Scholarly article on topic 'Urban Civil Structures Effect in the Development of Governance Concept in Developing Countries: The Case of City Councils in Turkey'

Urban Civil Structures Effect in the Development of Governance Concept in Developing Countries: The Case of City Councils in Turkey Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"City councils" / governance / "local governance" / "participative democracy" / Agenda-21;}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Berkan Demiral

Abstract Governance is one of the main approaches of New Public Management (NPM) (Meuleman: 2008, Landman and Robinson: 2009) and it is an important concept for Turkey as it affects the entire private and the public sector. Expressing the participated governing process, its field of application includes non-governmental organizations and civil communities, central government and local governments. The emergence of more flexible decentralized and entrepreniuneal urban politics have been interpreted as an important part of transition from government to governance in economic and political context in Turkey like the other countries (Stoker: 1996, Ward: 2000, Jones: 1998, Oatley 1998, Whitehead: 2003). The mutual interaction with governance, the change in urban politics in Turkey has affected the new restructuring in local governments in large scale. This interaction is inevitable at a time of local and central government concept is eroding, the concepts of citizenship and participation are changing and urban economic development is restructured and globalized (Mac Leod and Goodwin: 1999, Stoker: 1996, Whitehead: 2003). The City Councils concept has appeared with Agenda-21 accepted after the Rio Summit. The City Councils in Turkey is an outcome of Local Agenda21 and established as an implementation of it. The main aims of them are to solve the problems that the cities are faced with, which affect the urban sustainability resulting from the city governments. The City Councils are established interdependently from the local governments in Turkey. Nonetheless they have made solutions for all the problems in the city as a civil initiative. But local governments, municipalities and private provincial administration have not notified them. The City Councils in Turkey gained legal status in 2005 after the admission of Municipality Act numbered 5393 in which there are regulations for them like in the article 76. In order to evaluate the city councils in Turkey two concepts, which are “governance” and “Local Agenda-21”, should be demystified. It is known that, city councils are suggested as a new participatory model based on governance in local. But the governance concept shouldn’t be seen only as a part of establishing new participatory models in cities but also, it's a key concept to establish a new government and social system as an instrument of New Public Management. In this study, it is argued if the City Councils implementations are transformed into governance based implementation and results of these implementations will be evaluated in terms of local governments and non-governmental organizations. Also, the structure, implementations and decisions of striking city councils in Turkey will be examined and the barriers in local governance will be discussed.

Academic research paper on topic "Urban Civil Structures Effect in the Development of Governance Concept in Developing Countries: The Case of City Councils in Turkey"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 143 (2014) 1006 - 1010

CY-ICER 2014

Urban civil structures effect in the development of governance concept in developing countries: the case of city councils in Turkey

Berkan Demiral a*

a Trakya Universitesi ïktisadi ve îdari Bilimler Fakultesi, Kamu Yonetimi Bolumu, Trakya, Turkey

Abstract

Governance is one of the main approaches of New Public Management (NPM) (Meuleman: 2008, Landman and Robinson: 2009) and it is an important concept for Turkey as it affects the entire private and the public sector. Expressing the participated governing process, its field of application includes non-governmental organizations and civil communities, central government and local governments. The emergence of more flexible decentralized and entrepreniuneal urban politics have been interpreted as an important part of transition from government to governance in economic and political context in Turkey like the other countries (Stoker: 1996, Ward: 2000, Jones: 1998, Oatley 1998, Whitehead: 2003). The mutual interaction with governance, the change in urban politics in Turkey has affected the new restructuring in local governments in large scale. This interaction is inevitable at a time of local and central government concept is eroding, the concepts of citizenship and participation are changing and urban economic development is restructured and globalized (Mac Leod and Goodwin: 1999, Stoker: 1996, Whitehead: 2003). The City Councils concept has appeared with Agenda-21 accepted after the Rio Summit. The City Councils in Turkey is an outcome of Local Agenda21 and established as an implementation of it. The main aims of them are to solve the problems that the cities are faced with, which affect the urban sustainability resulting from the city governments. The City Councils are established interdependently from the local governments in Turkey. Nonetheless they have made solutions for all the problems in the city as a civil initiative. But local governments, municipalities and private provincial administration have not notified them. The City Councils in Turkey gained legal status in 2005 after the admission of Municipality Act numbered 5393 in which there are regulations for them like in the article 76. In order to evaluate the city councils in Turkey two concepts, which are "governance" and "Local Agenda-21", should be demystified. It is known that, city councils are suggested as a new participatory model based on governance in local. But the governance concept shouldn't be seen only as a part of establishing new participatory models in cities but also, it's a key concept to establish a new government and social system as an instrument of New Public Management. In this study, it is argued if the City Councils implementations are transformed into governance based implementation and results of these implementations will be evaluated in terms of local governments and non-governmental organizations. Also, the structure, implementations and decisions of striking city councils in Turkey will be examined and the barriers in local governance will be discussed.

