Scholarly article on topic 'Impact of Storage of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Waste Meboudja in the Area on the Environment (El-Hadjar, North East Algeria)'

Impact of Storage of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Waste Meboudja in the Area on the Environment (El-Hadjar, North East Algeria) Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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{Impact / "ferrous scrap" / "non-ferrous waste" / water / environment.}

Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — M. Hannouche, S. Souames

Abstract Since the beginning of the industrial age, the impact of human activity on the environment is becoming increasingly important in terms of environmental pollution. The town of Annaba is considered the industrial capital of the extreme north-eastern Algeria. The study area because of a particularly polluting industry, sees its environment deteriorate. Indeed, the study on the impact of ferrous and non-ferrous waste in the area of Meboudja showed high pollution especially in Meboudja river and surface slick. A sampling campaign was carried out in the study area (2012) and include eight wells located throughout the study area. The analyzes focused on the physical elements (temperature, pH, conductivity and oxygen) as well as the following heavy metals: Iron, Copper, Lead, Chromium and Nickel. The existence of relatively high concentrations of these metals indicates an origin of the pollution appears to be industrial.

Academic research paper on topic "Impact of Storage of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Waste Meboudja in the Area on the Environment (El-Hadjar, North East Algeria)"

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Energy Procedia 74 (2015) 1112- 1118

International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and

Sustainability, TMREES15

Impact of storage of ferrous and non-ferrous waste Meboudja in the area on the Environment (El-Hadjar, North East Algeria).

M. Hannouche a*, S. Souames b

a Research loboratory of geology, Dep. of Geology, University ofBadji Mokhtar, PO Box 12, 23000, Annaba, Algeria, b Department of Geology, University ofBadji Mokhtar, PO Box 12, 23000, Annaba, Algeria.

Abstract

Since the beginning of the industrial age, the impact of human activity on the environment is becoming increasingly important in terms of environmental pollution. The town of Annaba is considered the industrial capital of the extreme north-eastern Algeria. The study area because of a particularly polluting industry, sees its environment deteriorate. Indeed, the study on the impact of ferrous and non-ferrous waste in the area of Meboudja showed high pollution especially in Meboudja river and surface slick. A sampling campaign was carried out in the study area (2012) and include eight wells located throughout the study area. The analyzes focused on the physical elements (temperature, pH, conductivity and oxygen) as well as the following heavy metals: Iron, Copper, Lead, Chromium and Nickel. The existence of relatively high concentrations of these metals indicates an origin of the pollution appears to be industrial.

©2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD) Keywords: Impact; ferrous scrap; non-ferrous waste; water; environment. 1. Introduction.

The industrialization of Annaba region has created a serious pollution problem accelerated the environment. Indeed, it is the ground or surface water and / or underground, metal materials are present in greater or lesser amount in the water. For a long time the soils were appreciated by their qualities "self-purifying": they play as a filter and purifier for pollutants in transit. It was assumed that the ground absorbed and digested all. Today this is over, is the ground no longer plays its role as a buffer, so that pollutants penetrate to the surface water table and rivers. Either pollutants accumulate in the soil to the point where a change in the physical conditions and / or chemical and / or biological causes a transfer of pollutants [1]. Either because the analysis has shown proven cases of pollution in the area of metal as in our study area with the Iron pollution at Copper, Lead, Chromium and Nickel.

1876-6102 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4 .0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD) doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.752

2. Objective and methods.

The aim of our research focuses on the storage of ferrous and non-ferrous waste in Meboudja region. Rainfall and irrigation are the main sources of soil water. Water that enters the soil then turned towards the deep horizons and surface slicks. And during such transportation, water load these heavy metals from the waste and will be transferred to the surface tablecloths contaminants.

A sampling campaign was carried out in the study area and physicochemical analyzes of samples from eight wells irregularly distributed in the study area were conducted laboratory SP1K Skikda. The analyzes focused on some physical elements: hydrogen potential (pH), redox potential (Eh), electrical conductivity (EC) and the temperature (T °C) as well as the following heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni). The method used for the determination of heavy metals is one of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), while the physical elements are measured in situ directly after the taking of the sample using a multi brand parameters apparatus WTW.

