Scholarly article on topic 'Historical and Sociolinguistic Aspects of Use of Anglicisms in the Kazakh Language'

Historical and Sociolinguistic Aspects of Use of Anglicisms in the Kazakh Language Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Dosym Baidrakhmanov, Gulzhan Doszhan

Abstract The paper investigates the use of Anglicisms in Kazakh Language, focusing on the similarities and differences in their adoption and adaptation to the language system. In this regard, it is important to research the historical conditions of penetration of Anglicisms and describe lexical-semantic spheres of their use. Functions of this intensively growing lexical group reflect a wide range of social-political and cultural-humanitarian processes occurring in modern society. This active layer of lexical system of language, on the one hand, bears evidence of scientific and technical progress in Kazakhstan involved in the process of globalization, on the other hand, the problem of Anglicisms is an interesting object for sociolinguistic analysis. The conducted historical and sociolinguistic analysis allows us to draw a conclusion about changes both conceptual and the linguistic worldview of Kazakh people, about the new phenomena in its social and economic life, demanding language fixing.

Academic research paper on topic "Historical and Sociolinguistic Aspects of Use of Anglicisms in the Kazakh Language"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 190 (2015) 346 - 352

2nd GLOBAL CONFERENCE on PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCHES, 28-29, November 2014

Historical and Sociolinguistic Aspects of Use of Anglicisms in the

Kazakh Language

Dosym Baidrakhmanov a, Gulzhan Doszhan a*

aL.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 5 Munaitpassov Str., Astana, 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan

Abstract

The paper investigates the use of Anglicisms in Kazakh Language, focusing on the similarities and differences in their adoption and adaptation to the language system. In this regard, it is important to research the historical conditions of penetration of Anglicisms and describe lexical-semantic spheres of their use. Functions of this intensively growing lexical group reflect a wide range of social-political and cultural-humanitarian processes occurring in modern society. This active layer of lexical system of language, on the one hand, bears evidence of scientific and technical progress in Kazakhstan involved in the process of globalization, on the other hand, the problem of Anglicisms is an interesting object for sociolinguistic analysis. The conducted historical and sociolinguistic analysis allows us to draw a conclusion about changes both conceptual and the linguistic worldview of Kazakh people, about the new phenomena in its social and economic life, demanding language fixing. © 2015TheAuthors.Publishedby Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center. Keywords: Anglicisms, Kazakh language, linguistic worldview, globalization.

1. Introduction

The main object of this paper is to explore the new lexical items in the contemporary Kazakh language borrowed from English, ways of their dissemination and sphere of use in the accepted language.

The urgency of the topic of this paper is conditioned by insufficient research of lexical borrowings from English language from the viewpoint of their number, content, extent and peculiarities of their adaptation or assimilation into Kazakh language. These phenomena can be connected with the processes of globalization fixed at lexical level of many languages being under the influence of American-British culture, and, in particular, with intensification of penetration of English-American words into Kazakh lexical system. Their sociolinguistic reasons are not sufficiently

* Gulzhan Doszhan. Tel.: +7 702 666 0815 E-mail address: gul2005@list.ru

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.05.009

studied. That is why the systematization, unification and standardization of Anglicisms require a special importance for functioning of literary norms of Kazakh language.

2. Theoretical and methodological basis for analysis

The theoretic and methodological basis of the study include works of modern linguists on general and Turkic linguistics, on theory of borrowings, on sociolinguistics, prepared by using materials about languages of various system. The theoretical basis was prepared based on ideas and views of such scientists as Winford (2003), Sebastian (2008), Keenan (2003), Fromkin (1978), Baskakov (1988), Lotte (1961), Akhatov (1987), Brendemoen (1998), Haugen (1950), Baitursynov (1926), S. Kenesbayev (1962), K. Zhubanov (1966), Akhanov (1973), Aitbayev (2007), Kurmanbaiuly (2009), Kul-Mukhammed (2011) as well as papers of other linguists involved with problems of interlinguistic contacts.

To solve the tasks assigned in this paper, we used descriptive and comparative methods: the first one was used for selection and classification of language materials, the second one was used as the basis to establish lexical and semantic interlinguistic ties between lexical items; method of componential analysis was used to fix the limits of subject of study; methods of classification and systematization were also used in this paper as well as methods of linguistic observation and correlation in diachronic aspect.

The method of content analysis was used to define the main spheres of functioning of Anglicisms and their semantic assimilation in the Kazakh language. Besides, to guarantee the reliability of results of the study, the sociolinguistic method for correlation of linguistic and social phenomena was taken into account in the process of preparation of this paper.

