Scholarly article on topic 'Improving of Sewability Properties of Various Knitted Fabrics with the Softeners'

Improving of Sewability Properties of Various Knitted Fabrics with the Softeners Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Cotton Knitted Fabric" / Softeners / "Needle Penetration Force" / "Seam Appearance"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Alime Aslı İlleez, Eylen Sema Dalbaşı, Gonca Özçelik Kayseri

Abstract Sewing damage is one of the most troublesome problems for the knitted fabrics and this damage is caused by the resistance of fabric to the penetration of needle during sewing operation. Such resistance comes from the fact that the spaces in fabric (between the fibers or the yarns). Finishing treatments directly affect these spaces and so, the sewability and the sewing conditions of fabrics are affected. The aim of this study is; to research the effect of the parameters, such as knitting structure, softeners type and chemical concentration to the sewability and seam puckering in apparel on cotton knitted fabrics. For this purpose, five various softeners with two concentration were applied to the pre-treated 100% of cotton single jersey, interlock and fleece fabrics. After applications, the sewability and the seam puckering of all fabrics were measured and the obtain results were statistically evaluated. The softening treatments improved the sewability and seam puckering markedly. Especially, macro silicone emulsion had the lowest needle penetration force value. After softening treatment, seam puckering increased nearly 1.5-2 grades. The lower concentration is sufficient to get same effect.

Academic research paper on topic "Improving of Sewability Properties of Various Knitted Fabrics with the Softeners"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 (2015) 2786 - 2795

World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Improving of Sewability Properties of Various Knitted Fabrics with

the Softeners

Alime Asli illeeza*, Eylen Sema Dalba§ib, Gonca Öz9elik Kayseria

aEge University, Emel Akin Vocational High School, Izmir, Turkey bEge University, Textile Engineering Department, Izmir, Turkey

Abstract

Sewing damage is one of the most troublesome problems for the knitted fabrics and this damage is caused by the resistance of fabric to the penetration of needle during sewing operation. Such resistance comes from the fact that the spaces in fabric (between the fibers or the yarns). Finishing treatments directly affect these spaces and so, the sewability and the sewing conditions of fabrics are affected. The aim of this study is; to research the effect of the parameters, such as knitting structure, softeners type and chemical concentration to the sewability and seam puckering in apparel on cotton knitted fabrics. For this purpose, five various softeners with two concentration were applied to the pre-treated 100 % of cotton single jersey, interlock and fleece fabrics. After applications, the sewability and the seam puckering of all fabrics were measured and the obtain results were statistically evaluated. The softening treatments improved the sewability and seam puckering markedly. Especially, macro silicone emulsion had the lowest needle penetration force value. After softening treatment, seam puckering increased nearly 1.5-2 grades. The lower concentration is sufficient to get same effect.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibilityoflstanbulUniveristy.

Keywords: Cotton Knitted Fabric, Softeners, Needle Penetration Force, Seam Appearance

1. Introduction

Sewing damage during sewing is one of the most troublesome problems in the clothing industry. For the knitted fabrics, this problem is acute due to the fact that they are prone to damage during sewing, wearing or laundering (Fan, 1997). Sewability is the ability of fabric to be sewn without holes and drapes. This property is attributed to fabric properties, pretreatment, finishing, sewing conditions and mishandling (Grancaric et.al., 2005).

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Istanbul Univeristy.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.394

The aim of this study is; to research the effect of the parameters, such as knitting structure, softeners type and chemical concentration to the sewability and seam puckering in apparel on cotton knitted fabrics. For this purpose, five various softeners with two concentration were applied to the pre-treated 100 % of cotton single jersey, interlock and fleece fabrics. After applications, the sewability and the seam puckering of all fabrics were measured and the obtain results were statistically evaluated.

2. Literature Review And Hypotheses

From children up to the elder, everyone needs to feel the softness of the fabric in the first moment of dress up. Various consumers consider fabric handle as one of the most important attribute in their purchase of apparel products, therefore companies tend to focus on these demands nowadays. Knitted fabrics meet some of handling demands of customer but for a complete solution softening treatment is the most important step for meeting them (Tondl, 2006; Sand et.al., 2001; El-Dessouki, 2015). The finishing treatments influence not only the fabric properties but also the sewing quality of garments. Good seams are essential for durability, quality, and aesthetic appearance of the garments (Sular et al., 2015).

