct and indirect factors of employee turnover such as increasing costs of training and hiring new employees, decreasing employee productivity, satisfaction, commitment and mood, and subsequently degradation of quality of service and poor organizational image. Therefore, the factors that impact employee turnover should be determined to reduce the turnover of employees, which will affect employee productivity, satisfaction and commitment and also have a contribution in organization productivity, service quality and organization image in the long term. The study considering all these factors has an important place in determining the demographic factors and factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department that impact the turnover intention of employees working in five-star hotels in Istanbul.

3.3. Population and Sampling of the Study

The population of the study is composed of employees working in five-stars hotels in Istanbul. The sample of the study consists of 297 managers and staff working in a total of ten five-star hotels that were selected conveniently among hotels in Istanbul. Due to time and cost constraints, a total of eight five-star hotels were selected and 400 survey forms were distributed by visiting these hotels. A total of 310 forms were received and 13 of them were not taken into consideration since they were incomplete. 297 surveys were used during data analysis.

3.4. Method of the Study

The study was conducted between September and February 2015. A scale of three questions and with a single factor developed by Mobley, Griffeth, Hand ve Meglino (1979) was used to evaluate the turnover intention of the participants of the survey. A five-point Likert scale was utilized in the survey form. The evaluation options in regard to the concepts of turnover intention are listed as follows: (1) I definitely disagree, (2) I disagree, (3) I neither agree nor disagree, (4) I agree, (5) I definitely agree. The internal reliability of the scale of turnover intention was found as 0.980. The findings were analyzed by means of t-tests and Anova tests in order to determine the demographic factors and factors such as tenure, wage, position, working department that might have an impact on the turnover intention of the staff who participated in the study.

4. FINDINGS

Table 1 indicates the distribution of the participants in terms of demographic characteristics. 48.8% of the participants of the study are male, and 51.2% are female. 75.8% of the participants are married whereas 24.2% are single. 44,1% of them are between 18-35 years old, 49% are between 36-55 years old, 6.7% are 56 years old and older. In terms of education level, a high majority of the participants as much as 54.9% are university graduates. In terms of tenure, a high majority of them as 38.0% have been working in their current job for 5-7 years. Furthermore, in terms of their working department, the majority of the participants are staff (30.6%) work in the food and beverage department, 19.2% work in the housekeeping department, and 15.2% work in the kitchen and front office departments. In terms of position, the majority (79.8%) are staff without managerial responsibilities while in terms of wage, 80.5% of them have a wage between 1500-1999 Turkish Liras.

Table 1 : Descriptive Information on the Demographic Information of the Participants

GENDER (f) (%) MARITAL (f) (%) EDUCATION (f) (%) POSITION (f)

Female 145 48.8 STATUS Primary School 30 10.1 Manager 28 (%)

Male 152 51.2 Married 225 75.8 Secondary School 23 7.7 Assistant Manager 14 9.4

TOTAL 297 100 Single 72 24.2 High School 64 21.5 Chief 18 4.7

TOTAL 297 100 University 163 54.9 Staff 237 6.1

Other 17 5.7 TOTAL 297 79.8

TOTAL 297 100 100

AGE (f) (%) TENURE (f) (%) WAGE (f) (%) DEPARTMENT (f) (%)

18-25 57 19.2 1 year and less 20 6.7 1500-1999 TL 239 80.5 Front Office 45 15.2

26-35 74 24.9 2-4 years 72 24.2 2000-2499 TL 27 9.1 Housekeeping 57 19.2

36-45 118 39.7 5-7 years 113 38.0 2500-2999 TL 21 7.1 Food and 91 30.6

46-55 28 9.4 8-10 years 76 25.6 3000-3499 TL 7 2.4 Beverage 45 15.2

56 and older 20 6.7 10 years and more 16 5.4 3500 and above TL 3 1.0 Kitchen 12 4.0

TOTAL 297 100 TOTAL 297 100 TOTAL 297 100 Accounting 8 2.7

HR 37 12.5

Technical Service 2 0.7

Purchasing 297 100

Table 2 indicates the distribution in regard to frequency and percentage of the answers of the participants. In terms of the answers of the participants on turnover intention, 62.0% of them stated that they do not think of leaving from the organization that they are currently working in; 59.5% stated that they do not actively seek for alternative employment, and 62.3% stated that they would not resign from the organization at the earliest possible opportunity. The turnover intention of the participants was found to be at a moderate level (2,6397).

