Scholarly article on topic 'Urban Design and Social Capital in Slums. Case Study: Moravia's Neighborhood, Medellin, 2004-2014'

Urban Design and Social Capital in Slums. Case Study: Moravia's Neighborhood, Medellin, 2004-2014 Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Katila Vilar, Ivan Cartes

Abstract Taking as reference the historical context of the expansion phenomenon of Medellin and the anthropogenic processes based on Moravia's neighborhood, this paper purpose is to make an impact evaluation of the Integral Improvement Plan (PPMIM 2004-2011), using the relationship between the urban design features and the social capital variables. Initially, a theoretical and conceptual framework of the various topics under review is presented. Secondly, we confront the PPMIM's principles, its urban design strategies, its procedural methodology with the built project and evaluate its general socio spatial impact. Finally, we analyze its impact on the cognitive and structural dimensions of the social capital. The Integral Improvement Plan (PPMIM) brought the physical, ecological, cultural and social rehabilitation of the human settlement allowing recovering the historical as well as the cultural memory of the community and strengthening some aspects of the social capital and its ties, as the bridging and linking networks. Finally the paper highlights and summarizes positive and negative implications of slum upgrading programs and some necessary recommendations for urban design, the social capital that can really be translated into real resources for the self-sustainable development of low-income communities and their future generations.

Academic research paper on topic "Urban Design and Social Capital in Slums. Case Study: Moravia's Neighborhood, Medellin, 2004-2014"


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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 216 (2016) 56 - 67

Urban Planning and Architecture Design for Sustainable Development, UPADSD 14- 16 October

Urban design and social capital in slums. Case study: Moravia's neighborhood, Medellin, 2004-2014

Katila Vilari, Ivan Cartesii

* PhD Researcher, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad Bio Bio, Concepción, CP. 4081112 Chile * PhD Architect, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom


Taking as reference the historical context of the expansion phenomenon of Medellin and the anthropogenic processes based on Moravia's neighborhood, this paper purpose is to make an impact evaluation of the Integral Improvement Plan (PPMIM 20042011), using the relationship between the urban design features and the social capital variables. Initially, a theoretical and conceptual framework of the various topics under review is presented. Secondly, we confront the PPMIM's principles, its urban design strategies, its procedural methodology with the built project and evaluate its general socio spatial impact. Finally, we analyze its impact on the cognitive and structural dimensions of the social capital. The Integral Improvement Plan (PPMIM) brought the physical, ecological, cultural and social rehabilitation of the human settlement allowing recovering the historical as well as the cultural memory of the community and strengthening some aspects of the social capital and its ties, as the bridging and linking networks. Finally the paper highlights and summarizes positive and negative implications of slum upgrading programs and some necessary recommendations for urban design, the social capital that can really be translated into real resources for the self-sustainable development of low-income communities and their future generations.

©2016 The Authors. PublishedbyElsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunder responsibilityoflEREK, International expertsforResearchEnrichmentandKnowledgeExchange Keywords: Slums; urban design; social capital; local and sustainable development

1. Introduction

In a globalized world with dominant neoliberal economy and with half of its population living in cities in rapid transformation, the weaknesses related with social inclusion and territorial cohesion which reduce the overall prosperity of cities and the quality of life of its inhabitants, proliferate rapidly.

Today, the population that lives in precarious settlements represents 1/3 of the world's urban population, number that estimates to double until 2050, specially in the urban areas of the emergent regions such as Asia, Africa and Latin America (UN-Habitat, 2003; 2015). Rapid urban growth, insecurity of housing policies and urban

1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Peer-review under responsibility of IEREK, International experts for Research Enrichment and Knowledge Exchange doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.008

management and other instabilities, such as limited resources on the planet, climate change and economic crisies make urgent to focus the attention on the needs of the populations located in the urban centers of these countries. As Newirth refers, "these places are the cities of tomorrow" (Neuwirth, 2005).

The challenge is to ensure that this new expanding cities continue livable, manageable and more sustainable. A higher urbanization level implies more "urban security", understood here as an equal access to goods and services, territorial orderly development and management, rational use of natural resources and, essentially, a peaceful and civic coexistence of its inhabitants, helping to prevent and mitigate the different types of vulnerabilities and threats.

