Scholarly article on topic 'Error Analysis: A Tool to Improve English Skills of Undergraduate Students'

Error Analysis: A Tool to Improve English Skills of Undergraduate Students Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Ameena Zafar

Abstract This study aims to make the Business English language courses more effective for Bachelor's students. For this purpose the evaluation of the writing component of a four months’ Business Communication course was conducted at the Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad It was based on the idea that effectiveness in English writing can be achieved by identifying, categorizing and analyzing the most prominent errors made by the English as a Second Language Students in written tasks. Consequently, the teachers would be able to focus only on these specific type of errors which required remedial work instead of wasting time on other errors which were not made as frequently by ESL students. Thus, this study entering the realm of English for Specific Purposes, aimed at customizing the Business English curriculum for Business students. Frequent errors were noted down from their writing tasks in assorted creative writing exercises conducted during the two months prior to the first evaluation. Out of the various errors visible in their writing, the verb tense errors, mainly, the past and present were the most common errors. From the results it was established that in both tenses combined, the Second Language Influence errors were more frequent. The second most frequent category of errors was the First Language interference. The Transfer of Structure errors, and the Overextension of Analogy errors followed respectively. Based on the outcomes of this study, these errors were the main focus in the remedial English Teaching that followed in the last two months of the semester. It saved valuable teaching time, and made the need based Business English writing training for MAJU students more effective. A second evaluation at the end of the semester showed a marked improvement in the accuracy of the use of verb tenses. This research, using, error analysis as a tool to improve Business Communication skills of undergraduate students could be applied to similar bilingual settings in other institutions in Functional English courses.

Academic research paper on topic "Error Analysis: A Tool to Improve English Skills of Undergraduate Students"

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ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 217 (2016) 697 - 705

Future Academy®'s Multidisciplinary Conference

Error analysis: a tool to improve English skills of undergraduate

students

Ameena Zafara*

aMohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad Expressway, Kahuta road, Zone V, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

Abstract

This study aims to make the Business English language courses more effective for Bachelor's students. For this purpose the evaluation of the writing component of a four months' Business Communication course was conducted at the Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad It was based on the idea that effectiveness in English writing can be achieved by identifying, categorizing and analyzing the most prominent errors made by the English as a Second Language Students in written tasks. Consequently, the teachers would be able to focus only on these specific type of errors which required remedial work instead of wasting time on other errors which were not made as frequently by ESL students. Thus, this study entering the realm of English for Specific Purposes, aimed at customizing the Business English curriculum for Business students. Frequent errors were noted down from their writing tasks in assorted creative writing exercises conducted during the two months prior to the first evaluation. Out of the various errors visible in their writing, the verb tense errors, mainly, the past and present were the most common errors. From the results it was established that in both tenses combined, the Second Language Influence errors were more frequent. The second most frequent category of errors was the First Language interference. The Transfer of Structure errors, and the Overextension of Analogy errors followed respectively. Based on the outcomes of this study, these errors were the main focus in the remedial English Teaching that followed in the last two months of the semester. It saved valuable teaching time, and made the need based Business English writing training for MAJU students more effective. A second evaluation at the end of the semester showed a marked improvement in the accuracy of the use of verb tenses. This research, using, error analysis as a tool to improve Business Communication skills of undergraduate students could be applied to similar bilingual settings in other institutions in Functional English courses.

© 2016Publishedby ElsevierLtd. Thisisan openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Future Academy® Cognitive Trading

Keywords: ELT,ESL, ESP, business English, error analysis, undergraduate

* Ameena Zafar. Tel.: 92 3335236660; fax:+92-51-4486705.

