Scholarly article on topic 'Enhancing Quality of Life and Improving Living Standards through the Expansion of Open Space in Residential Complex'

Enhancing Quality of Life and Improving Living Standards through the Expansion of Open Space in Residential Complex Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Sepide Saiedlue, Seyed Bagher Hosseini, Seyed Abbas Yazdanfar, Saeed Norouzian Maleki

Abstract The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the determining factors, which increase the qualities of a residential complex open space, through a case study in the Ekbatan residential complex. The theoretical foundation of this research and the active factors in the evaluation of the conditions of a residential complex open space extract from an empirical case study. The evaluating model for the qualities of open space is classified in a framework of five main factors: functional, semantic, form, environment, and social. The ANP method is used for final evaluation and data analysis.

Academic research paper on topic "Enhancing Quality of Life and Improving Living Standards through the Expansion of Open Space in Residential Complex"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 201 (2015) 308 - 316

Asian Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies, AcE-Bs2015, 20-22 February 2015,

Tehran, Iran

Enhancing Quality of Life and Improving Living Standards through the Expansion of Open Space in Residential Complex

Sepide Saiedluea*, Seyed Bagher Hosseinib, Seyed Abbas Yazdanfarc, Saeed Norouzian

Malekid

aMsc. Student, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran bAssociate professor, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran cAssistant professor, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran dPh.D. In Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the determining factors, which increase the qualities of a residential complex open space, through a case study in the Ekbatan residential complex. The theoretical foundation of this research and the active factors in the evaluation of the conditions of a residential complex open space extract from an empirical case study. The evaluating model for the qualities of open space is classified in a framework of five main factors: functional, semantic, form, environment, and social. The ANP method is used for final evaluation and data analysis. © 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityofAMER(AssociationofMalaysianEnvironment-BehaviourResearchers)andcE-Bs(Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Residential complex open space; open space factors; ANP

1. Introduction

The modern architect describes a residential complex about a place where a given community lives and organizes social activities for the inhabitants. The community's way of life, which is the fabric of the commonwealth to a large extent, is reflectively determined by the location, the design, and the structure of a complex residential re-

* Corresponding author. Tel No : +00989122250975; fax: 00982188099774. Email address : Sepideh_saieedlue@yahoo.com.

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.179

conceptualization of the residential complex building plans becomes an essential feature of modern architecture. Moreover, this study aims to reveal that the proportion of open space and qualitative location, as well as the design and the structure of a residential complex, from both the fabric and the wellbeing of a given community. Thus, in regard to such a definition, living in an apartment with a limited space that is distant from nature, and where the inhabitants as a place only to rest, remind us to think and create some public places that provide necessary spaces for individuals and families to enjoy

Their lives in a qualitative environment. (Jamaludin et al., 2014) the most contemporary researcher on this subject show that in the planning of modern architects, the absence of an open space like a courtyard should be replaced with a smaller space like a balcony or a terrace at least and it should become an integral part of to day's modern residential building. (Ghazizadeh, 2011) Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present a hypothetical solution to improving the qualitative living standards of an open space

Residential complex about using Analytical Network Process (ANP) method, in regard to the topic at hand and the interrelation between its subject factors and sub-factors. Contemporary small apartments with limited space seemingly do not satisfy the nature and physiological needs of their inhabitants. By modern planning, the modern architect is obliged to deprive the residents of the environment, including a wide open space, which has also resulted in a stressful living condition and unpredictable social consequences. However , one has to understand the fact that living in a city where it has a concentrated population, the feasibility of constructing the independent houses with an open and large space like villa for its citizen is practically impossible (Ramyar,2012) Based on this conflicting reality , more in-depth research is needed in order to find a practical solution to complementary spaces surrounding the residential areas and to provide a feasible solution to a more humanely and qualitatively oriented living environment.