© 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of CY-ICER 2014.

* Corresponding author: Berkan Demiral E-mail address: berkandemirel@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of CY-ICER 2014. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.544

Berkan Demiral / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 143 (2014) 1006 - 1010 Keywords: City councils, governance, local governance, participative democracy, Agenda-21;

1. Introduction

The concept of city councils is a result of reducing the Agenda 21 to local. There are two key concepts to understand how this process has developed. The first one is governance and the other is Local Agenda 21 (LA- 21) as city councils are accepted as a prospect of a participatory government concept in which governance and local meet. City councils are one of the most important milestones of the new government and society order, which is a reflection of Neo-liberal thought in 1980s. Although the city councils appeared after Rio, they came to the Turkey's agenda with the new municipality law. Looking at the basis, there is again the same couple: governance and Agenda 21.

Governance: new wine in old bottles or a magic wand?

There are some frequently asked questions about governance like "How internal and external coordination are provided in public service, if hierarchy has to act in specified limits has it languished, how the ambiguity of governors can be prevented?" Governance has become a buzzword not only in public administration scholars but also in practitioners.

Governance is a specific term used for describing the transformation in the nature and role of government after the public sector reforms in 1980s and 90s. It is generally said that these reforms caused a shift from hierarchical bureaucratic structures to market, market-like network type structures in the distribution of public services, these reforms consolidated with the rise of European Union (EU) or the enlargement of supranational economic activities. Apparently, governance is a concept about government, which cooperates with other organizations in order to practice policies and ensure the expectations.

Whether its point of origin is the 13th or 15th century France governance concept has a rather old history. This history caused the concept to gain many different meanings of broader context. Governance is the whole interaction within the government and other public organization and between the private sector and civil society organizations. In this context, governance has a neutral and straight meaning. That's why some sectors dealing with governance thinking that the concept with this neutrality does not have a guiding feature, produced the concept "good governance".

Examining the decisions of Johannesburg and other important summits, it is seen that they try to withdraw the tier of government to global governance (Evans and Theobald: 2003). The expectation for democracy and governance will end in nothing, unless the societies achieve a level global equality in the use of resources and in the view of social capabilities (Jorby: 2002). Koiman (2003:182) separates governance into three dimensions: The first dimension is solving problems and affording opportunities; the second one is dealing with organizations and the last one is dealing with organizations and the last one is the governance of governance that is Meta-Governance. But it is not possible to say that governance always is examined neutrally this much for instance Guler (2002:113), accepts governance as "a type of government in which the public power is delivered to the capital directly" conversely, some authors claim that government has role of making thing easy rather than making problems (Rhodes: 2002). Besides some of them claim that an ideal government should depend on consensus and agreement. According to them, the government should smooth the way for private sector while it ensures the protection of basic rights and freedoms, at that point the government stands out with its participatory scale. Efficiency, accountability, participation, transparency, sustainability, competition and the rules of administrative ethics should be taken into consideration in order to achieve good governance.