E-mail address; ameena@jinnah.edu.pk

1877-0428 © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Future Academy® Cognitive Trading

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.122

1. Introduction

This research is an evaluation based on a case study conducted at the Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad It hopes to improve the language of the Bachelors of Business Administration students, through error analysis(Corder,1974), and consequently improving the need based curriculum. This study deals with making the English language course more effective for undergraduates whose second language is English. It focuses on the evaluation of the writing component of a four months' Business Communication course for a class of thirty-seven Bachelors of Business Administration (BBA) students at Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad It is based on the idea that effectiveness in English writing can be achieved by identifying, categorizing and analyzing the most prominent errors made by the English as a Second Language Students (ESL) in written tasks.

Through this practice the teachers would focus only on those specific type of errors which require remedial work instead of wasting time on other errors which are not made as frequently by language students. Making such teaching batch-specific, focusing only on their specific verb tense errors will greatly develop their ability to use appropriate tenses and consequently write accurate English. It will save valuable teaching time, and will customize the need based academic English writing course for each batch of BBA students, making it more effective in the future. Thus, this study enters the realm of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and aims at customizing the English language curriculum for undergraduate students extending over one semester. The aim of this course was to develop effective writing skills of these students so they might be able to communicate in correct English as business professionals. The remedial work was carried out on the basis of error analysis to develop their ability to use appropriate tenses and consequently write correct English.

Rod Ellis (2008), in The Study of Second Language Acquisition, also recommends error analysis as a tool to eradicate L1 interference in the language of ESL learners. There are obvious advantages in error analysis (EA) (Corder,1973) for teachers involved in English Language Teaching (ELT) in bilingual settings as in Pakistan. In conducting an error analysis research they can find out why their students are making errors and then plan appropriate remedial lessons (Lott, 1983, p. 256) and consequently aim at 'teaching out' these errors, which 'conformed to a surprisingly small number of types: e.g. tenses, prepositions, collective nouns, and articles' (p.259). The same was anticipated in the written work of these students. The anticipation of obtaining data in the areas the students would need intensive or extensive re-enforcement in, was the ground for this study. Error analysis is a vast area and all of these grammar components could not be dealt with, as there was a limitation of four months' teaching time in the semester system. Therefore, only one grammar element namely, verb tense was taken as the focus of this study(Biber, Conrad and Leech, 2010). Granger (2003) comments that 'electronic collections' of L2 data is 'especially useful when error-tagged, that is, when all errors in the corpus have been annotated with the help of a standardized system of error tags, in language teaching'. Lado, (1964) states that 'interference (negative transfer) is the negative influence of the mother language (L1) on the performance of the target language (L2) learner'. Selinker (1972), defined errors as "red flags" that provide evidence of the learner's knowledge of the second language.

The importance of error analysis lies in the fact that errors can be minimized only if they are identified. Categorizing and analyzing the errors can provide a further clarity to the student and the teacher as to which errors occur more frequently and why they occur. It was noticed that Pakistani ESL students make frequent errors in the use of past, and the present tenses. Thus mainly the past and the present tenses were the focus of this research. These two tenses were selected because in my personal ELT experience of teaching English in the higher education sector for more than ten years, it was observed that the most frequently occurring errors in the work of ESL students in Pakistan occur in the usage of past and the present tenses. The study further investigated three types of errors namely, 'Overextension of analogy, Transfer of Structure and Interlingual (L1) or intralingual (L2) errors'(Lott, 1983, p. 259)and their frequency, in the thirty-seven writing specimens collected as the first writing composition assignment of the students. These errors were identified and categorized, and the frequency of their occurrence in all of these categories was determined. It was considered why they occurred, and the reasons were highlighted. Before the second/final assignment was collected, Practice Sessions were conducted, spreading over a span of the last two months. The final assignment, after providing the specific writing coaching for two months, was the main writing specimen, which revealed that the most frequent errors made by these students in the use of verb tense errors and wrong verb selection had lessened. The final writing assignment was given to them to check, which were the prominent errors they still made in their writing. They were asked to write a narrative composition on the topic of their choice, to be completed in an hour. This written composition was intensively scanned for errors and was used as a comparison to test 1 for error identification, tabularization and analysis. It was found that the major errors

occurring in the use of verb tenses and mostly in the simple past and simple present had lessened.

