Scholarly article on topic 'A methodology for energy performance classification of residential building stock of Hamirpur'

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Aniket Sharma, Bhanu M. Marwaha

Abstract In India, there are various codes, standards, guidelines and rating systems launched to make energy intensive and large sized buildings energy efficient whereas independent residential buildings are not covered even though they exist most in numbers of total housing stock. This paper presents a case study methodology for energy performance assessment of existing residential stock of Hamirpur that can be used to develop suitable energy efficiency regulations. The paper discusses the trend of residential development in Hamirpur followed by classification based on usage, condition, predominant material use, ownership size and number of rooms, source of lighting, assets available, number of storey and plot sizes using primary and secondary data. It results in identification of predominant materials used and other characteristics in each of urban and rural area. Further cradle to site embodied energy index of various dominant building materials and their market available alternative materials is calculated from secondary literature and by calculating transportation energy. One representative existing building is selected in each of urban and rural area and their energy performance is evaluated for material embodied energy and operational energy using simulation. Further alternatives are developed based on other dominant materials in each area and evaluated for change in embodied and operational energy. This paper identifies the energy performance of representative houses for both areas and in no way advocates the preference of one type over another. The paper demonstrates a methodology by which energy performance assessment of houses shall be done and also highlights further research.

Academic research paper on topic "A methodology for energy performance classification of residential building stock of Hamirpur"

HBRC Journal (2015) xxx, xxx-xxx

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FULL LENGTH ARTICLE

A methodology for energy performance classification of residential building stock of Hamirpur

Aniket Sharma *, Bhanu M. Marwaha

Department of Architecture, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur, India Received 20 April 2015; revised 27 August 2015; accepted 25 November 2015

Housing and Building National Research Center HBRC Journal

http://ees.elsevier.com/hbrcj

KEYWORDS

Classification; Residential buildings; Hamirpur; Energy performance; Embodied energy; Operational energy

Abstract In India, there are various codes, standards, guidelines and rating systems launched to make energy intensive and large sized buildings energy efficient whereas independent residential buildings are not covered even though they exist most in numbers of total housing stock. This paper presents a case study methodology for energy performance assessment of existing residential stock of Hamirpur that can be used to develop suitable energy efficiency regulations. The paper discusses the trend of residential development in Hamirpur followed by classification based on usage, condition, predominant material use, ownership size and number of rooms, source of lighting, assets available, number of storey and plot sizes using primary and secondary data. It results in identification of predominant materials used and other characteristics in each of urban and rural area. Further cradle to site embodied energy index of various dominant building materials and their market available alternative materials is calculated from secondary literature and by calculating transportation energy. One representative existing building is selected in each of urban and rural area and their energy performance is evaluated for material embodied energy and operational energy using simulation. Further alternatives are developed based on other dominant materials in each area and evaluated for change in embodied and operational energy. This paper identifies the energy performance of representative houses for both areas and in no way advocates the preference of one type over another. The paper demonstrates a methodology by which energy performance assessment of houses shall be done and also highlights further research.

© 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research Center. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

* Corresponding author at: Department of Architecture, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur, HP 177005, India. Tel.: +91 9418016996; fax: +91 1972223834.

E-mail address: aniket@nith.ac.in (A. Sharma).

Peer review under responsibility of Housing and Building National Research Center.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.11.003

1687-4048 © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research Center. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Introduction

As per International Energy Agency, global building industry consumed 29% of total primary energy in 2009 out of which 38% demand is met by growing power sector [1]. Indian residential sector consumed 21.98% of total primary energy in 2010 and is 2nd highest in the country after Industrial sector

[2]. Indian residential buildings are predominant among total building stock and accounts to around 60% at national level

[3]. Hence efforts shall be made to make these large numbered residential buildings to become energy efficient.

In order to achieve energy efficiency in India, Energy Conservation Act was enacted in 2001, under which Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is created in 2002. The focus of BEE is reducing energy intensity of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings through Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) 2007. BEE also promotes use of energy efficient appliances using energy labelling and development of sectoral energy consumption norms [4]. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) and the Ministry of Power (MoP) had introduced a number of schemes aside ECBC during Eleventh Five Year Plan namely Standards and Labelling (S & L), Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings, Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY), SDA strengthening, Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Agriculture and Municipal Demand Side Management (DSM) and State Energy Conservation Fund (SECF) to promote energy efficiency. In 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12) energy efficiency was given an outlay of 205 crores wherein the target was to reduce the energy intensity of the country [5]. In 2008, the National Action Plan for Climate Change was enacted to address energy efficiency in buildings along with other policies and programmes for mitigating climate change [6]. A saving potential of 13.16 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) is projected for 12th Five Year Plan (201217) [7], wherein the focus is on expansion of S & L programme, introducing labelling scheme for transportation sector, enhanced efficiency of industries, introduction of superefficient lamps and fans and development of energy-efficient indigenous technologies through Research and Development. However land is a state subject in the country and hence all land development related activities including building construction regulation are under the control of state government, that in turn enacts local level building regulations for development control.

Himachal Pradesh is a north Indian state that uses electricity as a major source of energy in residential buildings [8]. From 1994 onwards, the state government has implemented Solar House Action Plan that regulates passive solar features in all the govt. and semi govt. buildings [9]. In the recent past, keeping in mind the importance of energy conservation, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh has modified its existing building regulations to include solar passive measures in all types of buildings [10,11]. With the aim to save the non-renewable sources and to make the cities sustainable, Govt. of India through Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has declared a southern western district headquarter town named Hamirpur to become solar town which is among first 200 solar cities to be developed in India [12]. From 1998 onwards, the development of Hamirpur was regulated through Development Plan in which building regulations for each landuse were given [13]. The plan was developed

by Town and Country Planning Department of Govt. of Himachal Pradesh that provides zoning and subdivision regulations, general regulations and specific regulations for allowed landuse in the area. But the state does not have any energy efficiency code for buildings including residential buildings. Hence due to abovementioned reasons, there is an urgent need to develop energy efficiency regulations for residential buildings for which the energy performance status of present residential building stock shall be known. The objective of this paper was to present a methodology for energy performance evaluation of existing residential stock through case study example of Hamirpur. The methodology is shown in Fig. 1.