2. Literature review

"Survey Research" (Jalili, 2014) reveals a framework of the active factors of residential complex open space and the quality of social life of the inhabitants in the Hamadan city of Iran. This study uses a survey method and selected some questions to analyze the existing variability and to clarify some active factors in three chosen locations of Imam Reza residential complex, Imam Khomeini residential complex, and Kashani residential compound. In each residential complex, 120 individuals filled the questionnaires and the results were as follows:

• Factors such as views and perspectives had no effects on the quality of living standards in these residential complexes.

• Factors such as passages, accessibility, diversity of function and services have significant roles in upgrading the quality of location and the particular pleasant usages.

• Factors such as quality of surfaces, textured materials, in particular, relations, and the environment installation of equipment and components have effects on the quality of living standards of the inhabitants.

• Factors such as flexibility in open space, the impossibility of changing the environment and space had eventually inhibitory effects on the sense of belongings of the inhabitants.

• Factors such as legibility in open space have effects on the inhabitants and the rate of living standards.

Fig. 1.a) Imam Reza residential complex; b) Imam Khomeini residential complex; c) Kashani residential compound.

(Source: Jalili, 2014)

"Survey Research" (Nasution et al, 2014) is about the perception of community in public open space and the quality of life in the Medan city of Indonesia. The purpose of this research was to identify the relations between the public open space and quality of life by using the factors such as community perception and the level of satisfaction.

Based on some assumptions and the conception of the inhabitants, in 21 areas of Medan municipality, four open public spaces (Lapangan Merdeka, Taman Ahmad Yani, Tama Beringin, and Tama Stadion Teladan) were selected in 2011. The necessary information was collected based on observation, some questionnaires, and interviews with 384 individuals who had activities in public open space. He used the Solidarity Quantitative Method to reveal the relationships of the factors.

The questionnaire consists of several sections such as the respondent's profile, the perception of the relations between public open space and several qualities of life factors, the characteristic of activities done in the public open space, the level of satisfaction with some factors in the quality of life. The evaluation of the satisfaction from public open space was through 'Likert Questionnaire' that was divided into five answers: very satisfied, satisfied, neutral, unsatisfied, and very unsatisfied. The research considered the average of the replies. For example, if the average was higher than 3, space has a satisfactory response, but if it is lower than 3, space has an unsatisfactory answer. After analyzing the explanatory statistics, the extraction and recognition of the factors in public open space through the community perception were revealed. The results of this research were as follows:

• Most people asserted that they were satisfied with health, recreation and the urban environment.

• The quality of life in an urban environment has physical, economic, and social aspects. The public open space is the part of the urban environment; therefore, when the public space is satisfactory, it has a direct impact on the quality of life. The perception of the community of public open space is related to the quality of life, such as health, recreation, and environment.

• Group activities among residents are the factors of their mutual interactions, and the public open space can increase these interactions. When the level of satisfaction with the public space increases, there will be positive effects on people's spirit and health, as it has been the case in public open space in Medan city.

• Recreation activities are part of the factors which have relations between the quality of life and the satisfaction with the community from public open space. In Medan city, the public open spaces are lively and friendly. The public open space also encourages the public for their involvement in recreational activities, which reflectively results in relaxation.

• The interactions between nature and human in these public open spaces resulted in the quality of life.

Fig. 2. People of Medan city of Indonesia. (Source: Nasution et al., 2014)

"Cross-sectional Research" (Mohammadzadeh, 2012) is an analysis of the unique quality factors of a residential areas' open space framework of the Sa'hand Tabriz city in Iran. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quality of open and green spaces in the residential complex by using an Explanatory Sectional Method and the active factors in a particular given time. This researcher uses the Cochran formula indicators from randomly selected 330 suburban families that have lived in this complex about a year. In order to collect data, this analysis uses questionnaires and interviews. The following results are from the gathered information and the deductive statistics explanation. • There is a significant relation between the individual factor and the quality of open space. For example, the elderly, individuals have shown more satisfaction with their surrounding environment compared to the younger

counterparts. Gender and socioeconomic situations had effects on the satisfaction levels with open space. The standard of education was related to the quality of life in significant and positive ways.

