Scholarly article on topic 'Comparative Study of Ring and Compact Yarn-based Knitted Fabric'

Comparative Study of Ring and Compact Yarn-based Knitted Fabric Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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{"compact yarn" / "ring yarn" / "knitted fabric" / pilling / "fabric properties."}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Md. Abdus Shahid, Md. Delwar Hossain, Md. Nakib-Ul-Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam

Abstract The compact spinning system was designed on the basis of conventional ring-spinning system along with a negligible mechanical variation but to deviate significantly yarn properties. This article presents an analysis and comparative study of the properties of 100% cotton yarn of 30 Ne spun on compact spinning frame & conventional ring spinning frame and the significant variation in fabric properties. Mechanical properties e.g. tenacity, elasticity, elongation% at break, breaking-work, breaking-force and evenness properties e.g. unevenness, thick, thin, neps, hairiness of both types of yarns were tested and compared. Shrinkage, pilling, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, washing fastness, perspiration fastness, rubbing fastness properties of single jersey knitted dyed fabrics made from ring and compact yarns were investigated. Compact yarn based single jersey knitted fabric exhibited better pilling resistance, higher bursting strength, perspiration resistance whereas the both fabrics have similar spirality.

Academic research paper on topic "Comparative Study of Ring and Compact Yarn-based Knitted Fabric"

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Procedía Engineering 90 (2014) 154 - 159

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

10th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, ICME 2013

Comparative Study of Ring and Compact Yarn-Based Knitted

Fabric

Md. Abdus Shahida, Md. Delwar Hossain3, Md. Nakib-Ul-Hasanb, Md. Ariful Islamc

aDept. of Textile Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur-1700, Bangladesh. bDepartment of Textile Engineering, Northern University, Bangladesh. cDelta Spinning Mills Ltd. Gazipur, Bangladesh

Abstract

The compact spinning system was designed on the basis of conventional ring-spinning system along with a negligible mechanical variation but to deviate significantly yarn properties. This article presents an analysis and comparative study of the properties of 100% cotton yarn of 30 Ne spun on compact spinning frame & conventional ring spinning frame and the significant variation in fabric properties. Mechanical properties e.g. tenacity, elasticity, elongation% at break, breaking-work, breaking-force and evenness properties e.g. unevenness, thick, thin, neps, hairiness of both types of yarns were tested and compared. Shrinkage, pilling, bursting strength, abrasion resistance, washing fastness, perspiration fastness, rubbing fastness properties of single jersey knitted dyed fabrics made from ring and compact yarns were investigated. Compact yarn based single jersey knitted fabric exhibited better pilling resistance, higher bursting strength, perspiration resistance whereas the both fabrics have similar spirality.

© 2014PublishedbyElsevierLtd.Thisisan openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selectionandpeer-reviewunder responsibility of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)

Keywords: compact yarn; ring yarn; knitted fabric; pilling; fabric properties.

1. Introduction

To meet the consistently uniform yarn characteristics and diversified customer demands, through the production of diverse, novel and creative yarns focus of spinning industries goes to the new spinning system. Consequently, certain techniques have been introduced onto the spinning market which offer improved quality and/or reduced costs

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: ashahid@gmail.com

1877-7058 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering

and Technology (BUET)

doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.11.829

for yarn production by inducing some sort of modifications on ring spinning technology [1]. The most accepted of them is the compact spinning system. Compact yarn is a revolution in spinning technology on that respect. Yarns produced by compact spinning have many advantages over traditional ring spun yarns. Over recent years, the system of compact spinning has constituted a rapidly developing technological trend in most countries. The present research was conducted to study the properties of compact spun and traditional ring spun yarns. The results show that almost all the properties of the compact yarns are better than that of traditional ring spun yarns.

1.1. Operating principle of compact spinning frame

Fig. 1. (a) Conventional ring spinning vs. the ComforSpin principle; (b) Suction system of compact machine.