Dascalaki [14] classified the residential buildings for energy performance based for typologies given by European building typologies for Hellenic Building stock. It was based on building age, size and climatic zone. The study resulted in 24 classes called 'typical buildings'. Similarly Theodordou et al. [15] also classified Greek residential building stock using secondary data considering the period of construction, building usage, number of floors and construction materials. Using the same approach as mentioned above, the classification of residential stock is determined in Section 'Residential development in Hamirpur' of the paper by using primary and secondary data that further resulted in identification of predominant classification of the stock. Section 'Literature study on energy performance' deals with the literature study of energy performance. Section 'Energy analysis' deals with energy analysis for embodied and operational energy of representative dominant houses using calculations and simulation. Other dominant alternatives are identified from primary data for walls, floor and roof materials and their performance is evaluated through representative building details and finally conclusions are drawn and scope of further research is mentioned.

Residential development in Hamirpur

Himachal Pradesh is north Indian state and is 17th state of the country by size [8]. It has 12 districts out of which Hamirpur is smallest district by size, which lies in south western of the state (Fig. 2). It is most dense district of the state having 407 persons/km having 6.62% of total population of state out of which only 6.91% of total population resides in urban areas.

Classification of households

The classification of residential stock for study area is done using secondary data from census of India 2011 [3]. The data for number of storey and plot sizes are collected using primary data.

Based on usage

Out of occupied households of the district respectively, total of 48.74% and 45.75% are residences; 5.98% and 23.82% are shop/offices; 30.41% and 8.81% are other non-residential buildings in urban and rural areas respectively.

Condition of households

Out of all occupied residences, 77.51%, 27.72%, and 4.67% residences are in good, liveable and dilapidated condition in rural areas and 82.41%, 20.68%, 3.19% are in urban areas respectively.

Energy performance of predominant households (Embodied and operational energy use)

Fig. 1 Methodology.

Predominant material use in construction

It is found that the predominant household construction material in rural areas is mud for flooring, mud brick for walls and slates for roof, whereas it is cement, burnt bricks and concrete in urban areas respectively.

Ownership size and number of rooms

In rural areas, 96.71% households are owned, whereas it is 67.75% in urban areas. The predominant household size is 4 persons in both rural and urban areas. Rural households have maximum four rooms (7.75%) followed by two rooms (5.06%) similarly urban households have maximum four rooms (9.50%).

Main source of lighting

99.12% and 98.75% houses in rural and urban area respectively have electricity as main source of lighting.

Number of storey

Since the data regarding the number of storey are not collected during Census of India 2011, so a sample survey of 2606 rural households (1536 independent houses) and 700 urban households (337 independent houses) was conducted based on random sampling method. The number of sampled households along with name of each urban area and village was studied

with the help of census data [3] and is mentioned in Tables 1 and 2.

The number of storey of total stock is predicted by considering the same proportions of results obtained from samples. The survey results are shown in Table 3.

Building regulations of Hamirpur permit residential building of up to 4 (G + 3) storeys to be constructed in the regulated area of the Development Plan that includes urban areas and urban fringe. However it is seen in Table 3 that there also exist five storey residential buildings (2 in 337 urban houses which is 0.59% of total urban households) in Hamirpur. These buildings may be seen as a result of non-compliance of building regulations and hence are not considered for further analysis.

Table 1 Number of household surveyed in urban area.

Urban Single Two Three Four Five Total

area storey storey storey storey storey

Hamirpur 51 84 44 16 2 197

Bhota 7 5 2 0 0 14

Sujanpur 36 35 10 0 0 81

Nadaun 14 22 6 3 0 45

Total 108 145 63 19 2 337

Table 2 List of villages and number of surveyed households.

S. Village Number of S. Village Number of S. Village Number of S. Village Number of

households households households households

1 Kalar 5 22 Malwana 17 43 Chhal Buhla 27 64 Karahalar 5

Parohtan

2 Kalar 6 23 Baroha 35 44 Dib 9 65 Chowki 23

Datialan

3 Kalar 7 24 Taropka 14 45 Rakarial 11 66 Dodru 18

Katochan

4 Sunali 5 25 Panjhali 24 46 Chhal Uperala 25 67 Siuni 22

5 Gulela 4 26 Dhar 7 47 Chanwal 28 68 Ghariayana 34

Suharin Jaswalan

6 Bhira 32 27 Dugha 22 48 Jatehri 24 69 Ghariana 18

Kalan Brahmna

7 Chhattar 11 28 Ser Swahal 26 49 Sasan 46 70 Kakru 20

8 Darbsai 19 29 Lahar 19 50 Ghartheri 33 71 Paniala 31

Brahmna

9 Lungwan 9 30 Anu 9 51 Ubak 29 72 Khasgran 10

Brahmna Khurd

10 Lungwan 18 31 Jhareri 13 52 Bahal 12 73 Krasht 14

Julaian

11 Kehdroo 52 32 Chamarari 11 53 Ghartheri 25 74 Baral 22

Behlwana

12 Samrala 9 33 Khala 8 54 Chowki 20 75 Padal 17

Kuthera

13 Sai Ugealta 13 34 Nijhar 14 55 Kuthera Buhla 17 76 Girtheri 28

14 Sai Brahmna 5 35 Anu 27 56 Muthan 7 77 Dugnehri 17

Kalan Bhulwana

15 Halana 21 36 Daruhi 54 57 Muthan 9 78 Dugga Khurd 33

Chambialan

16 Dhalot 23 37 Dulehra 19 58 Muthan 10 79 Rara 21

Luhakhrian

17 Lambloo 33 38 Ghanal 21 59 Bhud 8 80 Bassi 6

18 Hawani 8 39 Loharda 26 60 Bhatti 8 81 Bhater Khurd 14

19 Ghumarwin 12 40 Bajuri 41 61 Tibbi 15 Total 1536

20 Bohni 21 41 Ghanal 29 62 Nakhrer 21

Kalan Sauran

21 Gudhwin 28 42 Bassi 11 63 Nakhrer 14

Munshian

Table 3 No. of storeys of independent houses.