Table 2: Descriptive Information on the Responses and the Turnover Intention Levels of the Participants

I definitely disagree/ I disagree I neither agree nor disagree I definitely agree/ I agree N X S

f % f % F %

I am thinking of resigning from this organization. 184 62.0 3 1.0 110 37.0 297 2.6431 1.57060

I am actively looking for alternative employment. 178 59.5 2 0.7 117 39.4 297 2.6599 1.54947

I will resign from this organization at the earliest possible opportunity. 185 62.3 2 0.7 110 37.0 297 2.6162 1.56853

Turnover Intention 297 2.6397 1.53219

Testing the Hypotheses

H1 hypothesis was tested according to the variables such as gender, age, education level and marital status in order to determine the effects of the demographic factors on turnover intention

Table 3: Independent Samples T-Test Indicating the Difference of Turnover Intention among the Employees in terms of Gender

Gender N X S df t P

Male 145 2,3080 1.46043 294,996 -3,727 ,000*

Female 152 2,9561 1.53674

*p<0,05

A significant difference between gender and turnover intention (p<0,05) and gender was found based on the t-test analysis. Females have a higher turnover intention than males (X =2,9561). This result is consistent with previous studies that found females have a higher turnover intention than males (Carbery et al.,, 2003; Cotton and Tuttle, 1986; Lambert, 2006).

Table 4: Independent Samples T-Test Indicating the Difference of Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Marital Status

Marital Status N X S df t P

Married 225 2,2696 1,42727 134,839 -8,691 ,000*

Single 72 3,7963 1,25292

*p<0,05

It was found a significant difference between marital status and turnover intention (p<0,05) and marital status was found based on the t-test analysis. In this study, it was concluded that single people have a higher turnover intention than married people (X=3,7963). This result is consistent previous studies made by Carbery et al., 2003 and Cotton and Tuttle, 1986.

Table 5: ANOVA Table Showing the Difference of Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Age

Age N X S Difference df F P

18-25 (1) 57 3,9123 1,15909 1-3 1-4 1-5

26-35 (2) 118 3,3955 1,11854 2-3 2-4 2-5

36-45 (3) 74 1,4414 ,08414 3-1 3-2 3-5 4 65,146 ,000*

46-55 (4) 28 1,2024 ,07540 4-1 4-2

56 age and + (5) 20 1,0000 ,00000 5-1 5-2 5-3

*p<0,05

As can be seen in table 5, it was found a significant difference between age and turnover intention (p<0,05) and the factor of age was found to be a determinant on turnover intention. In research, older people who is located in the age groups 46-55 and 56 years and over have lower turnover intention than young people who is located in other age groups (X= 3,9123, 3,3955, 1,4414, 1,2024, 1,0000). Previous studies have found similar results and they support this finding that older people have lower turnover intention than young people (Chen et al., 2010; Cotton and Tuttle, 1986; Iverson and Deery, 1997; Lambert, 2001; Lambert, 2006; Martin and Roodt, 2008). As a result of the analyses, between in 1825 and 26-35 age groups, between in 36-45 and 46-55 age groups and finally between in 46-55 and 56 years and over age groups, it wasn't have any difference, it was observed difference among in other age groups except for this age groups.

Table 6: ANOVA Table Showing the Difference of Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Education Level

Education Level N X S Difference df F P

Primary School (1) 30 1,5333 1,01935 1-4 1-5

Secondary School (2) 23 1,6087 ,80184 2-4 2-5

High School (3) 64 2,0365 1,06924 3-4 3-5

University (4) 163 3,0593 1,56826 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-5 4 21,209 ,000*

Other (5) 17 4,2353 1,21772 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4

*p<0,05

As a result of the analyses, a significant difference between education level and turnover intention was also found (p< 0.05). People who have lower levels of education such as primary school, secondary school, high school have lower turnover intention compared to people who have higher levels of education such as university and higher (X= =1,5333, 1,6087, 2,0365, 3,0593, 4,2353). This finding is similar to that of the earlier research which found that people who have low levels of education have low turnover intention (Chen et al., 2010; Iqbal, 2010; Khatri, 2001; Lambert, 2006). There were no significant differences found among primary, secondary and high school graduates.