The hypothesis presented is that urban design view as a process and as "placemaking" and combined with social capital theory may be an effective resource for the local development of low-income communities. Urban design in slums may have an ethical and aesthetic power to build social capital, which enhances more stability of a society as well as their common interests without destroying, however, the uniqueness of any social group. (Sander, 2002; Svendsen, 2010; Moobela et al., 2009). The physical design of neighborhoods may impact social capital, as its highly context-specific and determined by history, culture, social structures, economic inequalities or individual social patterns (Claridge, 2009). Although, there is lack of operational knowledge about the role of the urban space in relation with social capital, and even less, regarding the assessment of this relationship in spontaneous settlements.

Upon this background and taking as reference the historical context of the anthropogenic processes based on Moravia's neighborhood located in Medellin, a spontaneous settlement known to have grown on the top of the city's former garbage dump, this paper aims to make an assessment of the physical and social impact of the Integral Improvement Plan of Moravia (Plan Parcial de Mejoramiento Integral de Moravia PPMIM), and, in particular, in the social capital of the community. The PPMIM was based on sustainability concepts under the "Social Urbanism" city model and on the strengthening of the different actors's capacities as well as on the construction of associative ties and mutual trust.

We sought to highlight two main questions through the case study:

• How has the social capital of Moravia's community been affected by the slum-upgrading program (PPMIM)?

• Which urban design strategies contribute more to create social capital, allowing to meet the criteria of a local and

sustainable development?

As the softer and intangible attributes dealt with, cannot be easily quantified, the paper specifically accentuate forms of proxies that could be used in the assessment, such as the main urban strategies, their principles and the social services' improvement that helps to build social capital.

2. Methodology

To assess the impact of the PPMIM at a socio-spatial level and on the several dimensions of the social capital, we proceeded with a comparative study of the initial conditions of the territory and the current. In first place we collected quantitative and qualitative data, and through technical documents, we identified the principles of the urban design strategies and methodology of the urban rehabilitation program. Secondly, we confronted them with what has been built and, through an interview to the municipality responsible for implementing the plan and the analysis of statistical data of the review process to PPMIM (2014), then we proceeded with the socio-spatial impact evaluation.

To analyze the impact on the social capital, we conducted questionnaire surveys at a community level (150 surveys) to social organizations leaders and local development promoters (35 surveys). This questionnaire was based on the "Integrated Questionnaire for Social Capital's Measurement" (SQ-IQ) promoted by the World Bank (Grootaert et al., 2003).

The data collected seek to understand what are the positive and negative implications of the Integral Improvement Plan of Neighbourhoods (PMIB) and some necessary recommendations for the urban design and social capital than can be translated into real resources for the development of low-income communities and their future generations.

3. Theoretical and conceptual background

3.1. Tensions and challenges of slums

Spontaneous settlements arise because they seek to address, through self-management and self-construction mechanisms, the problem of the right to the city, in particular, the right to housing. There are two main different views on this issue: one based on a segregation and stigmatization speech that usually comes from the consolidated city and high income social classes, and another that seeks to survey faults and virtues of these human settlements. Recent studies acknowledge that these areas are part of the urban fabric and have physical and social attributes that deserve to be valued. Among the physical and environmental aspects, these territories grow fast, adapting with great flexibility to the morphology, the topography, and to the previous existing building density. They create compact labyrinthic urban landscapes, recalling medieval neighborhoods with a pedestrian scale, and low environmental impact as they fewer resources and recycling more. At the social level, it's composed by young communities, culturally diverse, creative, resilient, pragmatic and entrepreneurial. They have both the individual and the collective sharing the value of reciprocity, self-help and solidarity (UN-Habitat, 2003; Roy, 2005; Neuwirth, 2005; Harvard Design Magazine, 2008; Hernandez et al, 2010; Varley, 2013).

The new slum-upgrading paradigm defends that the solution is the gradual rehabilitation of precarious areas, with the intention of creating hybrid territories, consolidated and with character. They suggest an integrated approach, backed by strong sociocultural and economic development programs, in close cooperation between different entities, as the institutional, the private sector, the academia and the civil society in a participatory manner (Andavarapu et al., 2013).

