Scholarly article on topic 'The Concept of Multi-Functional Development of Cross-Border Regions: Poland Case'

The Concept of Multi-Functional Development of Cross-Border Regions: Poland Case Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Procedia Engineering
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{"multi-functional development of cross-border regions" / "complex transition process" / "sustainable development of regions"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Jerzy Lewczuk, Leonas Ustinovichius

Abstract After entering into European Union, Poland was involved in the new complex transition process. From one side, the access to the large European market and new technologies have been expanded and continues expanding. On the other hand, there are strict rules of competition on the market. Most regions of the country are not yet ready for this level of competition. The paper attempts to identify the conditions and factors that stimulate the development of cross-border regions. Factors that brake and even eliminate such possibility are also certain. The sustainable development of Poland regions requires the development of future strategic programs with multiple functions taking into account a more complete and comprehensive use of these features. The article presents the authors’ concept of multifunctional development of cross-border areas, which, in contrast to the current approach, introduces the idea of inclusion of new industries and activities into the existent environment (tourism, construction, processing of raw materials and others business). This study have particular importance for the cross-border areas of Poland and some other countries.

Academic research paper on topic "The Concept of Multi-Functional Development of Cross-Border Regions: Poland Case"

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Procedía Engineering 122 (2015) 65 - 70

Procedía Engineering

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Operational Research in Sustainable Development and Civil Engineering - meeting of EURO working group and 15th German-Lithuanian-Polish colloquium (ORSDCE 2015)

The Concept of Multi-Functional Development of Cross-Border

Regions: Poland Case

Jerzy Lewczuka Leonas Ustinovichiusb

aDepartment of Business Informatics and Logistics, Faculty of Management, Bialystok University of Technology, ul. Tarasiuka 2, 16-001 Kleosin,

Poland

bVilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, Vilnius, Lithuania

Abstract

After entering into European Union, Poland was involved in the new complex transition process. From one side, the access to the large European market and new technologies have been expanded and continues expanding. On the other hand, there are strict rules of competition on the market. Most regions of the country are not yet ready for this level of competition. The paper attempts to identify the conditions and factors that stimulate the development of cross-border regions. Factors that brake and even eliminate such possibility are also certain. The sustainable development of Poland regions requires the development of future strategic programs with multiple functions taking into account a more complete and comprehensive use of these features.

The article presents the authors' concept of multifunctional development of cross-border areas, which, in contrast to the current approach, introduces the idea of inclusion of new industries and activities into the existent environment (tourism, construction, processing of raw materials and others business). This study have particular importance for the cross-border areas of Poland and some other countries.

© 2015TheAuthors. Publishedby ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of the Operational Research in Sustainable Development and Civil Engineering - meetingofEUROworkinggroup and 15th German-Lithuanian-Polish colloquium

Keywords: multi-functional development of cross-border regions, complex transition process, sustainable development of regions

1. Introduction

In EU member states, there are numerous autonomous solutions used in order to improve the standards of living for the people inhabiting some regions. Polish experts, M. Klodzinski, W. Malendowski, M.Ratajczak and oth ers [1,

1877-7058 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of the Operational Research in Sustainable Development and Civil Engineering - meeting

of EURO working group and 15 th German-Lithuanian-Polish colloquium

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.10.008

2, 3, 4] carried out the analysis of the experience of western countries in respect of agricultural and regional policy. However, we need to remember that many concepts have not been explained clearly enough and they require additional interpretation so that we could make use of positive foreign experience while determining and implementing the most probable to accept directions of socioeconomic development for Poland and its regions [5, 6].

In European Union states, there is no uniform attitude to the assessment of level and working out of measures which regulate the development of regions while creating programs at various levels of management: national, regional or local. Such programs are completely realised at the national, regional and groups of regional units scale (e.g. the Alpine, the Baltic sea regions etc.). The consequence of this is that some documents are prepared to support the improvement of standards of living for those who live in agricultural areas, while others predict the mechanisms aiming at supporting regional agriculture in correlation with processing industry. Finally, most of the measures included in these documents lead to the reduction of the number of farms and people employed there.

The programs on the basis of which particular economic entities are financed, constitute a kind of compromise resulting from the dialogue between local and regional authorities, national management bodies and European Commission. The analysis shows that most of these documents predict the activities, which ensure:

• Diversification, that is expanding the directions of farm activity and supporting local businesses;

• Promoting the development of small and average agro-touristic farms;

• Raising workers' qualifications (especially management staff) of businesses from agricultural regions;

• The development of industrial and social infrastructure in the country;

• The protection of natural resources of the countryside.