According to the results, there was a significant difference between the demographic factors and turnover intention, and hypothesis H1 was not rejected.

Table 7: ANOVA Table Showing the Difference of Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Tenure

Tenure N X S Difference df F P

1 year and less (1) 20 4,3500 ,81273 1-3 1-4 1-5

2-4 years (2) 72 3,8194 1,19589 2-3 2-4 2-5

5-7 years (3) 113 2,5870 1,50018 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-5 4 50,907 ,000*

8-10 years (4) 79 1,4167 ,60154 4-1 4-2 4-3

10 year and more (5) 13 1,3750 ,46944 5-1 5-2 5-3

*p<0,05

As can be seen in table 7, there is a significant difference between tenure and turnover intention (p<0,05) and hypothesis H2 was not rejected. In this research, it was concluded that people who have tenure of 5-7 years, 8-10 years and 10 years and over have lower turnover intention compared to people who have relatively short tenure such as one year and less, 2-4 years. (X=4,3500, 3,8194, 2,5870, 1,4167, 1,3750). This finding corresponds with previous studies that found people who have long tenure have low turnover intention more than people who have short tenure (Cotton and Tuttle, 1986; Lambert, 2006; Martin and Roodt, 2008). No significant difference was found between in 1 year and less and 2-4 years tenure groups as well as among 8-10 years and 10 years and more tenure groups.

Table 8: ANOVA Table Showing the Difference and Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Position

Position N X S Difference df F P

Manager (1) 28 1,1786 ,35697 1-3 1-4

Assistant Manager (2) 14 1,2619 ,43713 2-3 2-4 3 17,486 ,000*

Chief (2) 18 2,3704 1.17651 3-1 3-2

Staff (3) 237 2,9142 1.54031 4-1 4-2

*p<0,05

A significant difference between position and turnover intention was also found (p<0,05) and hypothesis H3 was not rejected. Employees who have higher position such as managers and assistant managers have lower turnover intention than people who have low position such as chief and baseline staff. (x=1,1786, 1,2619, 2,3704, 2,9142). This finding is consistent with previous studies that found people who have higher position have lower turnover intention compared to people who have lower positions. (Abdullah et al., 2010; Radzi et al., 2009). Moreover, there were no significant differences between in manager-assistant manager position groups and between in chief-baseline staff position groups.

Table 9: ANOVA Table Showing the Difference of Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Wage

Wage N X S Difference df F P

1500-1999 TL (1) 239 2,9010 1,54090 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5

2000-2499 TL (2) 27 2,0370 1,09908 2-1 2-3 2-4 2-5 4 11,553 ,000*

2500- 2999 TL (3) 21 1,1746 ,35931 3-1 3-2

3000-2499 TL (4) 7 1,1429 ,37796 4-1 4-2

3500 and more TL (5) 3 1,000 ,00000 5-1 5-2

*p<0,05

A significant difference wage and turnover intention was found (p<0,05) and hypothesis H4 was not rejected. Employees who are paid between 1500-1999 TL and 2000-2499 TL have relatively lower wage groups have higher turnover intention than people who have higher wage; 2500 TL and over. This finding corroborates with previous studies that argue staff who have low wage have a higher turnover intention. (Albattat and Som, 2013; Carbery et al, 2003; Pizam and Thornburg, 2000).