The spinning triangle [10, 11, 15] that occurs while the yarn is formed is the reason why many fibres leave the drafting roving, or become partly spun into the yarn with one end only. This causes a greater waste of fibres, a lower exploitation of fibres tenacity in yarn, a poorer appearance and a greater hairiness of the spun yarn [6]. The drafting system of a conventional ring spinning machine unfortunately delivers the fibers over a width W which is considerably larger than width WS of the adjacent spinning triangle Fig.1.(a) In the compact spinning system, the fibres are compacted aerodynamically just after the drafting. Fiber flow is laterally condensed by gentle aerodynamic forces in an aerodynamic condensing zone between the drafting unit and the yarn formation point. The fibers are supported and transported by a perforated drum Fig. 1.(b). Inside this drum is a stationary insert with specially shaped openings. The air flow through the perforated drum, caused by sub-atmospheric pressure inside the drum, produces the desired condensation of the fiber flow prior to yarn formation The fibres become more closely aligned and increasingly parallel within this compacting zone [9,10] prior to yarn formation. This allows nearly all of the fibres to contribute to the yarn structure under relatively equal tension. As the twist is given at a location which is very near to the clamping line of the end rollers, short fibres also contribute to the yarn structure under controlled tension at this critical location. This enables yarn production with a reduced level of hairiness. Fig.2. demonstrates the comparison of ring-spun and compact spun yarns [7].

Fig. 2. yarn structure of conventional ring comb (A) and compact yarn (B) of 100% cotton

The vast majority of the aforementioned studies deal with the properties of compact yarn as it is in yarn form. In this study, we inspected fabric samples knitted from compact spun yarn in comparison with fabric samples knitted from classic ring-spun yarn. The comparison tests dealt particularly with the pilling properties, strength properties, and abrasion properties of the fabric samples after dying with same shade. This approach not only examines the behaviour of the compact yarn during further production processes, but associatively allows the manifestations of compact spun yarn on the end product to be observed.

2. Materials and methods

In this study, 30/1 Ne classic ring yarn and 30/1 Ne compact yarn were spun from the same raw cotton blend, made by using USA, IND and MALI cotton. The combed and compact yarns were spun on Toyota RX 240 and Rieter K 44 machine respectively. The pre-processes up to roving frame for both yarns were identical.

3. Tests applied on fabric samples

Single jersey fabrics were knitted from that combed ring-spun and compact cotton yarn in Fukuhara circular knitting machine having 20" diameter and 24 gauges.

3.1 Tests on the fabric samples

Dyeing processes are carried out in Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET) dyeing laboratory on the compact yarn's sample and comb yarns sample by the application of 2% shade. After microscopic examination the following tests were performed on both samples.

Table 1. Tests on the fabric samples

Test name Method Type

Bursting strength Hydraulic bursting strength tester

Pilling test ISO 12945-1 IPI Pillbox

Rubbing fastness ISO 105x12 Crock meter

Color fastness to perspiration ISO 105 E04:1994 Perspiration meter

Colorfastness to wash ISO 105 C03 Gyrowash

Dimensional stability (shrinkage & spirality) ISO6330: 2000(E) Washing machine

4. Results and discussion

4.1 Bursting strength

The results of the analysis of variance and comparison of individual means for fabric strength reveal that the effect of the bursting strength of the compact yarn fabric is higher than the comb yarn fabric. This test [14] result may be causes due to the higher tenacity and elongation % of the compact yarn. It was aimed to predict the bursting strength of the plain knitted fabrics regarding different types of yarn.

4.2 Pilling Test

Pilling resistance properties (fig.4) of the compact yarn knitted fabric sample is higher than ring yarn fabric because of lower number of short fiber present in the compact yarn. Also during the twisting period all the fibers are contribute into the spinning triangle in the compact spinning system. The total number of rub was 10800 for this experiment. Pilling tendency of fabrics is affected by the yarn hairiness. The fabrics knitted with compact yarns

have better pilling performance compared to the fabric knitted from conventional ring yarns. The interaction effect of spinning system and yarn linear density effect is significant on fabric pilling grade.

Combed yarn's fabric Com pact yam s fabric

Fig. 3. Bursting strength evaluation of fabric samples. Fig. 4. Pilling test result of fabric sample.

4.3 Yarn properties

Table 2. Comparison between ring and compact yarn's parameters.

Test Parameter Yarn count Ne 30 Compact Comb

Yarn Count 29.94 29.96

Count CV% 0.56 0.60

Tenacity (cN/Tex) 18.67 16.66

Elongation % 4.05 4.41

Elongation CV% 8.60 6.50

Uster U% 8.95 9.15

Uster CVm % 11.31 11.53

Thin places/ Km 0 0.50

Thick places/ Km 15 16

Neps/Km 22.5 18

IPI 38 35

CSP 2473 2411

TPI 19.46 20.28

Hairiness 4.22 5.76

The measurements of uniformity and hairiness of the conventional and compact yarns has confirmed that the compact yarns have very good uniformity and extremely low hairiness. The drafting system structure and the geometry of the spinning triangle occurring at the point of fibres spinning-in into the ring-spun yarn contribute to obtaining yarns with better uniformity and significantly lower primary and secondary hairiness [12] These result (Table 2) exhibits that tenacity, elongation, CV%, and hairiness values of compact yarn is better compare to the ring spun yarn but neps were found more. This may cause due to the inefficient operation of the suction drum of the compact spinning machine.