At the same time, the new development policies suggests that social capital can play a key role in combating poverty strategies, leading to the success and sustainability of the several project investments, s well as contributing to these groups may act collectively and forge alliances with external actors, winning voice and more opportunities. (Warren et al., 2005; Sen, 1999).

3.2. Social capital and urban design

Since late 80s, social capital began to have great prominence among researchers, occupying an important place in the social sciences. It refers to a set of features inherent in social relationships based in trust and cooperation. The breadth of this definition allows us to use the term as a new replacement for "civic virtue, social cohesion, social solidarity, collective action capacity or any other attribute for an ethically valuable community" (Briggs, 1998).

Social capital can be approached from three different points of view. The structural suggests that it's a set of available resources, derived from the participation in social networks. Although initially an individual attribute, social capital is now a collective attribute, assuming the variable trust, which facilitates social relations and the exchange of commons (Coleman, 1988). The cultural and more subjective understands that all human beings have a natural predisposition to socialize and associate, as they share a set of values and norms that affect social relations (Kliksberg, 1999). The integrationist shed has included social capital as a central topic in social and political sciences who sees it as a personal and cognitive attribute that rises later to a participatory and civic engagement (Putnam et alt, 1993). The social capital is now seen as a public good that can be created and fostered from social and institutional activities, emphasizing the role of institutions, policies and social norms to shape human behavior (Arriagada, 2006 Kliksberg, 1999; Sen, 1998).

There are different forms of social capital. It has two dimensions, the cognitive based on norms and values and the structural, based on three levels of social networks: bonding, bridging and linking (Woolcock et al., 1999). Bonding refers to social networks between homogenous groups, which occupies a "narrow radius of trust", as family and neighborly relations, effective in maintaining solidarity and social integration, emotional closeness and social support. Bridging is more outward looking and refers to social networks between socially heterogeneous groups, as friends, associates and colleagues, creating bridges between different groups and generating broader identities, an increasing 'radius of trust' and general forms of reciprocity, as well as a greater number of resources, information and opportunities. Linking refers to the relations between groups with different social status and where you can

access the power hierarchy, enabling access to key features of formal institutions outside the community, such as financial and technical support, training and greater access to decision processes formal decisions. While the bonding and bridging refers to horizontal networks, linking refers to its vertical dimension (Woolcock et al., 2000).

Bonding can be valuable and more evident in low-income communities to band together in groups and networks and support their collective needs, as they don't have access to the services and official institutions to meet their needs, depend on their personal relationships to survive (Woolcock et al., 2000; Matous, 2010). For this reason, building social capital is one way to facilitate empowerment as its expands the poor people's assets and capabilities to participate in, negotiate with influence, control, and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives (Sen, 1999; Kliksberg, 1999; Grootaert et al., 2003).

Within the urban context, the physical and social environment are inseparable. The physical environment as a setting material through which people live, is both a condition and a result of social relationships. Despite this symbiotic relation, the research on the contribution of the physical space for the development of social capital is recent, and even more, regarding to the assessment of this relationship in requalification of spontaneous settlements programs.

The topic was first debated in the mid 60s, by a range of thinkers and urban planners coming from the new urbanism movement such as Jacobs, White, Lefebvre, Soja, Lynch, among others. They claimed for intense lively neighbourhoods, encouraging everyday citizens to take ownership of the streets through participating actively in it (Jacobs, 1992). The current concept of urban design, understood as "placemaking for people", indicates that urban space doesn't have a direct influence on the quality, on the content and on the intensity of social contacts, but can increase the opportunities for meeting, sharing among people, serving as a starting point for multiple social networks to develop (Carmona et al., 2003; Project of Public Spaces). The key concept by which the urban design can facilitate and allow social capital to grow is on projecting to retain people in places longer, engaging repeated interaction (Jacobs, 1992; Lefebvre, 1991; Putman, 2000; Sander, 2002; Dannemberg et al., 2003; Moobela et al., 2009). For that urban space must respond to certain attributes or design principles that promote social interaction within communities and, as social capital refers to people who meet, get to know each other and help each other in many ways, it's assumed that a large cultural and social diversity is one of the important prerequisites for its strengthening.