Table 10: ANOVA Test Showing the Difference of Turnover Intention of the Employees in terms of Working Departments

Working Department N X S Differenc e Working Departmen t N X S Differenc e d f F P

Front Office (1) 4 5 3,629 6 1,4128 2 1-2 1-5 1-6 1-7 Purchasing (5) 2 1,000 0 ,00000 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4

Housekeepin g (2) 5 7 1,538 0 ,79870 2-1 2-3 2-4 Technical Service (6) 3 7 1,423 4 ,60680 7-1 7-3 7-4 7 27,64 7 ,000 *

Food and Beverage (3) 9 1 3,186 8 1,4480 4 3-2 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 Kitchen (7) 4 5 3,607 4 1,3564 1 4-2 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8

Accounting (4) 1 2 1,333 3 ,86457 5-1 5-3 5-4 Human Resources (8) 8 1,250 0 ,46291 6-1 6-3 6-4

*p<0,05

A significant difference between working department and turnover intention was also found (p<0,05) and hypothesis H5 was not rejected. The staff working front office, food and beverage and kitchen had a higher turnover intention than those working in other departments. It was concluded that particularly the staff working in the front line (especially in front desk and food and beverage) had a higher turnover intention than those working in the back of the office (human resources, accounting, purchasing). Furthermore, it was found that the kitchen staff in back office are quite dissatisfied with their job. In the study also found that staff working in the housekeeping and technical service had a lower turnover intention.

4. Discussion and Conclusion

This study aims to determine the effect of the demographic factors and factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department on turnover intention, the turnover intention of the employees was found to be at moderate level.

It was concluded that the turnover intention varies based on demographic factors and such as gender, marital status, age, education level and factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department. As concluded in earlier studies (Carbery et al., 2003; Karatepe et al., 2006; Uludag et al., 2011), gender has been found to be a determining factor

turnover intention. The study demonstrated that there the female employees have a higher turnover intention than male employees. It can be concluded that this situation is a result of the role and responsibilities assumed for the female employees within their families and the limited career opportunities. Griffeth et al. (2000:484) indicated that this situation is a consequence of the primary responsibilities of women as traditional household chores and child care, and that childbearing requires women to leave their paid employment. While other researchers who study this issue report that this result stems from the responsibility of women in their families (Keith and McWilliams, 1995; Sicherman, 1996), the availability of limited opportunities to women for improvement (Stroh et al., 1996) and the poor commitment to their jobs (Chaudhury and Ng, 1992).

The turnover intention was also found to differ based on marital status and the single employees were observed to have a higher turnover intention compared to married employees. The reason of this may be due to the financial responsibilities assumed by the married employees in their families. This finding support the findings of Carbery et al. (2010). Carbery et al., (2010) reached the conclusion that the turnover intention of married employees was lower due to their financial obligations.

The turnover intention was also found to differ based on age and there was not any difference in the turnover intention of the people with similar age groups. Similar to the earlier research in general (Carbery et al., 2003; Ghiselli et al., 2001; Karatepe et al., 2006; Kim et al., 2010; Pizam and Thornburg, 2006), it was found that the older people had a lower turnover intention. The reason that the older people had a lower turnover intention can attributed to the fact that they do not have similar thoughts and expectations compared to younger people. The reasons for this situation have been discussed differently by various researchers. Martin and Roodt (2008) supported that old people tend to have an intention to stay in the organization for a longer time since they are not equal to a more qualified person and invested more in the organization. Cotton and Tuttle (1986) stated that as people get older, they become familiar with their jobs and since they have a close relation with their friends, the turnover intention decreases. Lee (2013) regarded this situation as the loss of work productivity of old people. Spector (1997) reported that since old people use their skills better, work under better conditions, utilize advancement and promotion opportunities and appreciate fringe benefits, they have low expectations compared to young people. Furthermore, old people are not classified in the same generation with young people. A high majority of the participants in this study are from the generation Y. This may have an effect on their turnover intention. Solnet and Hood (2008) stated that generation Y constitutes the majority of the staff working in the tourism industry, that these staff mostly work at front office and that they are considerably different from the previous generations in terms of work-related characteristics, values and attitudes. A study on hotel employees by Lub et al., (2012) reported that generation Y has a high expectations in terms of work-life balance, autonomy and occupational safety and a higher turnover rate, that the expectations of generation X and Y are different from each other and that generation Y value different aspects of the work. It was revealed that the expectations of generation Y employees in hospitality are frequently incompatible with their opinions and the reality of the industry (Barron et al., 2007; Cairncross and Buultjens, 2007).