The town of Annaba, is considered the industrial capital of the far north-eastern Algeria with an area of 1.411.98 km2. The study area is limited to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the east by Makrada wetlands to the west by the massive metamorphic Edough overlooking the plain of Annaba and south by Lake Fetzara (fig. 1)

2.2. Geology.

Geological studies on the Annaba region showed two types of terrain, one represented by the metamorphic massif Edough occupying much of the study field and consists of a base and a crystallophyllian sedimentary cover and the other sedimentary occupying almost all the plain of Annaba. The description did appear in the only study area configurations of Mio-Pliocene and Quaternary can be important water reservoirs. By cons, training primary and the tertiary (Numidian), which appear in the site's entourage, are rarely exploited.

2.3. Hydroclimatology.

Belonging to the Mediterranean climate area, the study area has the characteristics such as summer drought which accentuates the problems of water and winter rainfall that contributes to hydrogeological reserves. The selected station closest to the study area is the Pont Bouchet station.

2.1. Location.

Figure 1: Geographical location ofthe studied area.

2.3.1. Precipitation.

For a better representation of the rainfall distribution, we use data on the nearest weather station of the study area (Pont Bouchet) for a 27 years observation (period 1984-2011) (Table 1).

Table 1: Average monthly rainfall in mm of Pont Bouchet station (period: 1984-2011).

Station Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Total

PontBouchet 33,2 85,4 127,2 82,5 71,6 95,3 87,7 58,1 46,3 8,4 3,9 3,1 702,8

2.3.2. Temperature.

Parameter essential, it assists in the operation of the water cycle. It is considered a very important factor governing the phenomenon of évapotranspiration and thus the annual and seasonal flow deficit.

For lack of temperature data to the Pont Bouchet station, we used those of the nearest station: Station des Salines. The data of temperatures recorded at this station for a period of27 years (1984-2011) are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Monthly average temperature in °C at the station Salines (period: 1984-2011).

Station Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Total

PontBouchet 21,6 18,4 15,1 12,7 12,3 10,9 12,5 17,6 20,8 22,8 24,9 25,7 17,94 3. Results and discussion.

3.1. Industrial discharges into surface waters (river Meboudja).

Discards are a real danger on the quality of water due to the high rate (12 1/s) releases (river Meboudja). A case of pollution of the surface water table from the river Meboudja was detected in the banks [2].

The results of physicochemical analyzes of industrial waste are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: physico-chemical composition of industrial discharges into the Meboudja river.

Parameters T(C°) pH Conductivity p.S/cm 02 (mg/1) Q (l/s)

Surface water 13,2 2,1 2500 1,3 12

Norm [3], [4] <25 7<pH<8,2 <400 3 -

3.2. Analyses of the physical parameters of surface water (wells).

The levels of well water analyzes are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 : Levels of physical parameters in the wells.

Wells PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

T(C°) 26,4 20,4 22,3 20,6 18,6 20,1 20,5 19,3

pH 7,45 7,40 7,20 7,40 7,25 7,90 7,15 7,30

Conductivity (p.S/cm) 1358 1360 1133 926 686 1144 1115 1143

3.3. Ferrous waste.

Ferrous waste or (scrap) denote the manufacturing waste appearing between the stage of the liquid metal and industrial consumption of the final product, as well as metal items for scrap, they are separable by electromagnet (%2).

Figure 2: Storage of ferrous and non-ferrous in the area of Meboudja (period 2012)

Table 5 : Results of chemical analysis oflron element in the wells (period 2012).

Wells PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 Iron (mg/1) 14,48 14,59 14,70 14,52 14,48 14,47 14,59 14,59

He results of chemical analysis well of the Meboudja area (Table 5) show that the measured values of Iron range between 14.47 (P6) and 14.70 mg/1 (P3) and far beyond the accepted standards by WHO (world health organisation) (0.2 mg/1). Iron is essential for the growth and well-being of living organisms, including humans. We can expect it to have toxic effects when organisms are exposed to higher levels of concentration than those they normally require.

3.3.1. Iron environmental impact.

In water, the iron is present at a very low concentration and tends to increase due to leaching of soil rich in iron or due to industrial pollution. This item shows danger of fairly moderate toxicity to the environment.

3.4. Non-ferrous waste.

Non-ferrous metals include all metals except pure iron or low-alloy (below 10%). It is mainly Copper, Aluminium, Zinc, Lead, Tin, Chromium and Nickel. [5] All are 100% recyclable and infinitely (Fig.2).