This research inculcated in it the positive steps towards supporting a model syllabus. The past research has been carried out in this area keeping in view the needs of adolescent English language learners in various international scenarios. The research will lead to the accumulation of data that will help in making a new and more effective language curriculum for undergraduates. This in turn it will help them to brush up their language skills to be able to meet the demands of the corporate sector. Based on a local investigation, this study may be beneficial to Pakistani students to overcome the use of verb tense errors and would consequently help to improve their written assignments, so they may not have to face such language issues when they join the corporate sector. Bachelor students studying courses with components on English writing may benefit from this study. The outcome of this study can eventually be applied in the higher education sector in other departments, as well as in other universities and can save valuable teaching time, and aid the development of need based English writing trainings for BBA students in the future.

1.1. Research Question

This research aims to answer the following research question:

Can remedial English lessons based on analysis and recording of errors made frequently by BBA students make their language training more effective?

1.2. Purpose of the study

The objective of this research was to collect the frequent errors (EA) of an English language writing skills training given to undergraduate students in the first two months and to improve their writing in fourteen sessions over a period of the two months in the course called Business Communication. A class of thirty-seven Bachelors of Business Administration (BBA) students was selected. The choice of this particular batch of students was random. Like most students inducted in our local universities in Pakistan, they were an assorted batch of students coming from different public and private schools, possessing varied language abilities. They were all studying English as a Second Language (ESL) and this error identification in English writing would help in the minimization of their verb tense errors and would improve their writing skills for all kinds of business assignments. The anticipation of obtaining data in the areas the students would need intensive or extensive remedial re-enforcement in, was the ground for this study.

Evaluation is imperative for language trainings as it gauges their effectiveness. Program evaluation, conducted on a regular basis, can greatly improve the management and effectiveness of an organization and its programs (Martinez, 2005).

1.3. Significance of this Research

The significance of this research lies in the fact that it will create a curriculum design, which will encourage the language teachers to focus on the specific language errors that are made by the specific cohorts they are teaching. This will help them to focus mainly on the correction of those errors only and will thus save valuable time, which is unnecessarily spent on language drills, which the students may already be good at, or the language drills that they may not benefit from, and may not use later in the corporate sector at all. The justification for this research lies in the fact that during the course of several years of conducting English language writing trainings it was observed that some cohorts did not achieve the desired results in the course of a four months' semester. Regular ELT practices could not help these students achieve effective results in competence and performance. The effectiveness of the academic trainings could be measured by the final grade to see if the performance of the students had actually improved after receiving the training or not, and then improved in the following semester. However, this would not be possible as they were not allowed to re-enroll in the same course to improve their English unless they scored at least D grade or below, after receiving the four months' training. It was also practically impossible to make long term follow up observations by checking their language skills in the courses which they enrolled in after the language training. To counter this recurring phenomenon it became necessary to find out how writing activities can improve writing specimens within four months, and which writing activities can be more effective. Thus identifying, categorizing and analyzing the most prominent and frequent errors made by the ESL students in written

assignments would consequently prove beneficial to the teachers to focus on those specific type of errors which require remedial work instead of spending time on other errors which are not made as frequently by these students. Therefore, an alternative was opted for in the form of a experimental training, administered to a mixed ability group of thirty-seven students. The focus was on their writing performance. The results exposing the effectiveness of this training could be applied to other higher education institutions where emphasis is given to a high standard of English for their internal and external communication, and it is considered as one of the top priorities and a competitive edge for their organization.