There are many studies on the effects of various parameters on the sewing performances. Parthasarathi et.al. (2014), prepared a review article that included the studies about the sewability problems of fabrics and solution methods from 1947 till 1993 (Parthasarathi et.al., 2014). Mansouri et.al. (2014), researched the influence of finishing products on sewing needle penetration force (Mansouri et.al., 2014). Alaa et.al. (2013), investigated the seam characteristics of cellulosic and regenerated cellulosic knitted fabrics in consideration to different fabric structure (Alaa et.al., 2013). Sadek (2012), studied the effect of softener treatment on plain jersey fabrics with properties made of cotton and spandex yarn (Sadek, 2012). Megeid et.al. (2011), researched the effect of stitch length, yarn count and needle size on penetration force which indicates the fabric sewability (Megeid et.al., 2011). Ujevic et.al. (2008), studied about an instrument for measuring the sewing needle penetration force and dynamic sewing thread tension force was designed (Ujevic et.al., 2008). Grancaric et.al. (2005), studied about the fabric handle characteristics after some stages of cotton pretreatment (Grancaric et.al., 2005). Gurarda et.al. (2005) studied about the effect of the needle penetration forces and needle damage index of elastane draw ratio, presetting temperature and silicone were investigated for cotton/elastane woven fabrics (Gurarda et.al., 2005).

3. Methodology

3.1 Research Goal

The aim of this study is; to research the effect of the parameters, such as fabric construction, softeners type and softener concentration on the sewability and seam puckering in apparel on cotton knitted fabrics.

3.2 Sample and Data Collection

Firstly, three different 100% cotton knitted fabrics in single jersey, interlock and fleece structures were supplied from Yeniferi Orme Textile Company (in Turkey). Applications were carried out with these fabrics scoured and bleached. Specifications of the used fabrics are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. The specifications of cotton knitted fabrics

Physical properties 100% cotton knitted fabrics

Code S I F

Fabric construction Single Jersey Interlock Fleece (2-yarn)

Yarn number (Ne) 30/1 30/1 30/1

Spinning method Open-end Open-end Open-end

Fabric weight (g/m2) 142 235 194

Yarn density Wales/cm 17 28 15

Courses/cm 17 14 15

Secondly, the softening treatments were applied to the cotton fabrics by padding method using a Rapid Model PA-1 marked laboratory padder and an Ataf GK 4 marked laboratory stenter was used for drying. The types and recipes of the five various softeners used are indicated in Table 2. Two chemical concentration (15 and 30 g/l) was chosen considering widely used concentration in textile finishing industry.

Table 2. The types of softeners, recipes and codes

Softeners pH Code Concentration

Polyethylene emulsion pH: 5.5-6.5 1a 15 g/l

1b 30 g/l

Cationic softener pH: 4.5-5 2a 15 g/l

(Quaternary ammonium salt) 2b 30 g/l

Micro sized silicone emulsion pH: 5-5.5 3a 15 g/l

(Polydimethylsiloxane) 3b 30 g/l

Macro sized silicone emulsion pH: 5 4a 15 g/l

(Aminofunctional polysiloxane) 4b 30 g/l

Nano sized silicone emulsion pH: 5 5a 15 g/l

(Modified polysiloxane) 5b 30 g/l

Impregnation conditions : Pick up: 75%

Drying: 80°C for 2 minutes

Finally, the treated samples were seamed with lock stitches in a Juki DLL-8500-7 industrial sewing machine at room temperature. The polyester sewing thread was used and a 75s ball point needle was used.

3.3 Analyses and Results The needle penetration force

Needle penetration force tests were performed with an L&M Sewability Tester (John Godrich), developed in the Clothing Section of the Textile Department at the University of Leeds (Fig. 1). This tester gives a standard, reproducible test for sewability. It measures fabric sewability by monitoring the force required for a 90s ball point needle to penetrate a fabric (100 times) under laboratory conditions. A threshold value was determined based on the fabric mass area. In this study, the threshold value was 75 cN. The average force to penetrate the fabric was recorded Good sewability is indicated by the lower needle penetration force values (L&M Sewability Tester Manual, 2010). Needle penetration force test was performed 3 times for each fabric.

Fig.1. The L&M Sewability Tester

In Figure 2-7, the results of the needle penetration force values of single jersey, interlock and fleece fabrics in wale and course directions are given.

