Scholarly article on topic 'Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil'

Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Maryam Ijaz, Khizar Hayat Bahtti, Zahid Anwar, Umar Farooq Dogar, Muhammad Irshad

Abstract At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG) were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

Academic research paper on topic "Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil"

Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences xxx (2016) 1-5

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Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

Q7 Maryam Ijaz a, Khizar Hayat Bahtti a, Zahid Anwar b, Umar Farooq Dogar a, Muhammad Irshad b'*

a Department of Botany, University of Gujrat, Pakistan

b Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

Article history: Received 29 October 2015 Accepted 15 December 2015 Available online xxx

Keywords: Biodiesel

Ricinus communis L. oil Product optimization Feedstock

At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG) were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point -10 °C and pour point -20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

Copyright © 2015, The Egyptian Society of Radiation Sciences and Applications. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Introduction

Biodiesel is a renewable alternate source of petroleum and can be used in engine. It is eco-friendly, nontoxic and it is thought to be future diesel. Petroleum is natural source that is rapidly depleted. Biofuel is obtained from vegetable oil, algae, edible and non-edible beans like, Helianthus, Jatropha, Pongamia and Ricinus. It is derived from triglycerides and fatty acids by transestrification and esterification, respectively (Bari, Yu, & Lim, 2002).

Fossil based petroleum is not renewable stored in earth with limited reserves. World heavily depends on petroleum for transport vehicles, industrial and agricultural machinery. Increase in population, industries and urbanization causes of increase in fuel combustion. It leads to removal of petroleum fuel from earth reservoirs. This higher expenditure will lead to industrial catastrophe. In cities, air contamination increases because diesel engine is a big pollution source by traffic in urban areas. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are rapidly increases and many other gasses from smoke are releases.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 344 4931030. E-mail addresses: mirshad.uog@gmail.com, muhammad.irshad@uog.edu.pk (M. Irshad). Peer review under responsibility of The Egyptian Society of Radiation Sciences and Applications. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2015.12.005

1687-8507/Copyright © 2015, The Egyptian Society of Radiation Sciences and Applications. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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Oxides of carbon and nitrogen causes headache, low blood pressure, acute bronchitis, pulmonary diseases and throat problems. Because of air contamination many respiratory diseases are causes in animals and also harmful for plants. Now societies are aware about air pollution caused by diesel engine, so pressure on researchers to search alternate way of diesel to reduce environmental pollution (Atadashi, Aroua, &Aziz, 2010). At the present time, the world demand of energy rapidly increasing because of increasing population, industrialization, and over urbanization (Vasudevan & Briggs, 2008).

As increase in consumption of oil emission of pollutants increases, it will affect human health badly such as respiratory, skin, and nervous system. Increasing population and over urbanization causes energy crisis, because of energy crisis biodiesel from non-edible oil-seeds are highly in concern as alternate source of petroleum. It is non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable source, eco-friendly and cause reduction in use of petroleum. Carbon that is released from burning will use by plants, enhances the life of engine, no change in engine by its use enhances rural economics. Biodiesel prepared directly from fat of animal and oil from seeds of plants by transestrification method using alcohol and catalyst (Hazell & Pachauri, 2006).

Material and methods

For the present research, Ricinus communis L. seeds were purchased from Makah Traders Pasroor, Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Determination of oil or fat content from seeds has great importance on industrial scale as it effects price of raw material. Soxhlet apparatus gives oil content extracted from solid source (Mgudu et al., 2012). Damirchi, Habibi-Nodeh, Hesari, Nemati, & Achachlouei, 2009 protocol of soxhlet apparatus was followed. In order to get massive quantities of oil, electrical oil expeller was used. Then, oil was filtered with help of filter paper. After filtration titration was done to measure free fatty acid contents in it.

2.1. Pre-tests for Ricinus oil

In pre-tests oil quality was measured such as acid value, gravity, density, saponification and viscosity, refractive index and peroxide value. These tests were used to find out oil quality (Patil and Deng, 2009). Physical characterization of R. communis was carried out according to the methods given in association of analytical chemistry (AOACS).