These concepts have been recently also a focus in Putnam's research, which aroused the interest in how urban space can be organized to facilitate the diversity and minimize isolation or segregation. Results indicate that pedestrian-oriented neighbourhoods and mixed-use allow residents to interact along the way and thus increase the contact frequency. People who live in quieter neighbourhoods are more likely to have a higher level of interaction and tend to live longer lives and healthier than those living in car-dependent neighbourhoods. Therefore, it confirms that sprawl is an important factor in the decline of social capital. This is because the center of social capital is the relationship between individuals and groups based on trust, which is only enhanced if there is a time factor that favors the interactions (Putman, 2000).

At an urban design level, it can be identified four major attributes that may promote social capital (figure 1):

• Connectivity: structure movement, mixed-use local facilities.

• Security: property, natural surveillance, access and trails.

• Identity / character: respect the public, personalization space.

• Diversity: life cycle needs, mixed uses, socio-cultural diversity.

Fig. 1. Physical attributes contributing to social capital (adapted from Moobela et al., 2009)

4. Key findings

Since 2004, Medellin adopted a new urban policy called "Social Urbanism", or in ideological terms, a creation of a city model that integrates various topics such as politics, social, territory and urban planning, set in the reorientation of the municipal administration in human welfare and not only, in economic growth. It expresses the need to overcome obstacles such as exclusion, inequality, violence, lack of sustainable economic growth and weak democratic governance, recognizing the need for more inclusive and participatory approaches to create a "city equal for all and where all citizens can build relationships stimulated by wealthy neighborhood services, culture and public space" (Alcaldia de Medellin, 2004).

This new form of public management seeks to strengthen the relationship between state institutions and civil society in order to increase mutual trust, legitimacy and governance. Through an exercise of mutual commitment, it seeks to build local development and to strengthen the population's capacity in order to foster greater civic and political participation. By diagnosing the lowest quality of life and human development indexes, the municipality applies, in low-income areas, the Integrated Urban Projects (PUI) and the Integral Improvement Plans (PMIB), which combine urban and social interventions, with the best architectural projects and technical knowledge, and in which, urban design becomes the main approach to the improvement and regeneration of the city. (Alcadia de Medellin, 2004, 2006).

The Integral Improvement Plan of Moravia (PPMIM) is an integrated initiative included in the Strategic Development Plan of 2004-2007, aiming to recover the urban, the sociocultural and economic conditions, of Moravia's neighborhood of 42, 7 hectares, known to have grown up on the old trash of Medellin. It's a bottom-up multi-sectorial approach, relying on the technical support of the private sector and the academia, as the National University of Colombia (CEHAP), and on the community's participation, during the three main phases of the plan: diagnosis and planning, masterplan and execution, animation and sustainability.

As an archetype of many slums areas in the world, Moravia arises in the mid-50s, due to rural exodus and violence problems that have been accentuated in the country. Although located near to metropolitan and regional infrastructure, the territory is highly disconnected from the urban area of the city due to the extreme population density (45 thousand inhabitants, corresponding to a public space index 0,15m2 / person), serious environmental and social problems due to the dump fill, and to be occupied by popular precarious housing conditions around which, combines several ways of use and spatial appropriation (Alcadia de Medellin, 2006).

Despite the social conflicts that come from the lack of public space there is the existence of an historical and social legacy, which social networks elements are visible such bonding and bridging networks, even if in a 1st phase, that emerged in order to fight for habitat rights. Physical and social factors create an image and a symbolic significance for its residents and, when valuable at a city scale.

4.1. Responding to local patterns of use and to the needs of the locality

Most physical and environmental intervention was implemented between 2006-2011 and is composed of genotypical urban design strategies applied in the new slum upgrading paradigm, which includes a mixture of urban renewal with rehabilitation, creating a hybridization of these territories. The main strategies are:

• Boundary deconstruction and permeability increasing: consists in reviewing the accessibilities and mobility system (interior / exterior), organising and ranking routes and promoting an integrated mobility system, with foot and cycle paths and public transport. Secondly, create a dynamic urban boundary with promenade and mixed uses (commerce and services) in order to attract and increase social mobility.