The past research has been carried out in this area keeping in view the needs of adolescent English language learners in various bilingual scenarios. The competence and performance of Pakistani ESL students is intrinsically different from the ESL students in other countries in the world. In Pakistan due to the specific cultural and linguistic demands of the work environment the use of English writing skills is inevitable in the corporate sector for which these students are being trained. A poor competence in English due to Urdu-English bilingualism or the simple hesitation with the language not being their mother tongue, poses great difficulties in their writing performance. This hesitation in academic years would follow them into the future and would eventually affect their general performance at work adversely. This research, based on a local investigation, can be beneficial to those Pakistani students who want to get rid of their verb tense errors in writing, and would consequently help to improve their written assignments on the whole so they may not have to face such language issues when they join the corporate sector. Thus the above mentioned concerns compelled the researcher to start the investigation in this study, so that error analysis could become a tool to identify, analyze and finally suggest the ways by adopting which the most frequently occurring errors in the English writing specimens of the BBA students could be minimized. This evaluation produced valuable data to expose if writing activities can improve writing specimens. This can eventually have a positive influence on and aid the development of need based English writing trainings for BBA students in the future.

1.4. The Target Group

The target group for this study was a cohort of thirty-seven students enrolled in the English language course in the Bachelors of Business Administration Program. The choice of this particular batch of students was made because they were from various semesters according to the road map of BBA, and had varied academic backgrounds and language proficiency. The selection of this varied group ensured that the outcome of the research was not based on the competence alone but also on the performance of the students after having gone through the routine of an ideal sequence. They were selected because, firstly, they were an assorted batch of students coming from different public and private schools and colleges, possessing varied language abilities, secondly, because they were studying English as a Second Language (ESL) This English writing error identification would help in the minimization of their verb tense errors and would improve their writing skills for all kinds of language assignments. These students were selected due to their history as ESL students, who had been studying English for almost fourteen years as a language course each year but still could not achieve good grades in the language. Although the students in the target group in this study had supposedly acquired the language at primary level, as ESL students they continued to make errors, which have been fortified by their own constant reinforcement while writing. Thus identification, categorization and analysis of the precise errors that they made could be extremely useful to them in lessening these specific errors that occur in their own written manuscripts. In his paper, on bilingual studies, Khan (2010) discusses learning problems in English in Saudi Arabia which can be dealt with if the English teacher studies the nature of the problems faced by the target learners and evolves compatible strategies. This is a major focus of this research dealing with error analysis and the relevant remedial measures in the Pakistani scenario

2. Research Method

This research focused on the writing component in the four months' English Writing Skills training of a class of thirty-seven Bachelors of Business Administration(BBA) students at Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad. The methodology comprised of four components. Firstly, during the first two months of the course their errors were collected from all the written assignments. Secondly, a pre-test based on assorted grammar exercises was given to

these students at the beginning of the semester, the results were saved. Thirdly, grammar practice was given to them during the following two months focusing on the specific errors which were collected in the first two months. Fourthly, a final assignment was given to see if their writing skills had improved after the coaching. The comparison of the pre-test and post-test produced valuable data to expose if writing activities can improve writing specimens, which writing activities can be more effective in boosting the grammar in writing practices and to what extent can writing skills be enhanced.

In the first two months, eight sessions of one hour were conducted weekly, to collect their errors, ending with a test in the eight week. The writing skills component of the course was designed keeping in view the English language errors made by them during the first two months and in the first test. The material selected to prepare them for a diagnostic final assignment was selected from books on remedial work focusing on the errors of ESL students around the world, using the Post Communicative Teaching Model proposed by Brumfit. The Post Communicative Model (CSR) was used to propose a Remedial Lesson Plan, was used as the teaching method. According to it, during the remedial lessons, firstly, the material was communicated as far as possible with all available resources, secondly, present language items were shown to be necessary for effective communication, and thirdly, they were drilled as much as possible. This was achieved by teaching, practicing and repeating through language worksheets in class, which were checked on the spot and the general mistakes/errors were discussed at the end of each class. Thirdly, a final assignment was given to see if their writing skills had improved after the coaching. Thus, the Post Communicative teaching techniques for narrative writing and grammar drills that worked with this particular group of students according to the researcher's in-class observations, were employed for this purpose. Exercises to accompany A Writer's Reference by Diana Hacker 2009 &Assorted exercises randomly selected from the books in the Resource Material list