Transesterification

Transesterification is a process in which conversion of fatty acid methyl ester from crude oil occurs (Ahmad, Khan, Zafar, Sultana, & Gulzar, 2009). Oil from plants is esters of trigly-ceroides. During alcoholysis, triglyceroides is converted into di and then in monoglyceroids. On each step it needed 1 mol of fatty acid but in experiment greater amount of alcohol added because it is a reversible reaction (Dennis, Wu, & Leung, 2009). Alkali alcoholysis is existing method that is frequently using for production of biodiesel, Sinha, Agarwal, and Garg (2008);

Meher, Vidya Sagar, and Naik (2006); Ahmad et al. (2010). Ma and Hanna (1999) stated that in transesterification butanol, propanol, methanol, amyl alcohol and ethanol any alcohol can be used and used alkali catalyst. Methanol is mostly used because it is cheap and it has chemical and physical advantages. It can easily react with alkali catalyst.

In transesterification, after filtration crude filtered oil was heated in order to breakdown of triglycerides into di and mono-glycerids and to remove free fatty acids from filtered oil. It was heated on hot plate (VWR, VELP- Scientifica Germany) at 100 °C for 1 h till oil temperature became 120 °C, and then left it on room temperature to cool until 60 °C. Then mixture of methanol and KOH and NAOH were added to heated oil separately to find out the maximum FAME production.

Then it was stirred at 600-700 rpm for 45 min at 60 °C. Stirring time and temperature has direct effect on ester yields. It was left to settle down on room temperature for 1 h to overnight. Three layers were formed upper layer was thin soap layer, second layer was methyl/ethyl ester, third layer was glycerol. Glycerol and soap were by product of trans-esterification. Distilled hot water was used to purify crude methyl/ethyl ester. Water amount was lowered to maximum of 0.05% according to ASTM standard of biodiesel (v/v). This step was repeated 3-4 times. In order to neutralize soap and residual catalyst, washing was done at pH 4.5, Du, Xu, Liu, Zeng, and Molcatal (2004). Then Na2SO4 was added to prepared biodiesel in order to remove water.

Optimization

Optimization is a process in which different trail applied with variables of temperature, methanol to oil ratio, time and catalyst to examined variable effects on yield (%) were noted (Giovanilton et al., 2012). Optimization was done to attain the maximum ester yield.

2.4. Fuel properties

Fuel properties of Ricinus FAME are presented in Table .1 and results were matched with ASTM.

3. Results and discussion

Biodiesel is non-toxic, free of sulfur, renewable and alternative green fuel. Commonly it is produced by transesterification reaction of non-edible oil, vegetable oil and waste oil using small amount of alcohol as methanol or ethanol. Its demand is rather high to produce as alternative energy sources, because availability of fossil based petroleum is rapidly decreasing. Biodiesel is a potential substitute of energy because it is obtained from renewable energy sources (Beltrao, 2005). In the current study, biodiesel was extracted from castor. Oil percentage was in R. communis 48%.

3.1. Characterization of oil

Oil percentage was from R. communis 48. For physicochemical characterization oil qualities were measured such as acid

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Table 1 - Optimization effects on product yield (biodiesel, glycerol and soap) of Ricinus communis.

Sr.# Oil conc. Optimization Results products yield

Methanol Catalyst concentration Reaction Reaction Biodiesel (gm) Glycerol (gm) Soap (gm)

to oil ratio KOH (gm) CH3OH (gm) time (min) temp. (°C)

1 50 4:1 0.32 5 70 60 42.5 2.40 1.7

2 50 5:1 0.32 10 70 60 45.0 2.0 1.45

3 50 8:1 0.32 15 70 60 37.50 7.06 2

4 50 5:1 0.32 10 60 60 23.2 2.35 4.10

5 50 5:1 0.32 10 70 60 40.05 3.98 2.5

6 50 5:1 0.32 10 80 60 43.5 2.4 0.89

7 50 5:1 0.32 10 70 45 20.0 2.25 5.20

8 50 5:1 0.32 10 70 60 42.0 3.45 2.90

9 50 5:1 0.32 10 70 80 25.5 6.78 4.8

10 50 5:1 0.25 10 70 60 23.5 3.05 2.5

11 50 5:1 0.32 10 70 60 44.5 2.0 1.5

12 50 5:1 0.40 10 70 60 28.5 3.0 0.98

value, gravity, saponification, viscosity, refractive index and peroxide value (Patil & Deng, 2009).