• Redefinition of the concept of public space: consists in reviewing infrastructures and mitigating environmental risks rehousing families if necessary, as well as creating a public centralities system with social facilities, as social equipment's, squares and landscape entities that seek to expand the green areas with educational and recreational activities for all the inhabitants. This strategy also looks to strengthen the productive and commercial activities in order to create jobs and boost the neighbourhood and its surroundings.

• Representation and image of the areas: consists in painting, covering or upgrading the outside of the pre-existent buildings as well as locate new formal pieces within the formal and the informal city, generally social equipment's or new housing complexes aiming to reinforcing the area's collective identity.

The design of spontaneous settlements such as Moravia creates a positive overall impact.

Physically, at a city scale, the territory is more integrated in the city's morphology creating a better compact city and environmental more healthy. Even if stills insufficient due to the high density of the territory, the system of public centralities increased the public space index to 0.47 m2 / inhabitants, which allowed the existence of meeting places for socialization and to develop different sort of activities. Associated with a strong sociocultural development program, the new public spaces are now perceived as a social product, of coexistence and sharing, and act as a suitable location for the mobilization on an equal footing which leads, among other things, to an open discourse without major conflicts and greater social cohesion and inclusion feeling. Although there is still a very marked identity, typical of low-income communities cultures with a strong domestication of the public space, their social behavior prove to be more civic, and thus, the system of public centralities public functions are now the nerve center of the community, encouraging social relationship with the collective places that they share, reflected in how they are used, enjoyed and maintained.

Fig. 2. (a) Map location (b) Recycling at Moravia's dump fill

Fig. 3. Responding to local patterns of use and to the needs of the locality

Fig. 4. Moravia's neighbourhood, 2014

Regarding to the social services provided by the equipments, and in particular, by the Cultural Development Center (CDCM), its education and civic culture program diversity as well as the public use centered on the recovery

of the historical memory, proves that slum upgrading strategies which allies strong social development programs make the empowerment of communities occur more effectively and are also crucial to create social capital. Statistics show that there has been a considerable increase in the human development index (HDI) from 2004 to 2013 (Confenalco Antioquia, 2012). As Kliksberg and Sen supports, it is through access to basic goods, education and culture that development becomes a process of expanding the real freedoms of their inhabitants (Sen, 1999).

The PPMIM has also restored the urban security and the territorial control by the municipal government, where its now visible a day and night life in the neighbourhood. The diversity of mixed uses around pedestrian corridors, help to promote spontaneous meetings and commercial dynamism, allowing greater mobility and sociocultural diversity, mixing new dialogues and knowledge as well as unlocking prejudice and social stigma. The rehabilitated territory provide now a range of benefits and opportunities associated with the right of the city, and if combined with proactive strategies for local development may, indeed, projecting internationally the neighbourhood, with for example, the introduction of business strategies linked to local community or local sustainable tourism, among others.

However, there were some urban design strategies that have not been implemented according to pre-established agreements in the participation process with the municipality and thus fell short of obtaining the expected impact, as around 70% of the population to resettle was located outside Moravia's surrounding neighborhood, in Ciudadela Nuevo Occidente housing project. Despite the new housing solution be more convenient, stable, free of environmental contamination and families have now the ownership of their houses, it didn't bring a higher quality of life, as they don't integrate themselves because of the architectural typology, the lack of social equipment's and services in the surrounding, the lack of economic conditions and because of the lost of their previous social networks. The new habitat's appropriation is being done slowly and gradually. The resettled families are organizing themselves slowly, recognizing and beginning to create a new social fabric and to shaping up a new imaginary from these new buildings, while creating a new meaning and significance to the new territory (Mejia-Escalante, 2012).

It's understandable that urban design in such territories should consider vertical rehousing as a strategy to mitigate environmental risks or the need to create urban space for other infrastructures, but its fundamental to identify the psychosocial and economic characteristics of the families, as well as the location, the housing typology and the number of floors of the buildings. The strategy must include a multidisciplinary team by itself, effective and integrated to monitor the resettlement process and the communities' adaptation to the new habitat. Listen their demands, their aspirations, their anxieties and their needs, are important in order to create a more equitable and inclusive city. Social assistance and training before, during and after the relocation and based on the initial premises, what has been executed or not, new actions to continuing the process of local development are needed.