Governance And Locality: Local Agenda 21

LA -21 sustainability in structure and process is to be of the first order of importance nowadays. In order to use the sources efficiently and effectively there is a need for structuring to realize this especially in LA-21, accepted in Rio Earth Summit come along at this point. Viability, quality of life and environmental issues stands out in this summit. The world has to be prepared for the solution of this problem before it comes to a dead end. The solution for that is

the sustainable development although there is no definition about what it is (Selman: 2000).

The basic aims of LA-21's, which can be accepted as a local organization of Agenda 21 concept, are to coordinate environmental economics, social and administrative targets and certainly sustainability is associated with development in this way as sustainable development is a component of economic, ecological and social development (Harris: 2000).

In a broader view, sustainable development became a key politics today. Accordingly LA-21 is seen a new local development process based on sustainability (Mooser: 2001). The close relationship between this couple (LA-21 and sustainable development) is too close as they both need a democracy concept including participation. Indeed, the individuals should be not only the part of problem but also the solution. That's why there is a needed for a participatory structure. This concept overlaps with LA-21 substantially. PARTICIPATION AS A KEY CONCEPT

To make the local people a part of the solution in solving local problems needs a meaningful organization and that needs an established planning. But it should be stated immediately that, LA-21 is more than planning. It is not a legal statue but a moral guaranty.

That's why LA-21's have important rules. Indeed, governance practices in local governments will be more effective and permanent if effective and extensive participation is established in many issues initially in quality of life. Besides that the NGO's gained new functions as they become more important in decisions and policy making gradually. Because, what is addressed here is not only a simple participation, but also increasing the local awareness in economic development first and in politics, administration and economy (Freeman at al.: 1996). No only it is important how the actors demanding to take a part in participatory democracies are defined but how they defined the system is important also. The policy processes depend on the acceptation that the actors and policies are made in rational and democratic ways. The mentioned rationality and democratic quality is strictly related with the structure and direction of governance in local.

Participation might be directly or indirectly. Indirect participation was much more in the past because of different reasons but today. Direct participation as a result of development in ICT systems is more frequently used. Direct participation began to take place in public administration as it gained in importance in the mid-1980s with the concept of total quality management in private action, the change on human beings character has been last ring of this transformation. There is a revolution from citizen to an incredulous a citizen accepts. The changes in the concept of participation caused changes in the meaning governance also. In the past, the participation was most likely inclusion or consultation but today there is effective citizen participation.

City councils in Turkey

The city councils in Turkey can be seen as a new legal form of LA-21s. The new law number 5393 changed the LA-21 fact as "City Councils". This is not unique for Turkey but more than 4000 local and regional cities and municipalities are in the process of LA-21 (Evans and Theobald: 2003).

The law number 5393 of 2005 defined the city councils organizations that "tries to implement the development of the city vision and freeman consciousness, protection of the law and the rights of city and the principles of sustainable development, environmental sensibility, social solidarity, transparency, accountability, participation and local governance.

The fourth article of regulation dated October 8th, 2006 of the Law number 5393, predicted that the organizations should have a multi-actor management approach depending on social cooperation in the framework of governance concept having the principles transparency, accountability, participation, propriety and efficiency. After this arrangement about city councils in Turkey, there has been a problem if the participation process in local will transform into a governance fact with city councils or a new tutelage relationship will be established with these arrangements? There are three types' approaches to this answer:

1. "The optimist thinking" that the process will transform to a positive governance structuring in local with the help of city councils.

2. The "realistic" or "neutrals" that believe that city councils are facing important problems with their present situation but also believing that if these problems are solved legally and practically the process could transform in a good governance structuring.

3. The "Pessimists" believing that a new tutelage relationship will appear in local and the new local participation dynamics will suffer from this.

In the light of these developments, the problems that the city councils run into can be listed as:

1. The active citizenship problem in the process of local participation; participative systems develop the active citizenship but also they need active participation. That's why it is not possible to the citizen based participation fact without active citizenship.

2. The problem of aim-result relation. The problems between the aim and the result in LA-21 activities will prevent then exist for a long time. This is very intensive in Turkey.

3. The Problem of finance. Regardless of how a system is good, if needs a good financial system in order to work well. Systems demanding to be free of tutelage need independent financial systems.