In European Union states we may distinguish three directions aiming at ensuring multifunctional development of agricultural regions.

The first one predicts the improvement of living conditions of rural families, structural change in industry and the modernization of agriculture.

The second consists in stimulating the settlement of rural population by creating the employment conditions in other kinds of work. Initially, loans or free aid for these companies which were interested in opening their branches in agricultural areas or supporting the potential of business entities which already existed there were offered. In various countries, various options of such programmes were used. Next, in European Commission together with the decentralization of industry and in connection with the growth in urban population and its need for various forms of leisure activities in rural environment, a greater stress was put on stimulating the development of touristic and recreational facilities not on the industrialization of agricultural areas.

At present, the third direction is widespread which inspires local associations to look for the inner source of growth, motivates to become more independent in order to assess own potential and work out optimal local programs and development strategy.

2. Factors of the development of border regions

The social and economic development of regions, including Podlaskie region, depends on many internal and external factors which have been analysed by Polish researchers [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. They notices, first of all, a significant diversity in the process of the development of regions; secondly, that the peculiarities of economy of particular regions directly influence the condition of territorial systems. Recently, in other countries as well, a lot of attention is paid to the development of border regions [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21].

The authors of this thesis worked out a model of the concept of multifunctional development of cross-border regions of Poland (fig. 1).

Rural settlements, situated in boarder regions, playing a role of peculiar "microcenter" of the development among neighbouring and relatively small villages, should meet certain criteria [22]:

Acknowledging factors which differentiate l egions nf Poland:

difference in the surface taten and directions of activity

local labour market

technical hvel„ institutional and social infrastructure

Acknowledgement of specific factors, which characterize a concrete regional unit - commune, district, province in Poland:

I 1 1 S

natural and recreational resources

well-preserved monument8 of cultural heritage

touristic and :ec:ei:i™l infrastructure is. expanded and improved

convenient location of areas

access to physioterapeutic resources

network of local roads

regulated water communication

structure of agricultural regions

presence of a large number of farms with the surface of man tliau lOlia

level of production of mill: and potatoes

specific weight of production ol ;s]fizl 2nd aumals intended forslaughter

character of economy mnnmg

level of development of agricultural counselling

level of raw materials base

characteristics of natural conditions

number of economic entities in private sector

ongoing process of privatisation

level of trade development

securing food, wood, and mineral and raw materials branches of industry

use of advantages of direct proximity of neighbouring mittels

presence of relatively cheap wo it force

level of development of motorways network

border and transit location of die region

modaniiation and building new border crossings

atmo^ilieric conditions

presence of the pipeline which delivers gas from. Russia

supply of urban centers in waterworks and sewage system

production of green energy

level of pollution

possibility to use water resources for economic reasons

presence of conditions for the development of agro- and ecotouiism

expansion of areas of spccia. protection

maintaining an existing level of forest areas

• Demographic (population from 0,3 to 1,5 thousand, no negative demographical tendencies which may worsen economic situation);

• Functional (varied production and market structures - various activities without agricultural activity as a priority and at lower level - housing; dominance of industry including processing of farm produce, providing services, agricultural services);

• Infrastructure - ecological (high level of infrastructural equipment, caring about state and protection of natural environment);

• Economic (economy with high commodity production; high financial stability of households including the cost of other sources of income, for example, non-agricultural pensions, annuities, working abroad, non-agricultural business activity, foreign funds);

• Territorial accessibility (close to cities, easy access to communication and others)

We shall distinguish groups of factors which motivate to invest, which are conditioned by investment climate of

the country where they are used.

First group:

• Objective market conditions, including the range and receptivity of the market, the perspective of its development, market barriers encountered, access to regional markets;

• Pricing factors, which mark the access to resources, production value, the level of remuneration, credits received, condition of energy resources, taxation level, ability to implement new technologies, level of preparation of highly qualified staff, available scientific and research resources, geographic location of the state;

• Requirements of efficiency including optimal combination of market factors and others, geographical location of activities, possibility to co-operate with local businesses, organisations etc..

Second group (improving investment climate):

• Stability of economic and social situation, sufficient level of liberalization of investment arrangement, efficient legal regulation, attending international economic organizations;

• Favourable conditions to run business by foreign companies, far-sighted building of a system to stimulate investment activities, cooperation with other economic entities, developed social, technical, and institutional infrastructure;

• Low investment risk.