On the other hand, even if 40% of the community of Moravia is now in the formal economy, the quality of life index (QLI), from 2004-2013, has no major positive developments. These numbers can be justified due to the underdevelopment of the economic component, and in parallel, to the new territorial dynamics that the neighborhood is suffering.

Fig. 5. (a) Resettlement location; (b) Rehousing model

4.2. Improving perception and social capital of the neighborhood

Another way to assess the impact of slum upgrading programs can be measured through social capital. Surveys to Moravia's community and to social organizations leaders were undertaken to evaluate the cognitive and structural dimensions such as the horizontal and vertical social networks, leading to their civic and political participation.

By analyzing the results, we perceived that the sense of belonging has improved with a perceived higher quality of the physical environment. The respondents held positive perceptions of the new public spaces as well as the walking environment, the design of the trees, the landscaping, the linear park and adjacent squares. The sense of pride in where one lives that creates feelings of belonging is an important contributor to social capital, influencing, among others, individuals' decision on local civic participation and networking.

Apart of the social capital variables with a very positive result, as reciprocity, solidarity, sense of pride and belonging, security, civic and political participation, two variables still have medium-low values and compromise social capital in general: the level of trust and the capacitation index.

Regarding trust and comparing to before the slum-upgrading program (PPMIM), the vast majority of people are suspicious of the different types of groups, even those close to them. The lack of inter-personal trust may be explained by the greater openness of the territory at a city scale, which brand new territorial and social dynamics, new real estate markets, so greater uncertainties regarding future and weakening in this way the trust towards others.

The same applies to different groups of people and different institutions, such as political, justice and police. Overall, even participating in citizen and political life through events and various activities such as volunteering, collective action, civic and political participation through participatory assumptions, Moravia's community of Moravia is relatively skeptical regarding honesty, transparency of the municipality's intentions and responsiveness. This can be explained by several factors: the long indifference of the state towards this territory, the recent history of the participatory process in which not all signed neighborhood agreements have been met by the municipality and a more general one, the critics regarding the "mediatization" of the Social Urbanism of Medellin leading to gentrification processes (Brand, 2013).

The other aspect is the level of capacitation, which shows that, despite the CDCM, the schools and the social organizations' efforts, due to the extreme overcrowded territory, the percentage of the neighborhood that received training is still very low. There is a lack of motivation, possibly due to the psychosocial characteristics of this population, which should be countered through enticement strategies. The activities in the social equipment's, in the public and green spaces should continue to generate opportunities for building good social networks where participant actors want to be members and work for a common good, and in long term, they will have the need to have more specific knowledge and training for own empowerment and individual's capacity building (Coleman, 1988; Sen, 1999; Arriagada, 2006).

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Fig. 6. Cognitive and strucural dimensions of social capital in Moravia, Medellin.

Bridging and linking networks are usually inexistent in low-income areas, and are extremely important for their empowerment as citizens (Woolcock, 1998; Woolcock et al. 2000; Gittel et al., 1998; Granovetter, 1973). In Moravia's neighborhood, as mentioned, some bridging networks were already evident, but in the last ten years, the number of social organizations doubled. While the pre-existing organizations emerged spontaneously, often unable to develop actions in a structured manner, the new created were driven by the PPMIM and its decentralized institutional management.

Social organizations have a good knowledge of the territory and a good relationship with the community, which helps the spirit of solidarity and social inclusion of all the work to be done. It's also important to mention the strengthening of personal skills for women, usually a critical issue in slums, to promote more equality and development as, by their nature, women have more responsible and gregarious capabilities (UN-Habitat, 2003, 2015). For example, two social and productive organizations were created operated only by women: Cojardicom a community gardeners responsible for the environmental and landscaping project of the old dump fill and Servihogar providing cleaning services to the city. Regarding the capacity of the organizations and their collective action, despite certain weaknesses, there is a human capital that is valued by the leadership, and a constant experiment in community work, which is recognized and respected by the majority of the community and by the institutional and private actors who also develop projects in the surroundings.