In our study, we became interested in Copper, Lead, Chromium and Nickel

3.4.1. Copper.

Table 6 : Results of the chemical analysis of the copper element in the wells (period 2012).

Wells PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

Copper (mg/1) 24246444

The results of chemical analyzes of wells in the area Meboudja (Table 6) show that the measured values of copper range from 2 (PI) to 6 mg/1 (P5) and do not exceed the standards recommended by WHO (world health organisation) (4 mg/1) except wells in P6 (6 mg/1).

3.4.1.1. Impact of Copper on the environment.

Copper may be releasing into the environment from natural sources (forest fires, rotting vegetation, souflees dust in the wind) and human activities (production of metals, mining and timber production and phosphate fertilizers). Since copper is dispersed by both natural and human processes, it is very greatly diffused in the environment. It is often found near mines, industrial plants and landfills.

Copper does not travel very far in the ground and does not penetrate deep groundwater. In surface water, copper can travel long distances. It does not destroy the environment, and therefore, it can accumulate in plants and animals when it is present in the soil.

3.4.2. The Lead.

Table 7 : Results of chemical analysis of lead element in the wells (period 2012).

Wells PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

Lead (mg/1) 0,70 0,73 1,08 1,22 1,59 2,07 2,11 2,01

The results of chemical analyzes of wells in the area Meboudja (Table 7) show that the measured values of lead ranged from 0.70 (PI) to 2.11 mg/1 (P7) and exceed the standards accepted by WHO (world health organisation) (0.05 mg/1).

3.4.2.1. Impact oflead on the environment.

Lead occurs naturally in the environment. However, most lead concentrations found in the environment are the result of human activities. It is found lead in gasoline, when burned in car engines there creating lead salts (oxides, bromides, chlorides). And then these salts enter the environment through the smoke given off by the intermediate exhaust warehouses cars. The larger particles fall to the ground immediately and pollute soils or surface waters, the smaller particles travel long distances in the air and remain in the atmosphere. Part of this lead falls to earth when it rains. There are not only leaded gasoline increasing concentrations in the environment, other activities such as fuel combustion, industrial processes and the burning of solid waste will also contribute. It can also get into the water and soil in the corrosion of lead in the pipes of the water-bearing systems and in the wear of the lead paint. Lead can not be destroyed, it can only change form.

3.4.3. The Chromium.

Table 8: Results of chemical analyzes of Chrome element wells (period 2012).

Wells PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

Chromium (mg/1) 0,74 0,43 0,14 0,10 0,14 0,19 1,61 1,57

The results of chemical analysis of the wells Meboudja area (Table 8) show that the measured values of Chromium are between 0.10 (P4) and 1.61 mg /1 (P7) and do not exceed accepted standards by WHO (world health organisation) (1 mg/1) except to wells P7 (1.61 mg/1) and P8 (1.57 mg/1).

3.4.3.1. Chromium impact on the environment.

Chromium enters the air, water and soil in the forms chromium III and chromium VI during natural processes and due to human activity. The amounts of chromium found in the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere are related mainly to industrial emissions. Wastes containing chromium are considered problematic because of their behavior in the deep soil layers when stored in landfills. In an alkaline medium, it is estimated that the stability of chromate can reach 50 years, they can migrate to groundwater, even through cohesive soils. The combustion of sludges containing chromic compounds is to be avoided because of the risk of formation of chromâtes. Chromium enters the air, water and soil in the forms chromium III and chromium VI during natural processes and due to human

activity. Most chromium air finally deposits and ends in the water or in the ground. In soil, the chromium is highly bound to soil particles, and therefore, it does not move to the groundwater. In water, chromium is absorbed on sediments and becomes immobile, only a small portion of the chromium that ends up in the water eventually dissolves.

3.4.4. Nickel.

Table 9: Results of chemical analyzes of Nickel element wells (period 2012).

Wells PI P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

Nickel (mg/1) 0,40 0,01 0,01 0,39 0,30 0,40 0,50 0,35

The results of chemical analysis of the wells Meboudja zone (Table 9) show that the measured values of Nickel range from 0.01 (P2) to 0.50 mg/1 (P7) and exceed the standards accepted by the WHO (world health organisation) (0.02 mg/1), except the well P2 (0.01) and P3 (0.01).