Turnover intention was also found to differ based on various education levels. Similar to the earlier research (Carbery et al., 2003; Karatepe et al., 2006), it was concluded that those with low education level has a lower turnover intention. Furthermore, the turnover intention of those with high education level was higher in the study. This may be resulted from that the people with high education level have more expectations compared to those with low education level. Other researchers who study on this subj ect have reached similar conclusions. Chen et al., (2010) reported that the people with high education level have higher expectations in terms of financial rights, benefits and audit compared to those with low education level. Iqbal (2010) stated that those with high education level have higher expectations towards their current employers, which means that the fulfilment of their needs is much more difficult. Lambert (2006) supported that more educated people desire to obtain more job opportunities compared to uneducated people and have a wider view/understanding that creates new challanges, which results in increasing expectations and that a person, in such a situation, might regard the organizations as a prison.

Turnover intention also differ based on various wage groups. This conclusion is parallel to that of earlier research (Albattat and Som, 2013; Carbery et al., 2003; Ghiselli et al., 2001; Pizam and Thornburg, 2000) and it was concluded that low wage affects employee churn.

The turnover intention was also found to differ based on tenure similar to the conclusions of earlier research (Karatepe et al.,, 2006; Nadiri and Tanova, 2010; Uludag et al., 2011) and the study concluded that those with long tenure had a lower turnover intention. While there was no difference between the groups with similar tenure, a difference between

other groups was observed. Those with higher tenure had a lower turnover intention may be a result of a staff who does not think of resigning from the employment due to their high investment in the organization and the intensity of his or her interaction with other people as he or she spends more time in that organization. The result of the study supports Becker's (1960) theory. Becker (1960) advocated that an employee invests in the organization over time (e.g. retirement, pensions, pay raises, benefits, stocks, position) and these investments bond the individual to the organization. Becker calls these investments as sunk costs. As reported by Becker, as age and tenure increases, the individual bonds to the organization and the possibility of resigning decreases. Other researchers supported that as the individual spends more in the organization, he or she builds strong interpersonal ties by means of repeated interactions with other people and that these strong interpersonal ties lead to a decrease in turnover intention (Blau and Khan 1981; Griffeth et al., 2000).

The turnover intention was also found to differ based on position. Similar to previous studies (Abdullah et al., 2010; Radzi et al., 2009), it was found that those with high position level had a lower turnover intention. It was observed that particularly those working in the position of manager and assistant manager had a lower turnover intention compared to those in the position of chief and staff. This may a result of monetary incentives and decision-making responsibilities of managers. Mcguire et al., (2003) and Bonn and Forbringer (1992) revealed that wage and incentives are effective for employees to stay in the organization. Salami (2008) advocated that since those working in higher positions have more responsibilities in the organization, they show low turnover intention. Similarly, Khatri et al., (2001) reported that when managers provide fair and consistent organizational policies and practices in regard to the procedure to make a value available in the organization such as promotion, termination, performance evaluation, bonus or assume similar tasks, they tend to have a lower turnover intention. This is also supported by the hospitality researchers. For instance, Radzi et al.,(2009) stated that the managers are mainly responsible for the tasks such as wage satisfaction, work schedule, workload, rewards, and job responsibilities; therefore, they do not think of other alternatives outside the organization due to these responsibilities and they tend to have lower turnover intention. That those with low position leave the organization may be resulted from low wages and limited promotion opportunities. Hai-Yan and Baum (2006) found that the employees do not desire to work for a long time in the hotel due to labor demand, low wages and uncertain promotion opportunities.

The turnover intention was also found to differ based on working department. There are scant research on department and turnover intention in the literature. A study on the staff working in hospitality by Pizam and Thornburg (2000) concluded that while the staff with highest absenteeism rate work in the housekeeping, and respectively in the food and beverage, sales, front office, technical service, safety and human resources departments. In our study, the turnover intention of the staff working particularly in the front office, food and beverage departments was higher compared to that of those in the back office such as human resources, accounting, purchasing, etc. departments. It can be stated that this is a result of more workload of the staff working in the front office and more interaction with the customers. Moreover, the study found that the staff working in the housekeeping and technical service departments had a lower turnover intention, which may stem from different expectations of people depending on their education level. However, contrary to the finding by Pizam and Thornburg (2000), the turnover intention of those in the housekeeping department was found low in this study.