21. Remedial strategy

Focusing on the remedial measures, after conducting an academic English language training for six months, dedicating ten full sessions for grammar teaching, and evaluating the final work of the ESL students enrolled in MBA, it was evident that the students needed more intensive as well as extensive practice in verb forms. The most frequent errors were seen firstly, in past tense usage and secondly, in present tense usage in narratives and corporate compositions. Beside the past perfect aspect, which occurred scantily in the thirty-five written compositions, the errors in the rest of the aspects occurred in such a small number that perhaps they might not require the main focus of the ESL remedial teachers. Consequently it may be suggested that more grammar exercises could be incorporated into the language training and may require a more intensive and extensive drilling. Additional vocabulary and language structure improvement efforts can show even more improvement in meaning and content than as seen before. Frequent practice of similar narrative sentences might help the student to drop such extra verbs from the sentences. Frequent practice of similar narrative sentences might help the student to drop such extra verbs from the sentences.

To improve the Overextension of analogy errors dealing in which the student misuses a vocabulary item because it shares phonological, orthographic, semantic or syntactic features with an item in the native language, several remedial suggestions can be given. L1 and L2 grammar items should be differentiated clearly whenever they occur in the work of ESL students. Translation might help to discriminate such differences and support such writing activities. Sentence correction from their own work, and then justifying the changes made by them might enlighten them and help them to relate better to the grammar rules of L2 and consequently to remember them.

To improve Transfer of structure errors in which the student makes an error of grammar because he/she is following the rules of the native language and not the rules of the target language they may be given more practice in writing correct English for a positive reinforcement, so that they may slowly 'unlearn' faulty structures and pick up the correct ones instead. L1 and L2 structures should be differentiated clearly whenever they occur in the work of ESL students. In this case also, translation might help to discriminate such differences and support such writing activities. Practicing sentence correction can help in structure transfer as well as errors based on similarity in analogies from Ll.The students should be encouraged to focus and find tense errors in their own work. This would enhance their awareness of their errors and they would conscious avoid committing them. Lott suggests that 'since transfer-of-structure errors are caused by a contrast of rules in the native and target languages, the initial problem was to make the students aware of the contrasting grammar rules...' of L1 and L2 (1983, p. 260), or 'one could

deliberately contrast the meaning of the confused target language words (e.g. 'work' and 'job'), by including both words fairly close together in production and comprehension exercises (261).

Interlingual or intralingual error(L1/L2) refer to the grammar errors that the student makes because, either a grammatical distinction does not exist in the native language or a lexical distinction does not exist in the native language so the student misuses a vocabulary item. Remedies for first language interference errors have been discussed above. Intralingual or second language transfer errors can be avoided or removed by frequent practice of the grammar rules of L2. Grammar theory can only become useful to an ESL learner if he/she memorizes them initially and then keeps on practicing them till the target language is mastered. Sentence correction from their own work, done parallel to the revision of the respective grammar rules may also prove to be beneficial to them. Self-correction in the ELT class in the supervision of the ESL teacher can help them in language acquisition and in minimization of all sorts of grammar errors.

These errors were identified, tabularized and analyzed and then a lesson plan suggested as a Model for Remedial lessons.

2.2. The Post Communicative Model for Remedial lessons

A lesson plan based on the Post Communicative Model by Christopher Brumfit, as discussed earlier, was proposed to teach language components through short business assignments to the ESL students enrolled in Business Communication in the BBA program. This English language technique was used as it is simple and uncomplicated to follow, as shown below and can greatly benefit the ESL teacher. It is also beneficial to the ESL student as it is a need based learner centered approach.