• The economic factor had a relative effect on the satisfaction level of the quality of life.

• Most units of the residential complex in Sa'hand city were dull and lifeless. The reasons were not being flexible and not being capable of using space and the road to pedestrians and cyclists.

• The confusion in physical address indicators and lack of signboards in the residential complex caused disorientation.

• The quality of infrastructure, equipment in open space, public services, welfare system, open space for children, and parking space are not satisfactory in this residential complex and the residents were unsatisfied.

• There is a limitation of the number of people in open space in these residential complexes.

Fig. 3. Sa'hand in Tabriz city (Iran). (Source: Mohammadzadeh, 2012)

3. Methodology

The explanatory-quantitative method of this study shall analyze some qualitative materials on the living standards of an open space residential complex about using an analytical network process (ANP) method of to the topic at hand, factors and sub-factors, and the interrelation between them (Chung, 2005). Thomas L. Saaty that presents a network model as his research methodology which determines the interrelationships within and between different complex factors. This method has an interdisciplinary approach that includes both control hierarchy and relationship network. The hierarchical control includes the interrelations between objective, main factors, and sub-factors. (Zebardast, 2014).In this study, the materials for evaluation of residential complex open spaces are collected from library texts and field studies. Factors were gathered through the Delphi method and the opinion of experts in the fields of architecture, Housing, and urban designer. The evaluation of the data was based on the questionnaires and used the SPSS software.To analyze the data, this studied uses the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method using the Super Decisions software for the relation between factors. The process of ANP has five essential steps which are the following:

• A definition of the structure of subject and an explanation of the objectives and results

• Division of complex questions to hierarchical structure with decision making elements (factors, sub-factors, and alternatives)

• Using pair analogy for elements of decisions and creating an analogical matrix

• Control of compatibility of matrix and guarantee for decision makers

• A summary of the relative importance of the decision and designated general priority for alternatives (Sadeghi, 2012).

Other features of this method are: simplicity, flexibility, at the same time using the qualitative and quantitative factors, evaluation capacity, complex interrelationships (reflective dependency and feedback) between and within the factors. (Zebardast, 2014)

\ 1- Objective J 2- Main Factors 3. Sub-factors

JJw., f o o o\—N

OOO ] )W„

V o o o

Fig. 4. The hierarchical control includes the interrelations between objective, main factors, and sub-factors.

(Source: Zebardast, 2014)

3.1. Case studies

The residential complexes about this study are the Ekbatan complexes, and the questionnaires were submitted to 40 families, which both the locations and families were randomly selected

3.2. Ekbatan residential complex

Ekbatan residential complex is one of the largest residential complexes in the northwest of Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The useful life of this residential complex is approximately 300 years. The original design for construction of this residential complex had the vast space with a large lake and a cultural center. This residential complex is made of three compounds: each one have 33 blocks; each block has several entries for a total 15593 residential units; its surface is 5.94 kilometers and it is housing 44.981 residences. ( Mahmoodi,2011)

Fig. 5. Location map of Ekbatan. (Source: Zebardast, 2014; Google Earth , 2015)

4. Results and discussions

4.1. The codification model for the assessment of the open space quality of the residential complex

In order to measure the quality of an open space in a residential complex about the collected surveying factors which their different dimensions are included, and in regard to increase the quality of that open space in the framework of the quality assessment, this model shall draw a value tree in their general and vertical aspects based on an up to down approach. The main vertical levels of this model will be classified in the framework of five main factors of functional, semantic, environmental, social, and forms. The horizontal levels, which consisted of the sub-factors are those qualified for scrutiny in that environment. These dimensions are uniquely considerate of some tools for evaluating the assumption and to obtain the research objectives. The final version of this model (for measuring the quality of an open space in a residential complex) is explained in the following attribute.

Fig. 6. Model for the assessment of the open space quality of the residential complex.