3. A Brief History of Development of Lexical Fund of Kazakh Language

As the modern Kazakh scientist Kul-Mukhammed noted: «Language and nation are inseparable concepts, and therefore a language's ups and downs naturally depend on the vitality of the people creating it. The language of growing and developing nation is thriving, where in a dying nation the language disappears. The linguistic theory has long had an eerie term «dead languages» including not only the languages of small nations and tribes, but also great ones in terms of their place and role in the history of planetary civilization, like Sanskrit, Coptic, Avestan, Hun and even Latin. While calling these languages absolutely hopeless and lifeless would not be quite true: despite the fact that they have long fallen into disuse and no one speaks them, these languages are the progenitors, historical antecedents and fertile ground for many new and modern languages» (Kul-Mukhammed 2011).

It was recorded in written manuscripts that the Kazakh language was in long and close contact with other languages, mainly Turkic, Arabic, Russian and nowadays English. The great influx of borrowings from these sources can be accounted for by a number of historical causes. The character and number of borrowings tell us about the relations between the peoples, the level of their culture etc.

The historical periods given on the following table explain the main ethnopolitical and sociolinguistic transformations which occurred in those times of the history of Kazakhstan and the results of dynamic shift of foreign languages in communication space of this state.

Table 1. Chronology of relative importance in functioning of lexical items of foreign origin in Kazakhstan

№ Pre -1731 1731-1917 1917-1940 1940-1991 After 1991

1 Persian Arabic Russian Russian English

2 Arabic Persian Arabic English Russian

3 Mongolian Russian French French Turkish

4 Mongolian German German Arabic

5 English Arabic German

6 French

7 Chinese

For example, in 1731 Kazakhstan began joining into the Russian Empire; 1917 is marked by establishment of the Soviet Union; and in 1917-1940 the transition of alphabet of majority languages of the USSR from Arab into a Latin graphic is fulfilled; and 1940 the basis of Kazakh alphabet changed from Latin into Cyrillic; in 1940-1991 in Kazakhstan the russification policy of USSR amplified and the ethnodemographic situation of the republic changed in favor of Slavic ethnoses, Kazakhs became minority to the aboriginal homeland; and 1991 Kazakhstan became the independent state and the process of nation-building began.

As we see on the table, such foreign languages as Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, and Russian gradually conceded their places to the European languages and as a result of this sociolinguistic process, in the beginning of XXI century, English language became the main source of borrowing of the Kazakh language.

National lexical fund of Kazakh language is rich in vernacular words. But the policy of Russification of the Soviet Union principally changed the functional nature and main terminological norms and alphabetic system of Kazakh language. This is evidenced by opinion of the scientist A.Y. Musorin: «The languages of peoples of the former USSR can be considered as the language union. Long coexistence of this language within the framework of one multinational state and the immense pressure on them by Russian resulted in common features at all levels of their language system. Thus, such previously missed phonemes as [$], [x], [^ appeared in Udmurt influenced by Russian, many adjectives in Komi-Permyak started to be used with the suffix «-oboh» (Russian: -obbih, -OBaa, -oBoe), and the types of complex sentences previously missed inTuvinian were developed.

Lexis was significantly affected by the Russian language. Almost the whole socio-political and scientific terminological system in the languages of people of the former USSR was borrowed from Russian or developed under its strong influence. Only languages of the Baltic States - Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian - are exceptions. The corresponding terminological systems had been developed in these languages in many ways before Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia entered into a part of the USSR» (Musorin 2004, p. 196).

For the last 24 years the diapason of social functions of Kazakh language is considerably extended. That is why the lexical structure of Kazakh language is changed. These changes are closely connected with political, social, technical and cultural spheres of Kazakhstan. In this regard the lexical fund of the mentioned language is filled with international words. Especially professional lexis and terminological system are being intensively developed, political-social terminology is being formed, the meanings of many terms and loan words are being extended, and cultural, scientific, economical and other new words (neologisms) are appeared.

We have taken this brief trip in the history of Kazakh language for the sole purpose of reminding once again that a language has a full-blooded life and develops only if it enjoys protection and support of its people - its creator and speakers.

4. Sociolinguistic Aspects of Use of Anglicisms in Kazakh language in the Period of Globalization

The end of XX and beginning of XXI centuries were marked in the world by dramatically intensified globalization process. World community experiences a complex stage of all social processes which in particular is conditioned also by the development of information technologies. Globalization covered economic, political and cultural spheres of the society. This phenomenon is discussed in all branches of modern science: sociology, culturology, political science, and, of course, in linguistics.