Regarding the weaknesses, we quote aspects that should keep to be worked: more training and professional expertise is needed as technological, organisational capabilities, aiming to acquire academic certifications and be easily inserted into the labour market, with confidence and position. It's necessary to provide more logistical and technical support regarding material and financial resources, infrastructure and technical equipments, which are intended to enable them to develop higher quality of their work. It is important that this support takes the form of ensuring greater economic sustainability, which can occur by the provision and marketing of the local services, or by helping them in finding support and institutional resources. In order to formulate profitable and effective projects and to gain more trust and responsibility from all, it's fundamental to acquire more human capacities. General capacitation will also help to find solutions to their economic problems by improving the feasibility of implementing their projects. The empowerment and social strengthening of the tissue, and therefore the local development, work as a spiral rise. Finally, some more dialogue between horizontal networks and vertical institutions are important, in order to break a certain patronage and some existing practice of centralization of power.

Fig. 7. Number of social organizations in Moravia (Gerencia de Moravia, 2012) 5. Conclusions and implications

Within the scope of this study, it was not possible to explore all issues related to urban design and social capital in Moravia's neighborhood. However, the physical and social outcomes of the PPMIM proves that the speech that integrates the recognition, the civil society participation and the strengthening of their capacities are strategic resources for the effective social transformation of low-income communities. Social capital emerges as an anchor in the strategic development plans of the Social Urbanism. While social capital was once historical and culturally built,

with the introduction of the PPMIM, it becomes a territorial construction. Urban design, seen as a multidisciplinary process and as "placemaking" could provide the opportunity for social interactions that encourage people to have more civic behaviors, create bridging networks and collective action, as well as civic and political participation. By creating a system of public centralities combined with a sociocultural enhancement strategy aimed, among others, to dignify their historical background, to strengthen training and enrich the overall cultural diversity. In Moravia, the PPMIM provoked a "re-self-identification" process, linked to a sense of belonging, enjoyment and preservation of the rehabilitated territory, increasing the feeling of solidarity citizenship, civically active and even an ecological awareness to the surroundings.

However, slum-upgrading programs need to keep in mind their ethical principles of social and spatial justice in order to avoid to be swallowed by capitalist competition logic, where there are dangers of speculative development and gentrification. They are already evident in Moravia, where the new territorial and social dynamics can weaken the level of general trust and bonding social networks. To change this phenomenon, it is important to continue to develop strategies to encourage the creation of social capital, and to promote the three different types of networks: bonding, bridging and linking. As there is already the physical, the environmental and the social infrastructure, it seems important to continue to promote all sorts of investments on activities and events, as capacitation, volunteering and collective action, as well as continuing to provide support to foster economic development and create more productive networks. These various measures will create greater trust and reciprocity, increasing sociability, involvement and participation. At the same time, will help to stimulate interest in their own empowerment, gradually increasing their quality of life and their future generations. The Partial Plan needs to balance more the investments between the urban planning, sociocultural and economic components, in order to guaranty their effectiveness on the community's local development. As pointed by Hobsbwawm (1994), it's "social distribution rather than economic growth that will dominate the new millennium policies."

In terms of the functioning of bridging and linking networks, it's up to social organizations continuing to want to become acquainted with in order to develop its activities for the benefit of the community. In this way, they acquire more credibility because they have more expertise, managing to seek support from the institutions. At a more institutional level, urban policies must continue to combine social capital and culture as a development tool and social inclusion, because "cultural mobilization can be of great relevance, (...) since the systematic practices in cultural activities foster habits of discipline, worship the work and for cooperation" (Kliksberg, 1999).

At a territory and a city level, it should be noted all the positive charge that the uniqueness of this type of territories carries on our imagination when we think on the traditional city and for example what has become today old medieval neighbourhoods, how it will be the world we visualise for future generations. Slum upgrading programs have the power to create "new urban villages", hybrid territories or groups of autonomous and self-sufficient neighbourhoods that can integrate the best of urban and rural life, where one can live in a more harmonious community and in a symbiotic way. New urban villages can be one of the paradigms of how to live more sustainably in cities in the XXIst century, and in the case of spontaneous settlements, how to transform them into more sustainable territories and integrated into the urban fabric of the city (Gill, 1997; Madanipour, 2001).

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Andavarapu, D., Edelman, D. (2013). Evolution of Slum Redevelopment Policy. Current Urban Studies, 1(4): 185-192.

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