Refractive index (R.I.)

Acid value

The data revealed that 0.9 mg KOH/g were acid values of crude oil Ricinus. FAME of castor was having 0.3 mg KOH/g acid value (Table 2). These were compared with biodiesel standard ASTM D 664 and were found in range of standards. According to this standard 0.8 was maximum acid value of biodiesel. Therefore, our results were closed to Patil and Deng (2009) results, who reported A.V. value 0.61 and 0.76 for jatropha.

3.3. Peroxide value

It is a test used to determine oil oxidative rancidity or fats measured occurrence of lipid peroxides. Determined value of oil was 5.5 (Table 2).

3.4. Specific gravity

Specific gravity was 0.9 of castor and methyl ester of castor was 0.5. Our results were in range of ASTM D 675 10-02 (Table 2). Patil and Deng (2009) reported that values of canola, jatropha and karanja methyl ester specific gravity were 0.88, 0.89 and 0.86-0.88 in order.

Refractive index values were 1.43 of castor crude oil (Table 2). Our result was much close to 1.47 of rapeseed and castor oil order as reported by Saqib et al. (2012) and Hlaing et al. (2008). qi

3.6. Saponification value

Saponification value was 170.73 mg KOH/g of castor and crude oil (Table 2). Wang et al. (2011) reported that saponification value 191.23 mg KOH/g of Jatropha crucas that was in line with our results.

Optimization through transesterification

Variable applied during transesterification i.e. reversible and successive numbers of reactions (Du et al., 2004). Following were our results of transesterification.

3.7.1. Effect of temperature on biodiesel production Ricinus at 45, 60 and 80 °C were testified and FAME yield was 84% at 60 °C (Table 1) of castor (Fig. 1). Agarwal et al. (2001), and Dorado et al. (2004) reported that using alkaline catalyst in transesterification temperature effected its yield. With increased temperature (°C) from optimum point biodiesel yield decreased. Xuan et al. (2011) reported that at 60 °C

Table 2 - Fuel properties of crude oil and FAME of Ricinus communis.

Fuel properties Crude oil ASTM biodiesel standard HSD Biodiese

Sample Castor Castor

Refractive index 1.436 ASTM D 960-79 1.32 -

Saponification (mg KOH/g) 170.73 - - -

Peroxide value 5.5 - - -

Cloud point - ASTM D975-98 2.0 ° C -10 °C

Pour point - ASTM D6751-02 -7 °C -20 °C

Flash point - ASTM D975 60-80 119 °C

Fire point - ASTM D975 78 125 °C

Specific Gravity 0.9 ASTM D6751-02 0.87-0.90 0.5

Ash point - ASTM D 524 0 0.03%

Kinematic Viscosity cSt 25 ASTM D6751 1.9-6.0 2.45

Acid value mg KOH/g 0.9 ASTM D 664 0.8 max 0.13

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Glycerol I Soap

Temperature oC

Fig. 1 - Effect of temperature on product yield (biodiesel, glycerol and soap) of Ricinus communis.

temperatures biodiesel yield was maximum from camelina oil.

3.7.2. Effects of catalyst on biodiesel production

Variable catalyst trial gave different results on different amount. Variable amount were 0.25, 0.32 and 0.40 g (Table 1). Biodiesel yields 90% were obtained with 0.32 g amount of catalyst of castor as shown in (Fig. 2). Vicente et al. (1998) and Meher et al. (2006) reported that alkali catalyst amount effected on biodiesel yield in karanja and jatropha oil.