Area Single Two Three Four Five

storey storey storey storey storey

Rural 602 918 12 4 0

Urban 108 145 63 19 2

Plot sizes

It is seen from the above classifications that the secondary data classify the stock separately for urban and rural study area. The urban area mentioned in above classifications is regulated under the building regulations defined in present development plan of Hamirpur. As per the building regulations, the residential building stock is classified based on plot sizes of ranges 120-150 m2, 151-250 m2, 251-500 m2 and above 500 m2 and is categorized as semi-detached, detached house-I, detached house-II and detached house-III respectively for which ground

coverage, floor area ratio and setback conditions are given. However there is no such classification for rural areas due to lack of regulations in these areas. Data are collected for plot sizes for same samples, computed and given in Table 4. It is found that most of developments in both urban and rural areas are detached type having plot sizes of 150 m2 or more. It is seen that 48.5% rural houses are detached houses-II whereas 47.18% are detached houses-I in urban areas.

Identification of predominant classification

Based on above information, one existing representative predominant house each for urban and rural areas is identified. The classification characteristics of both representative houses are mentioned in Table 5. Also it is seen that electricity is the major energy source in selected representative households, which is in conformity with classification mentioned in 2.1.5 above.

The typical section of both representative houses is shown in Figs. 3a and 3b.

Literature study on energy performance

The total energy of the house includes embodied energy and operational energy. Hence both shall be analysed for energy performance.

Embodied energy

Embodied energy, the energy consumed by a building material for a building life cycle, is an index value, which is calculated based on the processes involved in extraction of raw materials, manufacture, assembly, transportation, construction, operation & maintenance and disposal. As per Ding [16] embodied energy comprises the energy consumed during the extraction and processing of raw materials, transportation of the original raw materials, manufacturing of building materials and components and energy use for various processes during the construction and demolition of the building. A few researchers define embodied energy as material energy for the complete life cycle and this approach is called cradle to grave [16-18] while others consider embodied energy as initial energy that goes in manufacturing of the material for various manufacturing processes within the factory till it is arrived at factory gate and the approach is called cradle to gate [19-21]. In the second approach transportation energy is calculated separately considering the fact that each construction site is uniquely distant from manufacturing plant and hence transportation energy consumed by each material will also be different. In third approach, total embodied energy is calculated by addition of manufacturing energy and transportation energy and hence

this approach is called cradle to site. This approach is widely considered in analysis and is most useful to study the impact of construction on total life cycle energy. The third approach is used in this paper to calculate total embodied energy of each building material.

Dixit et al. [22] identified various factors responsible for calculation of embodied energy of materials namely (i) System boundaries, (ii) Methods of embodied energy analysis, (iii) Geographic location of study area, (iv) Primary and delivered energy, (v) Temporal representativeness, (vi) Age of data, (vii) Source of data, (viii) Completeness of data, (ix) Technology of manufacturing processes and (x) Feedstock energy consideration. Hence in the proposed study, the factor is considered (i) by using Cradle to site approach, (ii) by considering literature focused on process based method, (iii) by considering one specific location (Hamirpur in this case), (iv) by considering only delivered energy, (v), (vi), (ix) by considering the fact that since the location selected (Hamirpur) is in India, wherein no strict regulations or reforms took place since 1995. Hence the values shall be obtained from secondary literature after 1995. It is valid due to the fact that the old manufacturing plants are still manufacturing materials in the vicinity using same technologies those were used in 1995. Hence the value obtained from secondary literature is considered accurate and widely acceptable. It is suggested by Gonzalez and Navarro [23] that carbon dioxide emission is proportional to embodied energy and is equally responsible for climate change. Hence embodied energy is also important to address energy performance and to meet National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) objectives.

Research in India

In India, impact of material selection on embodied energy of the building is studied by various authors [24-33]. The values given by each author are computed in Table 6 and the average values of all are considered as initial embodied energy. This methodology is also used by Pinky and Palaniappan [34] and Bansal et al. [35] in which the embodied energy was taken from secondary literature. However since the cradle to site approach is to be used in this analysis, the transportation energy of each material is calculated for each material. The location of manufacturing plant that dominantly supplies specific building material in Hamirpur is identified from market survey. Also plant's distance from Hamirpur, mode of transport, vehicle fuel used and mileage of vehicle is considered to calculate transportation energy of each building material.

Finally initial embodied energy and transportation energy are summed up to obtain the total embodied energy for cradle to site approach (Table 6).

Operational energy

Escriva et al. studied [36] buildings at use stage and determined the indices to assess energy efficiency. In the study he collected data using energy audit and meter reading for energy consumption and finally the relationship is established between consumption behavior and building characteristics. Baker and Steemers [37] studied the factors that contribute toward energy consumption and found that dominant energy consumption factors are building design, use of systems (appliances) and occupants and their behavior pose variations in energy consumption.

Table 4 Plot sizes of survey houses (as per section 18.5.1.5 [13]).