-Ï T3

Single Jersey

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Untreated 1a 1b

❖ Wale direction

Fig. 2. Needle penetration forces of single jersey fabrics in wale direction

Single Jersey

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Untreated 1 a

❖ Course direction

Fig. 3. Needle penetration forces of single jersey fabrics in course direction

As can be seen from Figure 2 and Figure 3, all types of softeners had positive effect on the needle penetration force; therefore sewability was simplified after softening treatment in both directions. The most effective softener was micro and macro silicones that are softeners 3 and 4. The influence of softener concentration was not obvious. Generally in wale direction, the needle penetration force values were lower compared to the values of course direction.

Interlock

t 8 ,o

Untreated 1a 1b

❖ Wale direction

Fig. 4. Needle penetration forces of interlock fabrics in wale direction

Fig. 5. Needle penetration forces of interlock fabrics in course direction

As the needle penetration force values of interlock fabrics given in Figure 4 and Figure 5 are investigated, the effect of all softeners is evident compared to the untreated fabric. The concentration did not change the force values positively at all. The most effective softener was found as type 3 and 4.

Fleece

ft -Ï ■3

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Untreated 1a 1b

❖ Wale direction

Fig. 6. Needle penetration forces of fleece fabrics in wale direction

Fleece

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Untreated 1 a

❖ Course direction

Fig.7. Needle penetration forces of fleece fabrics in course direction

As the needle penetration force values of fleece fabrics indicated in Figure 6 and Figure 7 are examined, compared to the other fabrics, it can be seen that higher force values are obtained due to the higher fabric thickness. During sewing test, the resistance against the needle is much more than the other fabric types. Similar to the results of single jersey and interlock fabrics, in fleece fabrics softener 4 had been most effective one.

The results were also statistically evaluated with variance analysis test in order to determine whether the effects of the fabric construction, the softener type and the softener concentration parameters are important or not. In order to compare all the levels of the parameters, multiple comparison tests were performed. According to the result of the Levene homogeneity test, carried to define whether the variances are equivalent or not, Tamhane or SNK (Student

Newman Keuls) test was performed.

As given in Table 3 and Table 4, in wale direction, only softener type was found statistically significant on the needle penetration force values, whereas in course direction fabric type and softener type were found important parameters. For the multiple comparison of the all levels of each parameters, firstly Levene homogeneity test was carried out and in wale direction p value was found as 0.387 and in course direction p value was found as 0.796. Therefore for multiple comparison SNK test was performed and the results are given in Table 4 and Table 5 for wale and course directions respectively.

Table 3. Analysis of variance test for needle penetration force in wale direction_

Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Corrected Model 3943.317 8 492.915 9.389 0.000

Intercept 68456.960 1 68456.960 1304.007 0.000

Fabric construction 332.747 2 166.374 3.169 0.047

Softener type 1571.378 4 392.844 7.483 0.000*

Concentration 19.600 1 19.600 0.373 0.543

Error 4724.764 90 52.497

Total 85335.000 99

Corrected Total 8668.081 98

*Statistically significant according to a=0.005

Table 4. Analysis of variance test for needle penetration force in course direction

Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Corrected Model 4115.065 8 514.383 10.146 0.000

Intercept 89945.248 1 89945.248 1774.062 0.000

Fabric construction 1662.384 2 831.192 16.394 0.000*

Softener type 1554.778 4 388.694 7.667 0.000*

Concentration 5.378 1 5.378 0.106 0.745

Error 4563.016 90 50.700

Total 117614.000 99

Corrected Total 8678.081 98

*Statistically significant according to a=0.005

N Subsets 1 2

Fabric type Single jersey Fleece Interlock 33 33 33 26.0909 27.0303 27.0303 30.3636

N Subsets 1 2 3

4 18 19.5556

3 18 25.0000

Softener type 1 5 18 18 26.1111 29.6667

2 18 31.6667

Untreated 9 42.1111

N Subsets 1 2

a 45 25.9333

Softener concentration b 45 26.8667

Untreated 9 42.1111

In SNK multiple comparison test, whether the difference of the mean values for each levels of the parameters are statistically significant or not is determined. As given in Table 5, in terms of fabric type, although two subsets are defined, the mean values are included in both subsets for fleece fabric, therefore it can be said that there are not statistically significant differences between the needle penetration forces of fabrics. For softening treatment five different softening agents were used and among them, softener 4, macro sized silicone emulsion had the lowest needle penetration force value and caused most efficient softening effect. Since the molecule size is higher than the other types of softening agents, it forms slippy, smooth and soft characteristics. All the other softening agents are comprised in the same subset since the 95% confidence interval of the mean needle penetration values are overlapped. The untreated fabrics have quite high needle penetration force compared to the treated fabrics. Softening concentration has no statistically significant effect meaning that the lower concentration (15 g/l) was enough for getting the same performance. In terms of economic concern, it is also obviously advantageous to use lower concentration in the softening treatments.