3.7.3. Effect of reaction time on biodiesel production Experiments were done within different time points (60, 70 and 80 min) to estimate the effect of time on trans-esterification reaction. With increasing time, product yield also increased within 70 min 90% (Fig. 3). Relatively higher yield of biodiesel was obtained from castor (Table 2). Fukuda et al. (2001); Freedman et al. (1984) and Metsovitia et al. (2013) reported that for best results of transesterification the stirred time should be constant. However, non-edible oil stirred time was variable from 30 min to 150 min, but further increased in time duration decreased the product yield because of reversible reaction. Our results were similar to findings of Xuan et al. (2011) in which within 70 min, highest biodiesel was obtained from camelina oil.

? 70 w

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I Biodiesel Glycerol I Soap

KOH (gm)

Fig. 2 - Effect of KOH catalyst on product yield (biodiesel, glycerol and soap) of Ricinus communis.

90 80 ? 70

V 50 t;

= 40 о

£ 30 20 10 0

Glycerol I Soap

Reaction time (min)

Fig. 3 - Effect of time on product yield (biodiesel, glycerol and soap) of Ricinus communis.

3.7.4. Effects of methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production Transesterification of Ricinus oil was carried out on different oil alcohol ratio (4:1, 5:1, and 8:1) (Table 2). From castor with 5:1 (methanol to oil ratio), 90% yield (Fig. 4). Our results are similar to the findings of Sanford et al. (2009) and Ahmed et al. (2008), using methanol to oil ratio (6:1) from karanja, castor oil and from other vegetable oils, biodiesel yield was 94%.

3.8. Fuel properties

Investigation for different fuel properties were carried out e.g. carbon residue, fire point, flash point and cloud point (Table 2). Results showed that flash point was 119 °C of Ricinus (Sinha et al., 2008; Satyanarayana and Muraleedharan, 2011; Karmee and Chadha, 2004; Demirbas, 2011; Yilmaz et al., 2013) Q2 results were similar as flash point 126 °C of biodiesel of vegetable oil. Shumacher (1995), Schwab et al. (1987) and Fil-emon (2010), Saxena, Jawale & Joshipura (2013) reported that flash point range of biodiesel from vegetable oil was Q3 420-450 °C. Fire pointis the temperature near but greaterthan flash point, where oil catches fire. Biodiesel fire point was 125 °C of Ricinus (Table 2). Raja et al. (2011) reported that fire point was 256 °C of jatropha and 136 °C of biodiesel of jatro-pha. Cloud point of Ricinus was -10 °C and pour point was near cloud point -15 °C and (Table 2). Sinha et al. (2008); Ahmad et al. (2009); Dorado et al. (2004); Satyanarayana and Muraleedharan (2011) reported that cloud point of biodiesel

Glycerol ■ Soap

Methanol to oil Ratio

Fig. 4 - Effect of methanol to oil ratio on product yield (biodiesel, glycerol and soap) of Ricinus communis.

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from vegetable oil varies from 2 to -60 °C. Kinematic viscosity of R. communis was 2.45 cSt (Table 2). Our result was much closer to 3.14 and 4.57 cSt of diesel and biodiesel kinematic viscosity from vegetable oil, as reported by Guido et al. (2013) and Yilmaz et al. (2013). Saqib et al. (2012) found rapeseed biodiesel K.V. 4.42 (mm2/sec) that is in line with our results. Saxena et al. (2013) reported that kinematic viscosity of biodiesel from vegetable oil was 3.2-3.5 cSt.

4. Conclusion

Based on data it is concluded that high yield obtained from R. communis under optimum conditions. Using alkaline catalyst, KOH gave best results as compared to NaOH catalyst. In alcohol catalyst from CH3OH obtained high yield of biodiesel as compared to CH2OH under optimum conditions. Characteristics of biodiesel obtained from R. communis were comparable with commercially used diesel in engine for combustion. The biodiesel could be used alone or blend with commercial diesel. This may ensure to be eco-friendly and safe for environment. Results revealed that after conversion of oil into FAME it can be used as alternate of fossil based fuel to overcome energy crisis.

Uncited reference

Q6 Demirbas and Balat, 2006.

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