That said, it was concluded that demographic factors and the factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department have an influence over the turnover intention of employees. Therefore, the hospitality industry need to understand these demographic factors and the factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department to take measures to decrease turnover intention. Based on the findings of the study, human resource practices can be applied successfully to influence employees' beliefs about the commitment to the organization. Recent empirical research on the general business literature revealed that human resource practices can contribute to organizational commitment of employees. Human resource strategies should be applied to increase the perceived organizational support of employees, to reduce their intention to leave their job and to retain them. Such efforts help increase the perceived organizational support from workers and strengthens employees' knowledge and skills (Cho et al., 2009: 380). The higher the perceived organizational support of individuals, the less intention to seek alternative jobs and probability of accepting these jobs. Human resources practices that recognize the contributions of employees and investing in them (eg. career opportunities, awards, participation in decision making) contributes to an improvement in employees perceptions of organizational support (Allen et al., 2003: 102).

The results of this study have important implications that it explores the turnover intention of the staff in hospitality based on demographic factors and the factors such as tenure, wage, position and working department. In addition, the study is restricted to the staff in five-star hotels in Istanbul. Provided that the study was performed in a different scale

or different areas of tourism industry or in the tourism businesses with different customer profiles or product concept, it could reach different conclusions. Hence future studies might look into those areas.

References

Abdullah, R.B., Alias, M.A.M., Zahari, H., Karim, N.A., Abdullah, S.N., Salleh, H., Musa, M.F. (2010). The Study of Factors Contributing to Chef Turnover in Hotels in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 6 (1): 80-85.

Albattat, A. R.S., Som, A.P.M. (2013). Employee Dissatisfaction and Turnover Crises in the Malaysian Hospitality Industry. International Journal oof Business and Management, 8 (5): 62-71.

Allen, D.,Shore, L.M., Griffeth, R.W. (2003). The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in The Turnover Process. Journal of Management, 29 (1) 99-118.

Australian Tourism Labour Force Report (2011). Australian Tourism Labour Force Report Labour Force Profile (Part 1), Deloitte Access Economics.

Barron, P., Maxwell, G., Broadbridge, A., Ogden, S. (2007), Careers in Hospitality Management: Generation Y's Experiences and Perceptions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 14 (2): 119-128.

Becker, H. (1960). Notes on The Concept of Commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32-42.

Blau, F. D. and Khan, L.M. (1981). Race and Sex Differences in Quits by Young Workers. Industrial and Labor Relation Review 34 (4): 563-577.

Bonn, M. A., Forbringer, L. (1992) Reducing Turnover in The Hospitality Industry: An Overview of Recruitment, Selection and Retention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(1), 47-63.

Cairncross, G., Buultjens, J. (2007), Generation Y and Work in The Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Problem? What problem? Occasional paper No. 9, Centre for Enterprise Development and Research, Southern Cross University, Tweed Heads, Australia.

Carbery, R, Garavan, T.N., O'Brien, F., McDonnell, J. (2003). Predicting Hotel Managers' Turnover Cognitions. Journal ofManagerialPsychology, 18 (7): 649-679.

Chaudhury, M., Ng, I. (1992). Absenteeism Predictors: Least Squares, Rank Regression, and Model Selection Results. Canadian Journal of Economic, 25: 615-635.

Chen, Y.C., Kuo, C., Cheng, W.W.,Hsai, H.,Chien, C.Y. (2010). Structural Investigation of the Relationship Between Working Satisfaction and Employee Turnover. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 6 (1): 41-50.

Cho, S., Johanson, M.M., Guchait, P. (2009). Employees Intent to Leave: A Comparison of Determinants of Intent to Leave Versus Intent to Stay. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28: 374-381.

Cotton, J.L., Tuttle, J.M. (1986). Employee Turnover: A Meta-Analysis and Review with Implications for Research. Academy of Management Review 11(1): 55-70.