Row Semi Detached Detached Detached

house detached house-I house-II house-III

Rural 0 4 471 745 316

Urban 12 24 159 90 52

Table 5 Predominant classification of house.

Use of No. of Assets/equipment No. of

materials rooms storeys

Rural Floor: 2 No. Of lamps (fluo-4, incand.-8, 2

Mud CFL-3), TV, Radio, iron,

Wall: refrigerator, Fans-6, Heater

Slates

Urban Floor: 2 No. Of lamps (fluo-12, incand.-1, 2

cement CFL-6), TV-2, Radio, Computer,

Wall: mixer/grinder, washing machine,

Burnt microwave, refrigerator, Fans-6,

brick Heaters-2, geyser-2, exhaust fan,

Roof: chimney

Concrete

Fig. 3a Typical wall section of rural house.

Fig. 3b Typical section of urban house.

Gago et al. [38] developed energy consumption model for residential buildings considering lighting energy. Classification of residential buildings was done for Apartment block, Detached/semidetached house and row houses and selection of type of house was based on their proportion in numbers. Energy use data were collected using questionnaire for number of lamps and their efficiency, number of hour usage, demographic profile, seasonal variations- winters and summers for both working days and holidays. It resulted in development of load curves showing pattern of consumption that was validated by questionnaire data.

Cellura et al. [39] evaluated the life cycle analysis of a net Zero energy household considering embodied, operational and demolition energy for a lifespan of 70 years. Ugursal [40] studied the impact of use of energy efficient appliances on energy efficiency of residences using simulation model and revealed that percentage share of use of energy by appliances is not much and hence improvement in 10% efficiency of equipment may result only in 1% overall energy improvement of the residence. Ramesh et al. [41] studied the impact of building envelope insulation, glazing (single or double) and onsite power generation on energy efficiency of residential buildings considering life cycle energy (embodied and operational) for 75 years.

It is found from this section that the energy performance of building is dependent on both embodied energy and operational energy consumption of a building which further is affected by selection of alternative building materials, material properties and energy consumption statistic for various processes namely heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, and appliances.

Energy analysis

Most dominant representative household each from rural and urban area is selected based on the classification as shown in Table 7. The household occupies 4 persons having one working male and one working female of 18 + years and 2 school going children between 5 and 18 years. Both houses have same built-up areas and two storeys. The specifications are mentioned in Table 7.

Embodied energy calculation

Both houses are physically measured and their total building material quantities are calculated. Embodied energy index value of various materials developed earlier (Table 6) is used

Table 6 Embodied energy values of building materials.

Building material Unil Initial embodied energy (MJ) : [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] Average Value (MJ)

Cement kg 4.50 5.85 6.50 5.85 6.70 4.20 4.60 4.50 5.85 5.39

bag Calculated ] from per kg for 50 kg bag 269.72

Sand (river) m3 0.00 0.00 0.00 nc 0.00 nc nc 0.00 nc 0.00

Aggregate kg 0.08 0.01 0.22 nc 0.00 nc 0.10 O.OS nc O.OS

m3 Calculated ] from per kg (Density 1650 kg/nr 136.79

Steel kg 20.10 42.00 45.00 42.0C ) 32.00 36.00 33.33 20.10 nc 33.82

Brick (230 x 115 x 75 mm) no 3.00 4.25 4.50 4.13 4.50 5.00 3.91 3.00 nc 4.04

Timber kg 10.00 nc nc nc nc nc 2.50 8.50 nc 7.00

m3 Calculated ] from per kg (Density 8001 cg/m3) 5600.00

Steel plate kg 21.50 nc 45.00 nc 32.00 36.00 nc nc nc 33.63

Wire mesh kg 56.70 nc nc nc nc nc 50.80 56.70 nc 54.73

White wash nr nc 0.06 0.50 nc nc nc nc nc nc 0.28

Glass kg 15.00 25.80 18.50 25.8C ) nc 15.90 15.90 nc nc 19.48

nr Calculated ] from per kg (Density 2500 kg/nr ' and 243.54

thickness 5: mm)

Ply wood kg 15.00 nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 15.00

nr Calculated ] from per kg (Density 5461 cg/m3 and 147.42

thickness 18 mm)

Mud brick* (400 x 200 x 200 mm) no nc nc nc nc nc nc 0.64 nc nc 0.64

Dressed Stone no nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 1.45

(400 x 200 x 200 mm)*

RCC (1:1.5:3)# m3 2664 nc nc nc nc nc nc 2664 nc 2664.00

Concrete block (1:3:6) no 15.5 nc nc nc nc nc nc 15.5 nc 15.54

(400 x 200 x 200 mm)*

Fly ash brick (230 x 115 x 75 mm) no nc nc nc nc 2.3 1.2 2.3 2.5 nc 2.09

Cement stabilized earth block no nc 1.4 nc nc nc nc 4.8 nc 3.1 3.0S

(230 x 115 x 75 mm)

Ceramic tiles kg 12.0 nc nc nc nc nc 2.5 12.0 nc S.S

nr Calculated ] from per kg (Density 2000 kg/nr ' and tile 141.3

thickness 8: mm)

Marble* kg nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 2.0 nc 2.0

nr Calculated ] from per kg (Density 2600 kg/nr ' and 130.0

thickness 25 mm)

Nylon Carpet nr nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 1022.0

Bamboo no nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 0

Slate* (400 x 300 x 10 mm) no nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 3.24 nc 3.2

Galvanized sheet nr nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 555.47856

GI roof assembly nr nc nc nc nc nc 1110.6 nc nc nc 1110.6

Transportation energy

Source Distance Mode Vehicle. Diesel used Carriage Total

average km/1 (litre) in units transportation

energy (MJ)