Table 6. SNK analysis of needle penetration force values for fabric type, softener type and softener concentration in course direction

Subsets

Interlock 33 27.5152

Fabric type Fleece 33 34.9091

Single jersey 33 37.0909

Subsets

N 1 2 3

4 18 24.4444

5 18 31.6111

Softener type 3 1 18 18 34.1111 34.8333

2 18 36.1111

Untreated 9 42.6667

Subsets

a 45 31.9778

Softener concentration b 45 32.4667

Untreated 9 42.6667

In Table 6, the multiple comparison test results for fabric type, softener type and softener concentration in course direction is given. The mean needle penetration force value of interlock fabrics is lower than the other fabrics and this difference is found statistically significant. As similar with the results of the wale direction, softener 4 gave best results and with this softener sewability was improved noticeably. The mean needle penetration force values of all the other softeners are included in the same subset, meaning that they did not provide any difference effects. Softener concentration changing did not affect the needle penetration force and therefore sewability. The lower concentration is sufficient to get same effect.

Appearance of seams

The untreated (UT) and treated samples were seamed (4.5 stitch/cm) and after that the samples were washed and dried for five times in Wascator machine according to BS EN ISO 26330 (5A program) standard. All samples were conditioned for 24 hours in standard atmosphere conditions (temperature: 20 ± 2°C, relative humidity: 65 ± 2%) before evaluation. Finally, the appearance of seams was compared with standard photos according to AATCC 88B-1984 standard (Figure 8) and the seam puckering was evaluated. Grade 5 represents the best level of appearance of seam while Grade 1 represents the poorest level of appearance (AATCC Technical Manual-1, 1989). Seam puckering test was performed 3 times for each fabric.

1 11H-

B kl K3 m m

5 4 3 2 1

Fig. 8. Photographic comparative ratings for single needle seams

In Table 7, the results of the appearance of seam were given.

Table 7. The grades of the appearance of seams

Sample Grades

Single jersey Interlock Fleece

Untreated 2.5 2.5 3

1 a 3 3 3

b 3.5 3 3.5

2 a 3.5 4 3.5

b 3 4.5 4

3 a 3.5 3 3.5

b 3.5 3.5 4.5

4 a 3.5 3.5 4

b 4 4 4

5 a 4.5 3.5 4

b 4.5 4.5 4.5

As seen in Table 7, the softening treatment improved the seam puckering markedly, especially with softener 5, which is nano silicone. In single jersey and interlock fabrics 2 Grades improvement was achieved, in fleece fabric, maximum 1.5 Grades progress was obtained. Generally when the softener concentration increased, appearance of seams got better.

4. Conclusion

In this study, the aim of this study is; to research the effect of the parameters, such as fabric construction, softener type and concentration to the sewability and seam puckering in apparel on cotton knitted fabrics. The results were also statistically evaluated with variance analysis test in order to determine whether the effects of these parameters are important or not. The conclusions can be summarized as follows:

• Needle penetration force

In wale direction, the untreated fabrics had quite high needle penetration force compared to the treated fabrics. But it can be said that there are not statistically significant differences between the needle penetration forces of fabrics. Five different softening agents were used and among them, softener 4, macro silicone emulsion had the lowest needle penetration force value. Because, the molecule size of macro silicone is higher than the others and it forms slippy, smooth and soft characteristics of fabric surface. Softening concentration has no statistically significant effect meaning that the lower concentration (15 g/l) was enough for getting the same performance. In course direction, the mean needle penetration force value of interlock fabrics was lower than the other fabrics and this difference was found statistically significant. As similar with wale direction, softener 4(macro silicone emulsion) gave best results and with this softener sewability was improved noticeably. Softener concentration

changing did not affect the needle penetration force and therefore sewability. • Appearance of seams

The softening treatments improved the seam puckering markedly, especially with softener 5, which is nano silicone. In single jersey and interlock fabrics 2 Grades improvement was achieved, in fleece fabric, maximum 1.5 Grades progress was obtained. Generally when the softener concentration increased, appearance of seams got better.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Scientific Research Project Center of Ege University. Supported project number: 09-TKAUM-02

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