4.4 Colour fastness

In dry state the rubbing fastness properties [13,14,15] of the compact and comb yarn fabrics were similar(fig. 5) but in wet state ring yarn fabric shows better result because dye molecules are penetrate into and fix properly due to porous of the ring yarn fabrics. This result (fig. 6) revealed that there is no significant difference between the both types of sample with perspiration test [14, 15].Also the result shows that washing fastness [13, 15] properties of the compact yarn fabrics are poorer compare to the comb yarn fabric. This may causes due to not proper fixation of the dyes into the compact fabric.

Colour Fastness Properties

■ î ï- m- F If 11 I 1 £ BITS

s b s ai! s

I I I i I

S a i i i

i i 1 i i

= 1111

■ Wash(Ring)

■ Wash(Compact)

■ Perspiration(Ring)

■ Perspiration(Compact)

Nylon Polyester Acrylic Muttifiber fabric

Fig. 5. Colour fastness to Rubbing of ring vs compact yarn fabric. Fig. 6. Colour fastness to wash and perspiration of ring vs compact

yarn fabric.

5. Conclusion

The following conclusion may be drawn based on the observation carried out during this study. The results are valid only within the experimental regions.

1. The tenacity of the compact yarns expresses greater value than conventional ring spun yarn, which influence the fabric strength. The elongation % of the compact yarns has a significantly lower value than that of conventional ring yarn. This property has an especially good effect in knitting, where elasticity and elongation at break are features of substantial importance.

2. Fabrics knitted from compact yarns have divergent visual properties; namely, they are more brilliant and glossier. The test results displayed that the fabric samples knitted out of compact yarns exhibited better bursting strength values at every stages of applied load, but the washing fastness and perspiration test did not reveal any significant difference between the samples. Fabric samples out of compact yarns displayed better pilling behaviors after dyeing process.

References

[1] Brunk N., 3/2002, 'Three Years of Practical Experience with the EliTe Compact Set in Short-staple Spinning', Spin novation.

[2] Brunk N., 10/2003, 'EliTe Compact Set - The Third Generation', Spin novation.

[3] Prospects of the Suessen Company: 'Spinning machines Fiomax 1000 and Fiomax 1000 E1'.

[4] Stahlecker H.: Spinning System - 18 Months after ITMA in Paris, Spin novation No 12/2000, p. 6.

[5] Stalder H, Rusch A.: Successful compact spinning process. International Textile Bulletin, 2002, No 1, p. 42.

[6] Artzt P., 1/2002, 'Compact spinning - a true in- novation in staple fibre spinning', Tekstil Maraton, Ocak-§ubat.

[7] Artzt P. 2003, "Specific Technological Aspects of the Compact Spinning Process", Tekstil Teknoloji, Aralik.

[8] Gordon C. J., 2005, "Handbook of Textile Fibres I. Natural Fibres 5th edition, 13-16 and 64-70.

[9] Ring-Frame-suessen, 1999 , [Online] Available at: <www.trishulassociates.com>

[10] Technology-of short-staple-spinning, 1998. [Online] Available at: <http://www.rieter.com>

[11] W. Klein, 1993. "Spinning Geometry and its Significance", International Textile Bulletin, Zurich.

[12] M NikoliC, and M StamenkoviC: Kompaktno predenje - moguCnost boljeg kvaliteta prstenaste prede; Zbornik radova, VI simpozijuma "Savremene tehnologije i privredni razvoj", Leskovac 21-22 oktobar 2005.

[13] Booth, J.E. 1961, "Principles of Textile Testing '', Bristol, England, J.W. Arrowsmith Ltd. 420-422.

[14] Angappan, P. Gopalakrishnan, R. 1987, "Textile Testing', Valayakkaranoor, Tamil Nadu, S.S.M.I.T.T. Staff and Students Co-op. Ltd. 302-304, 324-326.

[15] Hossain, M. Forhad, 2005, "Essential Wet Testing in Textile'', Banglabazar, Dhaka, Prime Publications, 14, 21-23, 24-26, 49-54.