3. The concept of multifunctional development of cross-border and border areas

The necessary conditions of efficient functioning of new mechanisms and instruments of cross-border

cooperation and trade, assumed in the Concept, include:

• Building the monitoring system of regional socio-economic indexes. The realization of the directions of socioeconomic reforms of such priority as active regional policy in relation to border areas, decentralization of management, require the building of the system which allows operative obtaining and analysis of information about the state of economy of border region, about the state of regional finances, indexes characterizing the efficiency of border cooperation in various fields and problems connected with it.

• Increasing the level of economy competitiveness of border areas in medium-term prospect. This condition is connected with supporting by central authorities the attempts of the administration of border areas (provinces) to run active trade and economy policy including the realization of investment projects within transport infrastructure in border areas.

• Multi optionality of applicable means and according to this, doubts concerning their consequences. This condition is characterized by the realization of the next stage of social and economic reforms and seriousness of the tasks given.

• Implementation of efficient stimuli to introduce economic reforms at the regional and local level in connection with tasks given to the center. The increase in autonomy of regional and local authorities while solving problems

being within the range of their competence, transition to new rules of giving financial support in connection with making the distinction of authorizations, assumes the decrease in intervention of national authorities while dealing with those problems.

On the basis of the developed model of concept of multifunctional development of Polish border areas, the model of multifunctional development of the podlaskie province was developed, which consists in:

1. Multifunctional development of boarder areas of the podlaskie province may be reached only by the realization of the strategy which basis assumptions include:

• The increase and improvement of technical condition of basic production resources, improvement of infrastructure, restructuration of economy;

• The increase, thanks to high quality of natural environment, rich in cultural heritage, the range and structure of touristic services which should become a leading factor for reforms and the source of economic situation for other fields of production and non-agricultural spheres. It is intentional to join organic production and touristic services, which allows to use an excessive potential of workforce in agricultural sector and to develop touristic industry;

• The organisation at a wider range the production of organic produce and the increase of export possibilities for the region to make it higher than national average, structures of agricultural areas, high level of production of milk, potatoes, cereal and livestock, rich resources base, favourable natural conditions;

• The increase of the region's share in international exchange, mainly with the countries of the Baltic Sea, border areas of Belarus and Ukraine; the development of transport infrastructure; accelerating the integration process in connection with Polish membership in European Union.

2. Podlaskie province has good possibilities to expand cooperation with the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, western regions of Belarus and Lithuania within euro regions "Niemen", "Bug", "Puszcza Bialowieska" and achieving social and economic development in this way. The efficient form of cooperation may be the exchange of information in the field of socioeconomic statistics, cross-border development of financial bank transfers, common economic analysis, expanding cross-border trade of produce of own production and others.

3. The number of obstacles may be encountered on the way to reach a stable multifunctional development of the region, which require not only taking them into account but, if possible, lowering the level or eliminating their influence on the realization of a suggested concept altogether. The basic restrictions include: insufficient level of the development of financial and organizational structures, supporting touristic activity; the necessity of land improvement of a substantial part of land; low potential of agricultural processing industry; insignificant range of non-agricultural works; backwardness of the majority of individual farms and others.

4. The mechanism of border cooperation and trade were analyzed and the factors which disturb constructive and generally beneficial cooperation and trade were revealed. Among these factors we can find the disintegration of mutual relations after the breakup of CMEA, insufficient level of development of board infrastructure, the lack of effective organizational and economic instruments of cooperation among neighboring regions of the countries and others.

4. Conclusions

1. The analysis based on the researched problems let us conclude that the stable development of a country is conditioned by the economic, ecological and social situation of its regions. In the modern world, in the era of globalization, "opening" of boarders, the role of agricultural areas, both boarder and cross-boarder, increases, which because of geographical reasons and a number of others turned out to be mostly depressing, especially in the eastern part of Poland and the areas of some neighboring countries.

2. This thesis presents the authorial Concept of the multifunctional development of cross-boarder and boarder regions which, unlike the current approach, includes the implementation of new branches and kinds of activities to a given environment (such as tourism, entrepreneurship, raw material processing and others). This research is especially valid in border regions of Poland and some other countries, including Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and

regions of the Republic of Belarus, where, because of historic reasons and other conditions, a significant delay in size and efficiency in the use of socioeconomic potential of the region takes place.

3. Strategy of socioeconomic transformation of the podlaskie province was presented by the authors as a part of Concept of the multifunctional development of cross-boarder and boarder agricultural regions. The analysis of the actual state of workforce, technical and regional infrastructure of the region was made; concrete recommendations were formed and defined which concern overcoming negative factors hampering the process of stable development of the province - they include the unsatisfactory state of small and middle entrepreneurship, the lack of habits of international cooperation and strategic planning.

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