2.2.1. Aim: The aim of the Remedial Lesson Plan was to identify errors/mistakes in the verb tense, in the written work of the MBA students studying the Business Communication course, and to keep a track of them for positive reinforcement. Memo writing conveying a negative message was selected as a Task for this lesson.

This was accomplished through the PCM, by teaching firstly, through citation, sharing all the possible sources of information on the particular short document writing. The format and content was explained in detail through lecture notes and a detailed discussion on Memo writing and writing Negative messages. Memo samples were shown on multimedia and explained in detail. Secondly, a simulation to further explain the theory taught earlier followed citation. A Task from a real life scenario in the corporate sector was simulated. The students were asked to write a memo from the Zonal chief of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited Islamabad, to inform the employees of the human resource department of a possible downsizing of the grade 17 officers from the next month. Thirdly, extra help was provided through Replicating a similar task on the white board, focusing on specific writing details. A memo carrying a negative message was explained on the board with the suggested format and content. Appropriate grammar to be used, the appropriate verb tense and the opening lines/ for each paragraph in the Introduction, Body of the memo and the Conclusion were suggested.

After the identification of their errors the future course of action regarding the remedial work would be implemented in the last two months, so that by the end of the course the students should be able to get rid of their verb tense errors and consequently demonstrate an improvement in English language writing skills. A final writing assignment was given to them to check the prominent errors at the end of the semester to check for the errors they still made in their writing. They were asked to write a narrative composition on the topic of their choice, to be completed in an hour. This written composition was intensively scanned for errors and was used as a sample for error identification, tabularization and analysis. It was found that the major errors occurred in verb tenses and mostly in the simple past and simple present tenses. These errors were further categorized into three types, namely, Overextension of analogy, Transfer of Structure and Interlingual (L1) or intralingual (L2) errors. Only the past and present tenses (Biber, Conrad and Leech, 2010, p. 156-166) only these two were the focus of this research. They were also selected for the reason that over the ten years ELT experience of teaching English in the higher education sector, the researcher observed the past and the present tenses to harbor the most frequently occurring errors in the work of ESL students in Pakistan.

After adequate Citation, Simulation and Replication, the Test II assignment would be checked to ensure that the

Present

Practice in context -----^ Drill

^ (Simulation) -----------^ (Replication)

(Citation)

appropriate skill in the verb tense had been acquired. Specific errors would be pointed out, especially in the verb tense. Out of the various errors visible in their writing, the verb tense, mainly, the past and present tenses would be the focus of this Remedial Lesson, further investigating three types of errors as well.

3. Findings

A comparison of test I and test II will be discussed with an explanation of the types of the errors visible in the findings of Test I, and the frequency and reasons for their occurrence will be commented on. These results were deduced from the first and the second test assignments of the students with a focus on Verb Tenses. A reduction of past tense errors/mistakes, the present tense errors/mistakes, with scanty instances of perfect and progressive aspect attached to these tenses. were noticed in the second written test as the focus of this study was based on the discussion on ', namely, the past and the present tenses as classified by Biber, Conrad and Leech, as discussed in the literature review, and the 'Types of Errors' as categorized by Lott to be identified in these verb tenses. Test I and II showed that the past and the present tenses carry the most frequently occurring errors in the work of ESL students in Pakistan. Test I will be discussed below in detail, concluding with the differences and improvement found in test II.

The comparative summary of the findings showing the final picture of the errors and the frequency of occurrence of the three types of errors in Test I ad Test II follows in Table 1 below. A Remedial Lesson Plan, and the debate on the remedial measures follows in the suggestions and the discussion on the beneficiaries and application concludes the research.

Table 1.