3.4.4.1. Nickel impact on the environment.

Nickel is released into the air by power plants and waste incinerators. Then it settles on the ground or falls after reaction with rainwater. It usually takes some time to remove nickel from the air. Nickel can also end up in surface water when present in wastewater. The most important part of the Nickel released into the environment is adsorbed by sediments and soil particles and therefore becomes immobile. However, in acidic soils, nickel becomes more mobile and can reach groundwater.

Nickel is not a cumulative toxic but local. It is known as allergic skin especially during contact [10], [11].

4. Conclusion.

Temperature plays an important role in the evaporation of water and varies with the air temperature and the depth of the water level relative to the ground surface. The temperature of surface waters (13.2 ° C) is below the norm (< 25 °C) and is less marked than that of surface water (wells) (mean 21.02 ° C).

pH determines the alkalinity or acidity of water. The acidic pH of surface waters (Meboudja river) (2.1) is probably due to the effect of discharges of steel complex Arcelor Mittal Steal (El-Hajar) indicates heavy pollution of this water by waste acidic and basic. By cons, for surface water (average 7.33), the pH is close to the natural values (7.15 <pH <7.90).

The conductivity is related to the presence of ionic species in solution. The conductivity of water in the river of Meboudja is high (2500 p.S/cm). This is due to the contributions of salt water lake Fetzara. Against by the conductivity of the surface water (well) show relatively low values (686 - 1360 p.S/cm) and all the measured water points beyond the accepted standard for power and even water for irrigation water.

The content of dissolved oxygen in the Meboudja river (1.3 mg/1) is below the standard (3mg/l). This is probably due to the effect of industrial waste that decrease the oxygen values.

Are observed above the recommended standards values, this is probably due to the nature of the discharges steel complex Arcelor Mittal. These releases are a real danger on the water quality of the shallow water table due to the high concentrations and flow of the discharge (12 1/s).

Ferrous and non-ferrous metal waste is deposited directly on the alluvial aquifer without any protection from the table. More waste metals (Iron, Copper, Lead, Chromium, Nickel) are stored on vulnerable sites (aquifers) and present a major threat to the water quality of the surface water table because of the possibility of alteration and training of these metals contaminated by the effect of rainfall, which will produce an infiltration of ions to the waters of the aquifer.

References.

[1] Varej Jacques, BRGM. Communication conference, health- environment, hidden risks. 29 September 1999, Paris, France.

[2] Debièche T. H. Evolution of water quality (salinity, nitrogen and et heavy metals) under the effect of saline pollution, agricultural and industrial. Application to the low plain of Seybouse, North-East Algerian. PhD thesis. UFR of Sciences et Techniques of Franche-Comté, France, 2002, 199 p.

[3] Maximum permissible standards of water intended for human comsumption in the counsel of the European communities of 15 July 1980 in Rodier, 1996.

[4] BRGM. Surface water guideline values corresponding to the mandatory values A.l of decree of 03 January 1989 in managing potentially polluted sites, version 1, Edition June 1997.

[5] Miguel Gérard, The effects of heavy metals on the environment and health. Information report n°261, 2000/2001.

[6] Abiven R., Hydrochemical study of iron and manganese in the alluvial aquifer of Avignon (Vaucluse). PhD thesis, 1986, Univ. Avignon, 133 p.

[7] CREDES, The study ofthe impact on the environment, 1998, final report, 74 p.

[8] Hamzaoui.W, Characterization ofwater pollution in industrial and urban : «case ofthe plain of El-Hadjar», Magister memory, 2007, UBM, ANNABA. 102 p.

[9] Louhi A., Water pollution and soil. Case ofthe plain of Annaba, Study ofinterference and dosage of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Sn, V et Hg by emission spectrometry Plasma-ARC (CPAES), atomic absorption (SAA) and spectrophotometry UV/VIS., PhD thesis.1996, Univ. Annaba, 167p.

[10] Perdrix E. «speciation of atmospheric particles», school of mine of Douai - Dpt. Chimestry and environment, study n°4, December 2000.

[11] INERIS, Toxicological and environmental data sheet, «Nickel and its derivatives». Version n°l.