Barmana

Truck 5.2

Final embodied energy (MJ)

200.0 2.3

Rangas Rangas

15.0 15.0

Gobindhgarh 200.0 Punjab

Amritsar, 225.0 Punjab

Local 10.0

Gobindhgarh 200.0 Punjab

Gobindhgarh 200.0 Punjab

Udaipur 720.0

Bhiwadi Rj. 500.0

Tractor 12.0 Tractor 12.0

Truck 5.2

Truck 5.2

Tractor 12.0

Truck 5.2

Truck 5.2

Truck 5.2 Truck 5.2

1.3 1.3

138.5 96.2

1.4 31.5

1.4 31.5

10000.0 0.1

6000.0 0.3

15.0 2.0

10000.0 0.1

10000.0 0.1

10000.0 0*

400.0 8.7

31.5 16S.3

5602.0

0.3 252.2

Amritsar. Punjab

225.0 Truck 5.2

835.2 1.9

On site On site

0.6 1.5

On site On site

2664.0 15.5

Nangal On site

100.0 Truck 5.2

745.0 0.9

Galipur Hary ana

500.0 Truck 5.2

1120.0 3.1

Udaipur

720.0 Truck 5.2

138.5 10.0 498.5

550.0 Truck 5.2

Gobindhgarh 200.0

Punjab

On site

105 Truck 5.2 Truck 5.2

20.2 38.5

1120.0 3.4

3200 0.2 10000.0 0.1

1025.4 0.0 3.5 555.6

1110.6

(continued on next page)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

8 A. Sharma, B.M. Marwaha

to calculate total embodied energy of each house as shown in Table 8.

Operational energy calculation

As suggested by Gago et al. [38] the operational energy data were collected through questionnaire using interview method. Data were collected for socio-economic characteristics namely Age, Marital status, Education level, monthly income, Occupation, Appliance availability; Physical characteristics: Plot area, Floor area, total built-up area, orientation, use ofvarious building materials, opening details and Energy use characteristics: Room-wise Location, number & daily use pattern for month of September, December, March and June for lighting fixtures: Incandescent, fluorescent and CFL, Heating: Heaters, blowers, Hot water: geysers, Cooling: AC, Fans, coolers, Ventilation: Exhaust fans, chimneys and Miscellaneous: Appliances: TV/ radio, Mixer grinder, computer, washing machine, blender, microwave, Iron & Refrigerator. The collection of data for energy use character resulted in development of an occupancy schedule for each room of the building as discussed below.

Energy consumption pattern

It is clearly seen (Figs. 4a and 4b) that the energy in both the houses is consumed between 7 AM to 9AM and 3PM to 11 PM that peaks at around 8 PM when electricity is consumed for lighting, heating/cooling and miscellaneous activities. Also it is found that as an average in a year living room in both houses is occupied between 5PM and 9PM, kitchen is occupied between 7AM and 9 AM & 7PM and 10 PM, and bedrooms are occupied while sleeping hours i.e. between 8 PM and 7 AM having a variation of ±1 h during winters and summers. The trend remains almost same due to working conditions of inhabitants wherein both the parents are working between 9 AM and 5 PM and both children go to school between 9AM and 3 PM.

The energy consumption breakup shown in (Figs. 4c and 4d) derived from collected information & data is compared with calculated daily average kWh consumed from monthly energy bill readings taken from Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board and found that the total energy consumption calculated is on average 96% accurate and hence the breakup derived is validated.

The monthly energy consumption for urban house is 229.2 kW h whereas it is 169.1 kW h for rural house. It is clearly seen that the energy consumption of appliances in a house remains almost constant even with the variations of months. Due to climatic changes the heating or cooling energy consumption contributes in the month of December and June respectively. Cooling load is 227% of average heating load. The reason is use of modern material that heats up fast and radiates heat indoors in a lesser time lag than materials used in rural houses, which is called Thermal Lag. Also the hot water requirement of urban house is also climate specific whereas the electrical energy consumption for hot water requirement of rural house is nil as the inhabitants use fuel wood for hot water and there is no geyser available at home. Energy consumption for lighting in rural house is much higher (328%) than urban house. This is due to the reason of smaller window sizes and more use of incandescent lamps than other energy efficient lamps such as CFL or fluorescent lamps used in urban house.

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Table 7 Specifications of rural and urban house.

Description

Specifications

Rural (Vernacular) house

Urban (RCC) house

Ground floor Intermediate floor Roof Windows Doors

Floor plans (area) Orientation from north

8 1.112

5 DRAWING □=)

M 4 2° S2S

8 LIVING CZD VERANDAH

4 ROOM C3D KITCHEN DC

Mud walls 300 mm with mud plaster Mud flooring

Mud floor over bamboo framework

Slates fixed to bamboo framework

Single glazed timber frame

Wooden panel door

1578.38sft.

BEDROOM"

VERANDAH

GROUND FLOOR PLAN Area

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

860.36 sft. (ground floor) 700.88 sft. (first floor)

Brickwork 115 mm with plaster (inner) Brickwork 230 mm with plaster (Outer)

Tile flooring over cement concrete Tile flooring over RCC slab 125 mm RCC Slab 125 mm

Single glazed Timber frame with separate fly mesh shutter Wooden panel door with separate fly mesh shutter 1561.24sft. 105°

958.16 sft. (ground floor) 620.22 sft. (first floor)

Table 8 Embodied energy calculation.