Demir, C., Qolakoglu, Ü.,Güzel, B. (2007). Relationship Between Employee Turnover and The Location of Hotels: The Case of Ku§adasi and Izmir in Turkey. Journal of Yasar University, 2 (5): 477-487.

Faldetta, G., Fasone, V., Provenzano, C. (2013). Turnover in the Hospitality Industry: Can Reciprocity Solve the Problem. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 11(4):583-595.

Foreman, W.T. (2009). Job Satisfaction and Turnover in The Chinese Retail Industry. Chinese Management Studies, 3(4): 356-378.

Gallardo, E., Sánchez-Cañizares, S.M., López-Guzmán, T., Jesus, M.M.N. (2010). Employee Satisfaction in The Iberian Hotel Industry The Case of Andalusia (Spain) and The Algarve (Portugal). International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22 (3): 321-334.

Getz, D. (1994). Residents' Attitudes Toward Tourism: A Longitudinal Study in Spey Valley, Scotland. Tourism Management, 15(4), 247-258.

Ghiselli, R.F., Lopa, J.M.L., Bai, B. (2001). Job Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Turnover Intent. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42 (2): 28-37.

Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., Gaertner, S. (2000). A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Correlates of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests, and Research Implication for the Next Millennium. Journal of Management 26 (3): 463-488.

Gustafson, C.M. (2002). Employee Turnover: A Study of Private Clubs in The U.S.A. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 14 (3): 106-113.

Hai-Yan, K., Baum, T. (2006) Skills and Work in The Hospitality Industry Sector: The Case of Hotel Front Office Employees in China. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18(6): 509-518.

Hatipoglu, B., Alvarez, M.D., inelmen, K., Ünalan, D. (2013). istanbul Otellerinin 360° Degerlendirmesi Ara§tirma Proje Raporu 2013. TUROB, 195.

Hemdi, M.A., Nasurdin, A. M. (2004). A Conceptual Model of Hotel Managers' Turnover Intentions: The Moderating Effect of Job-Hopping Attitudes and Turnover Culture. Tourism Educators Association of Malaysia, 1(1), 63-76.

Hu, H.H.S., Cheng, C.W. (2010). Job Stress, Coping Strategies, and Burnout Among Hotel Industry Supervisors in Taiwan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21 (8): 1337-1350.

Iqbal, A. (2010). An Empirical Assessment of Demographic Factors, Organizational Ranks and Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Business and Management, 5 (3): 16-27.

Iverson, R.D., Deery, M. (1997). Turnover Culture in The Hospitality Industry. Human Resource Management Journal. 7 (4):71-82.

Karatepe, O.M., Uludag, O., Menevis, I., Hadzimehmedagic, L., Baddar, L. (2006). The Effects of Selected Individual Characteristics on Frontline Employee Performance and Job Satisfaction. Tourism Management, 27: 547-560.

Keith, K., McWilliams, A. (1995). The Wage Effects of Cumulative Job Mobility. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 49: 121-137.

Khatri, N., Fern, C. T., Budhwar, P. (2001). Explaining Employee Turnover in An Asian Context. Human Resource Management Journal, 11 (1): 5474.

Kim, W.G., Leong, J.K., Lee, Y.K. (2005). Effect of Service Orientation on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Intention of Leaving in A Casual Dining Chain Restaurant. Hospitality Management, 24: 171-193.

Kim, B.P., Murrmann, S.K., Lee, G. (2009). Moderating Effects of Gender and Organizational Level Between Role Stress and Job Satisfaction Among Hotel Employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28: 612-619.

Kim, K., Jogaratnam, G. (2010). Effects of Individual and Organizational Factors on Job Satisfaction and Intent to Stay in The Hotel and Restaurant Industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 9: 318-339.

Kim, B.P., Lee, G., Carlson, K.D. (2010). An Examination of The Nature of The Relationship Between Leader-Member-Exchange (LMX) and Turnover Intent at Different Organizational Levels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29: 591-597.

Lam, T., Lo, A., Chan, J. (2002). New Employees' Turnover Intentions and Organizational Commitment in The Hong Kong Hotel Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 26 (3): 217-234.