In this connection, K. Khanazarov, a well-known scientist on linguistic philosophy, considers that «Globalization is an objective process which by no means is aimed at causing damage to the existing languages. However, it breaks the basis of languages by its speed-up and expansion, destroys the foundation on which thousands of languages are based especially languages of small nations, folks, tribes and ethnic groups» (Khanazarov, 2007, p. 134).

English is a motive power of globalization and information therefore it is called «global language». One of the criterions of globalization of English is quickly spreading Anglicisms which bear valuable installations of the West European culture. In this way the world and national mass media is a kind of distributer of Anglicisms in all languages.

Kazakh is a state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan. According to the statistical evaluations, about 12 mln. people speak Kazakh in the world, including over 9 mln. people - in Kazakhstan, 2 mln. - in other CIS countries, 1,5 mln. - in China. Besides, Kazakh language is widespread in Mongolia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey,

Germany, etc. Thus, it can be noted that the world has significant potential audience of the users of information in Kazakh among which 25% live beyond Kazakhstan (Seilov and Zhumanov, 2008).

Kazakh language is included in Kypchak group (North-east areal) of Turkic languages (Tatar, Bashkir, Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, Karaim, Crimean Tatar, Karakalpak, Nogai) and closest to Nogai and Karakalpak. As is known, Kypchak areal covers Kazakhstan, part of Eastern Europe - Northern Crimea, lower reaches of Volga, Northern Caucasia, part of Khoresm, Kara-Kalpak and part of Uzbekistan.

In the Kazakh grammar there is a set of distinctive features, but the main peculiarity is that the Kazakhs, living in the enormous territory, being the divided long distances speak in one language, i.e. without dialects.

Kazakh standard language has the extensive lexical fund and developed system of word-building and formbuilding means that enabled to express the considerable part of notions reflecting new social phenomenon in different fields of science, engineering, production, culture, informatization, etc. using the means of Kazakh itself.

To understand the nature of Kazakh vocabulary and its historical development, it is necessary to study etymology of various words of vocabulary, historical reasons of their form, volume and role, comparative importance of native and borrowed elements in replenishing Kazakh vocabulary.

Kazakh written language was changed significantly. Thus, it was based on the Arabic script till 1929, Latin script prevailed from 1929 to 1940 and Russian script (Cyrillic alphabet) is being used since up to date. In 1940, due to the shifting from Kazakh alphabet to the Cyrillic one, Russian language had become one and only conductor of international vocabulary, the borrowed words were managed and their source that controlled the pronunciation and writing could be Russian language only.

The problem of changing graphical basis of Kazakh alphabet is being discussed in the modern Kazakhstan society for more than 20 years. In this regard, opinions of the Kazakh scientists have been divided into 4 groups. A group of the scientists thinks that the graphical basis of Kazakh alphabet should be remaining unchanged while the second group supports the transition to the Latin graphic. The third group of experts considers it is reasonable to change the graphical basis of alphabet to the Arabic one that was specifically modified for Kazakh language by Akhmet Baytursynov. The fourth group of the scientists (very few) considers necessary to revive classic Turkic written language. In recent times, the dominant part of society thinks that the graphical basis of Kazakh alphabet should be changed into Latin alphabet.

In this regard, December 14, 2012 in the Address to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy Kazakhstan 2050: New Political Course of the Established State» the President N. Nazarbayev declared: «From 2025 we need to modernize our language to use Latin fonts and a Latin alphabet. For the sake of the future of our children we should make this decision and create it as a condition of entry for our wider global integration. This will enable our children to have a better understanding of the English language, the internet and reinforce our desire to modernize the Kazakh language

We should conduct modernization of Kazakh language. It is necessary to make the language modern, to look for consensus in terminology issues, forever resolving the issues of translating international and foreign words into Kazakh language. These issues should not be resolved by a circle of solitary figures. The Government should resolve this» (Nazarbayev, 2012).

As we have mentioned above, the phonetics of the Kazakh language has undergone strong changes under the influence of Russian. Works of the Kazakh linguists testify to it, in particular, researches of the prominent expert on phonetics of the Kazakh language, as Alimkhan Zhunisbekov. He believes that transition of the Kazakh language into Latin graphic will lead to recovery of actually Kazakh phonetics.