S. No. Material Quantity Unit Embodied energy MJ per unit Embodied energy MJ

Urban house

2 Steel 5680.5 kg 34.0 192879.7

3 Cement 562.0 Bag 272.0 152864.0

4 Sand 49.8 m3 31.5 1566.8

5 Stone aggregate 43.1 m3 168.3 7253.7

6 Wood- frame 2.0 m3 5602.0 11316.0

7 Wood- plyboard 12 mm 93.7 m2 149.3 13981.9

8 Metal- MS Steel (grill & handrail) 540.0 kg 33.8 18232.3

9 Metal- mesh 83.0 kg 54.9 4555.5

10 Glazing Glass-5 mm 11.2 m2 252.2 2824.6

11 White wash 255.6 kg 0.3 71.6

12 Floor tiles 228.8 m2 144.4 33038.7

Total 595359.8

Rural house

2 Soil 36.4 m3 16.2 589.5

3 Slates 2747.0 Numbers 3.5 9524.3

4 Stone Aggregate 60.7 m3 168.3 10219.2

5 Timber 11.6 m3 5602.0 65095.2

6 Bamboo 1088.6 m run 0.0 0.0

7 Iron grill- 10 mm 37.3 kg 33.8 1258.7

8 Glazing glass-5 mm 5.9 252.2 1475.4

Total 93047.4

* Glass density (5 mm Float glass) 12.5 kg/m2, 250 glass sheets of 1.2 x 0.6 m in one truck, "Truck- 3 km/litre of diesel, carries 18000 brick/200

cement bags/150 plyboards, 14 Tons steel, 50.4 m3 capacity, 20 m3 wooden frames, """Diesel 35.80 Mj/litre, 3.222 kgCO2/litre.

NO. - Numbers.

Total annual energy consumption breakup of both houses is shown in Figs. 4e and 4f. It is seen that total energy of urban house consumed is 62% by appliances, 14% in cooling, 9% each in hot water and lighting and 6% in heating whereas it is 47%, 8%, 0%, 41% and 4% respectively in rural houses.

Based on the above information, simulation models are built for both buildings in Autodesk Ecotect 2011 and building envelope behaviour for energy performance is studied. The U-value of materials those were not available in the materials library of software was calculated in the material editor of the same software using thermo-physical properties given in IS 3792-1978 [42]. The climatic data file including Dry bulb temperature, Dew point temperature, Rainfall, Humidity, Wind speed and Direction, Atmospheric pressure, Global solar radiations, Diffused solar radiations and Direct solar radiations was taken from Centre of Energy and Environmental Engineering, NIT Hamirpur wherein SOLYS 2 Sun Tracker was installed in September 2011 at roof top of Centre to measure the desired parameters minute wise. The values of above mentioned parameters were taken for previous three years (Jan 2013- Dec 2014). Also simulation ready weather data were generated for 11 years (January 2002-December 2012) using NREL SAM data [43] for the study area. Then average of total 15 years data was obtained to develop weather file. This data is used to prepare the weather file using weather tool of the software and was further used to perform the study.

Monthly degree days. It is seen that urban house gains more heat than losses (226%) whereas in rural house the gains and losses are almost same (104%). It is seen that rural house average monthly gain and loss is 6.8 kW h & 6.5 kW h respectively whereas it is 22.3 kW h (328%) and 9.9 kW h (152%) respectively in urban house (Figs. 5a and 5b)

Passive gain breakdown. The passive losses in urban house are maximum (77%) for conductive losses thereby means that better building envelope materials shall be used including insulations & lower U-value materials. Maximum heat gain is by Sol-air (52.6%) thereby requiring better thermal materials for building envelope than windows, wherein windows contribute 22.1% heat gain through direct solar gains. Ventilation losses more heat 20% than gaining 2.3% and hence better sealing of building envelope shall be done to reduce heating load. Similarly rural house losses are maximum for conductive (59.4%) and ventilation (29.2%) and gains are maximum for Sol-air (37.5%) followed by internal gains (27.4%) thereby

06:0008:0010:0012:0014:0016:0018:0020:0022:0000:0002:0004:00

Lighting • Cooling

• Heating Misc.

Hot Water

Fig. 4b Energy consumption pattern- rural house.

o. 2.0

0.0 2.3

1.8 0.6

0.3 0.9

Mar Month

4.6 1.0

Jun Average

Lighting ■ Heating ■ Hot Water ■Cooling BMisc.

Fig. 4c Energy use per day- urban house.

g 6.0 - 2.6

c 4.0 - =i 2.6 2.6

2.6 1.0

o o. 2.0 0.0 1.8

2.3 3.0 2.6 1.3

0.5 0.2

Average

Lighting ■ Heating ■ Hot Water ■ Cooling BMisc. (d)

Fig. 4d Energy use per day- rural house.

Lighting • Cooling

Time Heating Misc.

Hot Water

255.3, 9%

164.3, 6%

240.9, 9%

Fig. 4a Energy consumption pattern- urban house.

■ Lighting "Heating "Hot Water "Cooling "Misc.

Fig. 4e Total energy consumption (kWh)- urban house.

■ Lighting ■ Heating ■ Hot Water ■ Cooling ■ Misc. (f)

Fig. 4f Total energy consumption (kWh)- rural house.

, , I..

Ian |=eb Mar A

I Ii Ii LI, I

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

Oct Nov Dec

20.0 0.0 -20.0

-40.0-

■ Urban House Losses (kWh) ■ Urban House Gains (kWh)

■ Rural House Losses (kWh) ■ Rural House Gains (kWh)

Fig. 5a Monthly losses and gains.

300 250 200 150 100 ä 50 0 -50 -100 -150 --118.449

LosJHHWh) Gains (kWh) Loss Wh) Gains (kWh)

isJIIIIWl

rban House

Rural House

Fig. 5b Total annual losses and gain.

resulting in providing better envelope insulation, lower U-value materials and increasing ventilation rate to reduce internal gains as lower storey is more air tight and uses more equipment than upper storey which is less air tight due to gap between wall and roof results in heat loss.