The quality of an open space in a residential complex

• Functional factors: user diversity and services, pathways and accessibilities, proximity, view and perspective,

flexibility, hierarchy,

• Semantic factors: legibility, restrict, comfort, vitality, identity, relaxation

• Environmental factors: relation with nature, climate

• Social factors: social life, social safety, cultural proximity

• Form factors: building materials, criterion, geometry

4.2. Analyzing and the final rating classification

For evaluation of the importance (measurement) of the factors and sub- factors, there will be a comparative pair approach of each of them within the framework of the different group. The frame of evaluation is quantitative (Thomas Saaty) approaching, and in this regards and concerning the higher indexes, all factors and sub-factors shall be compared to each others.

Table 1. Factors and sub-factors of the open space quality in the residential complex.

Factors sub-factors

User diversity and services A1

Pathways and accessibilities A2

Functional factors: Proximity A3

A View and perspective A4

Flexibility A5

_Hierarchy_A6

Semantic factors: Legibility B1

B Restrict B2

Comfort B3

Vitality B4

Identity B5

Relaxation B6

Environmental factors: C Relation with nature Climate C1 C2

Ground C3

Social factors: D Social life Social safety D1 D2

Cultural proximity D3

Forms factors: E Building materials Criterion E1 E2

Geometry E3

Once the results were compared, it shows that the social factor is the most important satisfactory condition amongst others in an open space in residential complexes and that the most important sub-factor was a criterion

Table 2. Analysis results.

Factors_Wj_Priority

A 0.07 4

B 0.04 5

C 0.35 2

D 0.38 1

E .013 3

According to the obtained results from the analysis of the functional factor quality tests of this residential complex open space, based on the definitive importance of each sub-factors quality, the criteria of the user diversity, flexibility, and hierarchical sub-factors qualities were the highest

Table 3. Analysis results of functional factors.

Sub Factors Wj Priority

A1 0.39 1

A2 0.11 4

A3 0.07 5

A4 0.06 6

A5 0.21 2

A6 0.13 3

The semantic factor quality of the residential complex open space has a 0.04 definitive importance criteria. The main sub-factors qualities of this residential complex are the vitality, restriction, and attachment tests.

Table 4. Analysis results of semantic factors.

Sub Factors Wj Priority

B1 0.14 4

B2 0.21 2

B3 0.19 3

B4 0.22 1

B5 0.13 5

B6 0.09 6

The main Environmental sub-factor in this residential complex is the relation with nature.

Table 5. Analysis results of environmental factors.

Sub Factors Wj Priority

C1 0.59 1

C2 0.26 2

C3 0.14 3

The social factor quality of tests of a 0.38 definitive importance as shows that almost all social sub-factors qualities such as social life, cultural proximity, and social safety have most effects in a residential complex open space.

Table 6. Analysis results of social factors.

Sub Factors Wj Priority

D1 0.61 1

D2 0.13 3

D3 0.25 2

The form factor quality of a residential complex open space has 0.13 definitive importance tests. The sub-factor qualities of this residential complex are the criterion and building materials.

Table 7. Analysis results of form factors.

Sub Factors Wj Priority

E1 0.21 2

E2 0.65 1

E3 0.12 3

5. Conclusion

The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the determining factors, which increase the qualities of a residential complex open space. These factors of their final results would improve the quality of living condition, recreation, social and cultural activities, in a residential complex.

Based on the finding factors to enhance the quality of an open space in a residential complex, the proposed features may now be traced.

On the factor that concerns the relationship with nature, the proposed feature is an Iranian traditional version of the garden.

On the factor that concerns the user and service diversity, the proposed feature is to design areas that respond to the inhabitants needs.

On the factor that concerns the social life in an open space in a residential complex, the proposed feature is to design an appropriate space for various age groups with relatively similar desires that could eventually provide a pleasant and constructive environment.

On the factor that concerns the criterion of population growth and decrease in the surface of residential units, the proposed feature is eventually to expand the actual standard of the open space in relation to the total surface of a residential complex.

References

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