4. The problem of legality. One of the main critics directed to the city councils is that they are the agents of global capital in local.

5. The problems of establishment and perception. As the women councils come out and increase their efficiency in Turkey in respect of European countries the city councils are detected as women councils.

6. The problem of tutelage. The city councils in Turkey frequently were under the rule and control of the municipalities and particularly mayors and this blocks their efficient and effective work. However only a few independent city councils (e.g. Edirne city council) works efficiently and effectively.

7. The problem of organized civil society. The structure of organized civil society is very limited especially in developing countries and also their history is trend new, consequently, these structures have only little chance to work properly in countries where there is no experience of organized civil society.

8. The problem of powerful local structures. A powerful local civil society will only be possible if there are powerful local governments, which will support them however, in most of developing countries like Turkey, the local governments have serious financial and administrative autonomy problems.

Conclusion

The city councils are discussed recently in terms of transparency and open budget principles, as they become the satellites of local governments. City councils seem to become more bureaucratic like the other public sector organizations and this is in contradiction with the flexibility principle which the main reason of their existence. With their present situation, the city councils fell behind the basic principles established for them. The shadow of tutelage on city councils neither makes the process more democratic nor provides governance in local. One of the main problems of city councils in Turkey is getting away from active citizenship in contradiction to the examples in developed countries. Highlighting the consultation fact instead of participation is not simple fact turmoil but a simple choice in the city councils that are seen as a frame NGOs in city organization. This causes the citizens to be second even third bodies instead of active citizens. It seems that there is a long way if the aim is to guarantee good governance in the axis of active citizenship. In order to make this happen, there must be faith through this. Establishing show organizations do not bring real democratic and good governance.

References

Güler, B. A. "Yonetiçim: Tüm íktidar Semayeye." Praksis (9), 2002: 93-116.

Ward, K. «A Critique in Search of a Corpus: Re-interpreting Urban Politics.» Transactions of The Institute of British Geographers, no. 25 (2000): 169-185.

Whitehead, M. "In The Shadow of Hierarchy: Meta Governance, Policy Reform and Urban Regeneration in The West Midlands Area." The Royal

Geographic Society 35(1), 2003: 6-14. Evans, B. and Theobald K. "Policy and Practice Lasala: Evaluating Local agenda 21 in Europe." Journal of Environmental Planning and

Management 46(5), 2003: 781-794. Freeman, C, Littlewood, S. and Whitney, D. "Local Government and Emerging Models of Participation in The Local Agenda 21 Process."

Journal of Environmental planning and Management 39(1), 1996: 65-78. Jones, M. "Restructuring the Local State: Economic Governance or Social Regulation?" Political Geography, 1998: 959-988. Jorby, S.A. "Local Agenda-21 in Four Swedish Municipalities: A Tool Towards Sustainability?" Journal of Environmental Planning and

Management 45(2), 2002: 219-244. Kooiman, J. Governing as Governance. London, Thousan Oaks, New delhi: Sage, 2003.

N., Landman T. and Robinson. The SAGE Handbook oof Comperative Politics. London: Sage, 2009.

Mc Leod G. and Goodwin, M. «Space, Scale and State Strategy: Towards a Rethinking Urban and Regional Governance.» Progress in Human Geography, 1999: 503-527.

Meuleman, L. Public Management and Meta-Governance of Hierarchies, Networks and Markets. The Netherlands: Phsycia-Verlag, 2008. Moser, P. "Glorification Disillusionment or the Way into the Future: The Significance of Local Agenda 21 Process for the Needs of Local

Sustainibility." Local Environment 6(4), 2001: 453-467. Selman, J. «A Sideways look at Local Agenda 21.» Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning (2), 2000: 39-53.

Stoker, G. «Introduction: Normative Theories of Local Government and Democracy .» Rethinking Local Democracy i$inde, yazan D.S. King and

G. Stoker, 1-27. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996. Robinson, T. and Landman N. The SAGE Handbook of Comperative Politics. London: Sage, 2009.