Passive adaptability index. The comparison of passive adaptability index shows that rural house shows better passive performance than urban house in all rooms.

Discomfort degree hours. Rural house has more annual discomfort hours than urban house (Fig. 5c). However in summers, rural house is more comfortable than urban house and vice versa in winter. This is due to more thermal mass of building envelope materials especially wall that does not let outside solar heat to reach inside due to more thickness.

Temperature/gain comparison. It is clearly seen that urban house gains more heat than heat loss and a similar trend is also seen in its energy consumption pattern as discussed above. In the rural house heat gain and loss are almost equal whereas the energy consumption pattern shows more energy consumption in cooling than in heating. The reason is that the inhabitants used fans as there is no other means available to reduce heat during summer days but the heating load is reduced by use of quilts and heavy clothing than by using energy consuming heaters.

Daylight autonomy. In order to perform daylight autonomy, daylight hours, sunrise and sunset time are calculated for each day and annually averaged to get daylight hours from 6:18 AM to 6:29 PM. The daylight autonomy is calculated for 300 lux which is most optimum for residential buildings. It is found that urban building is more lit during mentioned daylight hours with 88.8% area above 300 lux whereas it is 78.9% in case of rural building. The reason is smaller window sizes in rural houses. Also further improvements are possible by calculating impact of window sizes on daylight availability.

Energy performance evaluation for alternatives

The predominant material use of other dominant houses is taken from classified data of both house types. Dominant building material combinations are identified for wall, floor and roof materials by visiting various houses of each type and hence other dominant classified combinations are

2000 1500 1000 500 0

1475 110:

535 425

É40 425 211 4 II ^

Jun Jul Month URBAN «RURAL

133 43

2033 1540

26 1343 7720 3440

Fig. 5c Discomfort degree hours.

-78.397

Table 9 Embodied and operational energy under alternate conditions.

Alternative Wall Ground floor Intermediate floor Roof Fenestration Embodied Operational

frames/glazing energy energy (MJ)

Rural house

Base case Mud wall- 300 thick Mud floor Bamboo & Mud Slates & Bamboo Wooden/single 93047.4 Heating-

89.8 kW h

Cooling-

164.3 kWh

A-1 Stone wall 200 thick with Cement Wooden GI Roof Wooden/single 357966.5 Heating-

internal plaster concrete (384.7%) 137.8 kWh

(153.4%)

Cooling-

206.45 kW h

(125.6%)

A-2 Mud wall 300 thick & Mud floor Wood + Mud Stales + wood Wooden/double 318586.1 Heating-

toilets and kitchen brick (342.4%) 85.1 kW h

wall (94.8%)

Cooling-

170.09 kW h

(103.5%)

A-3 Brick wall 230 thick with Cement RCC + Tiles RCC Aluminum/single 997062.7 Heating-

plaster concrete (1071.6%) 87.1 kW h

+ Tiles (97.0%)

Cooling-

172.43 kW h

(104.9%)

A-4 Brick wall 230 thick with Marble RCC floor with pot RCC with asphalt RCC/double 948587.5 Heating-

cavity 50 mm and plaster insulation & marble & insulation (1019.5%) 85.2 kW h

finish (94.9%)

Cooling-

160.4 kWh

(97.62%)

Urban house

Base case Brick wall 230 thick Cement RCC + Tiles RCC Wooden 595359.8 Heating-

concrete with 164.3 kWh

tiles Cooling-

369.6 kWh

A-1 Stone wall 200 thick with Cement Wooden GI Roof Wooden/single 943044.8 Heating-

internal plaster concrete with (158.4%) 180.0 kWh

tiles (109.6%)

Cooling-

348.53 kWh

(94.3%)

A-2 Concrete block 230 thick Cement Cement concrete with RCC with asphalt RCC/double 543504.3 Heating-

with plaster both sides concrete with tiles & insulation (91.3%) 174.2 kWh

tiles (106%)

Cooling- 402.9

kWh (109%)

A-3 Fly ash bricks 230 thick Cement Cement concrete with Plaster with heat Low e 1006059.4 Heating-

with plaster both sides concrete with carpet retention foil and aluminum/double (169.0%) 148.03 kW h

carpet tile (90.1%)

Cooling-

322.66 kW h

(87.3%)

A-4 Cement stabilized earth Mud floor Bamboo + Mud Slates &Bamboo Wooden/single 103764.3 Heating-

block 230 thick with mud (17.4%) 160.02 kW h

plaster (97.4%)

Cooling-

371.5 kWh

(100.5%)

developed as alternatives and mentioned in Table 9. The total energy consumed by base cases and various alternatives is computed and given in Table 9.

be done for study area so that more accurate evaluation of alternatives may be done.

Operational energy

Results and discussion

Embodied energy

(a) Embodied energy of materials is calculated for each material. It is found that aluminium has highest embodied energy (17818.7 MJ/m2) whereas Timber and RCC are high embodied energy materials. It is also seen that embodied energy of vernacular materials such as soil, mud brick, bamboo is least, as these materials are naturally grown, harvested manually and locally available that saves transportation energy. Embodied energy of conventional materials commonly used in urban houses is higher than vernacular materials.

(b) The embodied energy of rural house is only 15.6% of urban house.

(c) Among the urban house alternatives, the embodied energy is lowest (17.4% of base case) in case of alternative-4, whereas it is lowest in base case among rural house alternatives. Moreover rural house alternative using conventional materials is considered as alternative-3. This alternative has 1071.6% more embodied energy than base case. It shows that conventional materials are much more embodied energy intensive than vernacular materials (Fig. 6a).