Table 1 : A Summary of Frequency of Errors in the 35 Written Compositions

No Tenses Error Types Frequency of Error Types TEST I TEST II

I Simple Present Tense Total Errors: 61 instances 20

(Some of the sentences had more than one type of errors)

1 Overextension of Analogy 13 Instances 5

2 Transfer of Structure 10 Instances 2

3a First Language interference 20 Instances 6

3b Second language Influence 18 Instances 7

II Simple Past Tense Total Errors: 379 instances 275

(Some of the sentences had more than one type of errors)

1 Overextension of Analogy 0 Instances 0

2 Transfer of Structure 31 Instances 20

3a First Language interference 134 Instances 88

3b Second language Influence 214 Instances 167

As shown in Table 2 above the summary of the composite result of frequency of the 3 types of errors in the findings of the thirty-seven writing specimens in Test I and Test II is shown above in Table 2.

In Test I, in the written compositions used as the base sample to identify the most frequent errors, it was established that, in both tenses combined, the Second language Influence errors were in majority and occurred 232 times. The second most frequent errors were the First Language interference errors, which were 154 in number. The Transfer of Structure errors occurring 41 times, and the overextension of Analogy errors followed occurring 13 times.

In Test II, in the written compositions used as the base sample to identify the most frequent errors, it was established that, in both tenses combined, the Second language Influence errors were in majority and occurred 169 times. The second most frequent errors were the First Language interference errors, which were 94 in number. The Transfer of Structure errors occurring 22 times, and the overextension of Analogy errors followed occurring 5 times.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, after specific coaching and remedial lessons spreading over two months, based specifically on the errors correction of this cohort of BBA students made in their Business Communication course showed a visible reduction in language errors.

A marked improvement was seen in both tenses combined, the Second language Influence errors were reduced to169 in TEST II as compared 232 times in Test I. The second most frequent errors, the First Language interference errors, which were 94 in number in test I as opposed to 154 in Test I. The Transfer of Structure errors occurred 22 times in test II instead of 41 times in test I. The overextension of Analogy errors followed occurring 5 times in Test I as compared to 13 times in Test I.

4.2. Contribution of the Researcher

The necessary measures to initiate and conduct the study at Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad were taken by taken up and pursued by the researcher. The two months errors collection, the Test I, two months of remedial lessons to coach the students for Test II were organized and conducted by the researcher. The test was conducted in an environment free of any external interference and influence. The test papers were checked thoroughly, word by word, and the errors were identified, coded, tabularized and analyzed personally by the researcher. A word bank was collected and will be added on to every semester to create a database of common errors, which will help in the language correction of the around two hundred BBA and MBA students every semester at CFD

4.3. Beneficiaries

The researcher, and the student group selected at Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad for this research, was the direct beneficiaries of this research. Hopefully this study will encourage these students to focus on improving their English language learning skills throughout their academia. Individuals with a vision and a thorough understanding of the role that English language skills play in the context of one's life and profession, to meet the demands of the ever evolving corporate world in the Pakistani scenario. It is hoped that after assessing the effectiveness of the English Language Trainings in this research, a close to perfect need based English Language writing skills training for graduate business students will be formulated for the future.

If shared with other departments beside the business department in the same university, and with language departments in other universities, this simple system of testing and coaching can provide them with clear need based results as were achieved with this cohort at Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad. Thus the outcome of this research may be an asset for English language students and ESL and English for Specific (ESP) teachers in particular, and the consultancy division in the corporate sector in general. All business students studying courses with components on English writing may benefit from this study.

4.4. Application

This study focused on making English language training more effective for Business undergraduates. It recorded the evaluation of the writing component of a four months English Writing Skills training of a class of thirty-seven Masters of Business Administration (MBA) students at Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad. It aimed at customizing the English language curriculum for business students and thus entered the realm of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The results of this research indicate that it can be applied to similar English writing improvement lessons in other disciplines beside Business in the university and thus can prove useful to a large number of graduate students. The outcome of this study can also eventually be applied in other departments in MAJU, as well as in other in the higher education sector universities and can save valuable teaching time, and aid the effectiveness of the academic English language training, customized for BBA students in the future.

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