Lam, T., Pine, R., Baum, T. (2003). Subjective Norms Effects on Job Satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 30 (1):160-177.

Lambert, Eric G., Hogan, N.L., Barton, S.M. (2001). The Impact of Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent: A Test of a Structural Measurement Model Using a National Sample of Workers. Social Science Journal 38 (2): 233-250.

Lambert, E.G. (2006). I Want To Leave: A Test Of A Model Of Turnover Intent Among Correctional Staff. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 2 (1): 58-83.

Lee, S. (2013). Determinants of Federal Employees' Turnover Intention Across Agencies. 1th Public Management Research Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, June 20-22 2013.

Lub, X., Bijvank, M.N., Bal, P.M., Blomme, R., Schalk, R. (2012). Different or Alike? Exploring The Psychological Contract and Commitment of Different Generations of Hospitality Workers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24 (4): 553- 573

Martin, A., Roodt, G. (2008). Perceptions of Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions in A Post-Merger South African. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 34 (1): 23-31.

McGuire, M., Houser, J., Jarrar, T., Moy W., Wall, M. (2003). Retention: It's All About Respect. Health care Manager, 22 (1): 38-44.

Nadiri, H., Tanova, C. (2010). An Investigation of the Role of Justice in Turnover Intentions, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Hospitality Industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29: 33-41.

National Restaurant Association. (2014, 20 03). Economist's Notebook: Hospitality Employee Turnover Rose Slightly in 2013. National Restaurant Association. Retrieved from http://www.restaurant.org/News-Research/News/Economist-s-Notebook-Hospitality-employee-turnover

Pizam, A., Thornburg, S.W. (2000). Absenteeism and Voluntary Turnover in Central Florida Hotels: A Pilot Study. Hospitality Management, 19: 211-217.

Radzi, S.M., Ramley, S.Z.A., Salehuddin, M., Othman, Z., Jalis, M.H. (2009). An Empirical Assessment of Hotel Departmental Managers Turnover Intentions: The Impact of Organizational Justice. International Journal of Business and Management, 4 (8): 173-183.

Salami, S. (2008). Demographic and Psychological Factors Predicting Organizational Commitment Among Industrial Workers. Anthropologist, 10 (1): 31-38.

Sicherman, N. (1996). Gender Differences in Departures from A Large Firm. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 49: 484-505.

Solnet, D., Hood, A. (2008). Generation Y As Hospitality Employees: Framing A Research Agenda. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 15 (1): 59-68.

Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Cause, and Consequences. Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.

Stroh, L. K., Brett, J. M., Reilly, A. H. (1996). Family Structure, Glass Ceiling, and Traditional Explanations for The Differential Rate of Turnover of Female and Male Managers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 99-118.

Subramanian, I.D., Shin,Y.N. (2013). Perceived Organizational Climate and Turnover Intention of Employees in The Hotel Industry. World Applied Sciences Journal, 22 (12): 1751-1759.

Tiyce, M., Hing, N., Cairncross, G.,Breen, H. (2013). Employee Stress and Stressors in Gambling and Hospitality Workplaces. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 12: 126-154.

Uludag, O., Khan, S., Güden, N. (2011). The Effects of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Turnover Intentions. FIUReview, 29(2):1-21.

Yang, J.T. (2008). Effect of Newcomer Socialisation on Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention in The Hotel Industry. The Service Industries Journal, 28 (4): 429-443.

Yang, J.T., Wan, C.S., Fu, Y.J. (2012). Qualitative Examination of Employee Turnover and Retention Strategies in International Tourist Hotels in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31: 837-848.

Yazinski, S.K. (2009 03 08). Strategies for Retaining Employees and Minimizing Turnover. Compliance Tools for HR Professionals. Retrieved from

https://hr.blr.com/whitepapers/Staffing-Training/Employee-Turnover/Strategies-for-Retaining-Employees-and-Minimizing-Zopiatis, A., Constanti, P., Theocharous, A.L. (2014). Job Involvement, Commitment, Satisfaction and Turnover: Evidence from Hotel Employees in Cyprus. Tourism Management, 41: 129-140.