(d) The values of embodied energy used in this study are based on secondary data, whereas further research must

1200000.0 1000000.0 800000.0 600000.0 400000.0 200000.0 0.0

„ 1006059.4 997062.7

943044.8 ^^ 948587.5

95359 8 543504.3

| 357963l58586.1

103764.3 93047.4

Urban Rural

I Base case ■ Alternative-1 ■ Alternative-2 ■ Alternative-3 ■ Alternative-4

Fig. 6a Embodied energy of various urban and rural cases.

(a) Annual operational energy is 2057.9 kW h and 2711.5 kW h for rural and urban houses respectively, thereby rural house consumes 75.9% operational energy of urban house (Figs. 4e and 4f).

(b) Rural household uses 41% electricity for lighting whereas it is 9% in case of urban house. It is due to the fact that rural household uses more incandescent lamps whereas urban house uses more fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps. Hence there is a huge energy saving potential in rural areas by introducing more energy efficient lamps, for which government may introduce suitable programmes in rural areas. Moreover suitable construction methods shall be introduced to increase window sizes in rural house that will make the household more daylight.

(c) Energy use for heating and cooling is 14% and 6% respectively in urban household whereas it is 8% and 4% respectively in rural household (Figs. 4e and 4f). It is due to variations in passive gain structure of both households wherein more heat losses and heat gains are associated with urban house over rural house due to use of building materials.

(d) There is no energy use for hot water in rural household whereas urban household consumes 9% energy for the same (Figs. 4e and 4f). It is due to use of available fuel wood in rural households whereas urban households use geysers for the same.

(e) Both houses consume considerable amount of energy for miscellaneous activities/appliances (62% in urban and 47% in rural household) (Figs. 4e and 4f).

(f) Among the urban house alternatives, the operational energy for heating and cooling together is lowest in case of alternative-3 (92.73%) followed by alternative-4 (99.63%). For rural house alternatives, the operational energy for heating and cooling together is lowest in case of alternative-3 (92.52%) followed by alternative-4 (96.50%) (Fig. 6b).

(g) Change in building envelope materials showed a significant change in both embodied and operational energy. This change is quantified by use of embodied energy index values obtained by various literatures, whereas change in operational energy is obtained by energy simulation.

600.0 533.9 555 0 573 0 495 1 531.9 500.0

Base Alt-1 Alt-2 Alt-3 Alt-4 case

259.3 235.1 245.2

I I I " "

Base Alt-1 Alt-2 Alt-3 Alt-4 case

I Urban Heating ■ Urban Cooling ■ Rural Heating ■ Rural Cooling Total

Fig. 6b Heating and cooling operational energy of various urban and rural cases.

Energy performance of residential stock

Fig. 7 Proposed methodology for energy performance evaluation of residential building stock.

Conclusion

In this paper a methodology is presented to assess the energy performance of existing residential stock through a case study of Hamirpur. The following conclusions are drawn:

(a) The paper concludes with the recommended methodology that can be adopted universally for the energy performance assessment of the building stock. The detailed methodology is presented in Fig. 7.

(b) Selection of building materials for building envelope plays a vital role in total energy consumption in the house through embodied and operational energy. Hence careful decisions shall be taken for the same. The values of embodied energy and CO2 emissions used in this study are based on secondary data, whereas further research must be done for study area so that more accurate evaluation of alternatives must be obtained.

(c) The rural houses consume much lesser embodied energy and operational energy as compared to urban houses.

(d) It is observed during survey that there is a shift from use of rural construction materials wherein the urban materials are adopted in rural areas due to several reasons. However it is found from the study that there is high energy demand per house in urban areas. Hence suitable mandatory regulations shall be developed for energy efficiency in urban areas in which such energy performance analysis must be recommended. However these regulations can be implemented in rural areas on a later date by checking the effectiveness of the analysis enforced in urban areas.

(e) Similar embodied energy calculations for various construction alternatives shall be searched for in urban houses and best alternative only shall be given permission to be constructed in regulated area.

(f) The thermal performance of rural houses is better in extreme climate and hence encouraging the same will reduce energy demand. The study may further be uti-

lized to assess the carbon emissions of each household, which will be helpful for assessment under NAPCC objectives mentioned earlier. (g) A large share of operational energy is used by appliances especially geysers, refrigerators and televisions. All the high energy intensive appliances must be identified and mandatory star labelling must be adopted under Energy Star Rating programme of Bureau of Energy Efficiency. The method used to determine operational energy breakup is also helpful in determining energy consumption pattern that can be developed as schedule in energy simulation software for accuracy.

Scope of further research

(a) Embodied energy index is obtained from secondary literature, whereas process based EE index of each material shall be calculated using survey. This similar approach is used by Praseeda et al. [44] in which the author used process based approach rather than inappropriate input-output method for Indian context.

(b) The study uses alternative specifications, which are based on subsequent predominant materials used in buildings for which embodied energy and operational energy are ascertained using simulation and hence may not be accurate. Hence more samples may be selected from each classified household that will give accurate assessment. Also the energy consumption of household after assessment must be validated with total energy consumption statistics of each area for better accuracy.

(c) Various design alternatives, envelope properties, orientation and wall to window ratio shall be included for significant change in energy performance.

(d) Since the energy use of each area is also dependent on socioeconomic and user behaviour such as income, education level, appliance penetration, and appliances types no and those must be included in further detailed study.

(e) Considering the suitable lifespan and maintenance schedule, the overall life cycle energy analysis shall be performed. Cost effectiveness for savings shall be computed and compared in terms of money spent or saved in each alternative case.

(f) It is mentioned that due to more EE and OE consumption in urban household than rural households, the development regulations shall be developed for urban area on priority basis. Further these regulations may be extended for rural areas on a later date as due to declining acceptance for mud construction method in rural areas and encouraging use of urban construction materials such as brick and concrete even in rural areas, the urban regulations will be more helpful in achieving energy efficiency.

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