Since the time Kazakhstan gained its independence, social, political, scientific, technological, spiritual and humanitarian life of the country has undergone tremendous changes. Whole classes of new concepts and terms in different areas of life were formed and came into use. Information technology has quickly ushered in daily practice. Uncontrollable winds of globalization have roiled the language ocean and unprecedentedly sped up the process of cross-language interchange. All this has naturally led to the enrichment and replenishment of Kazakh language in terms of its vocabulary stock. The time was ripe for a new explanatory dictionary of modern Kazakh literary language, and the state specifically articulated and put this task as a national requirement before the government and scientists.

In 2002, the Ministry of culture, information and public accord in collaboration with the Institute of Linguistics under the National academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan started work on these important projects of

nationwide significance. It was successfully completed in 2011 and resulted in a 15-volume Dictionary of the Kazakh literary language.

In 15 volumes of the Dictionary of Kazakh literary language there are 92 300 words and 57 856 phrases, which together account for more than 150 thousand lexical units. The dictionary explained 166 612 lexical meanings. In fact, this is a concrete contribution of the current generation of Kazakhs to the cause of careful preservation of linguistic heritage of their ancestors and full ordering and scientific classification, subject to a great purpose - to pass this centuries-old baggage to the young (Kul-Mukhammed ,2011).

Since the Independence and up to date, the basic language for borrowing the words in Kazakh is English. English words have been securely adapted in terminology in all spheres of social life of Kazakhstan: from diplomatic relations to everyday oral communication. Percentage ratio of vernacular and international words in Kazakh has not been studied yet. Firstly, the borrowing is a long process, secondly, the etymological dictionaries are not enough. The scientists still debate the translation of international terms into Kazakh language. In this connection, the linguist Aygerim Hudaybergenova noted: «The basic requirement to borrowing the terms is not to use alien word if the native language has already had familiar and motivated term with similar meaning. It is desirable to fill the terminological lexical gaps with available international words. In case of unequal level of motivation of the synonymous terms, the preference shall be given to the most motivated terms» (Hudaybergenova 2003, p. 28).

We have done the content analyses to the materials of Kazakh-language mass media and lexicographical literature which demonstrated that Anglicisms are often used in such spheres as: economics, policy, education, medicine, information technologies, art, sports, show business, mass-media etc.

Table 2. Anglicisms in Kazakh Language

№ Functioning spheres Anglicisms

1. Education университет (university); институт (institute); факультет (faculty);

силабус (syllabus); лекция (lecture); ректор (rector); директор (director); доктор (doctor); профессор (professor); диплом (diploma); грант (grant); тест (test); курс (course); технология (technology); инновация (innovation); стандарт (standard); сертификат (certificate); конференция (conference); эдвайзер (advisor); супервайзер (supervisor); тэзис (thesis) etc.

2. Informational technologies компьютер (computer); диск (disk); модем (modem); интернет

(internet); чат (chat); сканер (scanner); ксерокс ^erox); символ (symbol); флешка (flash card); монитор (monitor); бит (bit); байт (byte); алгоритм (algorithm); факс (fax); скайп (skype); блог (blog); дисплей (display); файл (file); интерфейс (interface); принтер (printer); браузер (browser); сайт (site); веб-сайт (website); портал (portal); плейер (player); драйвер (driver); чат (chat); фейсбук (facebook); ватцап (WhatsApp), etc.

атлетика (athletics); акробатика (acrobatics); аутсайдер (outsider); бокс (box); бейсбол (baseball); гольф (golf); футбол (football); волейбол (voleyball); гандбол (handball); винд-серфинг (windsurfing) сноубординг (snowboarding) теннис (tennis) хоккей (hockey) нокаут (knock-out); нокдаун (nock down); рекорд (record); снайпер (sniper), etc. хит (hit); пиар (PR - public relations); интервью (interview); альбом (album); номинация (nomination); шоу (show); шоумен (showman); шоу бизнес (show business); триллер (thriller); блокбастер (blockbuster); бестцеллер (besttseller); видео (video); видеоклип (videoclip) etc. пресс-конференция (press conference); брифинг (briefing); журналист (journalist); журналистика (journalism); интервью (interview); интервьюер (interviewer); репортер (reporter); журнал (journal); радио

3. Sports

4. Show business

5. Mass-media

(radio); пиар (PR — public relations); спикер (speaker), фото (photo); фотосалон (photo salon); фотосессия (photo session); дискотека (disco); клуб (club); диджей (диск-жокей) (DJ); имидж (image); имиджмейкер (image maker); мейкап (make-up); спонсор (sponsor); детектор (detector); дайджест (digest); масс-медиа (mass media); офис-менеджер (office-manager) etc.

агент (agent); акция (action); аудит (audit); аудитор (auditor); банк (bank); банкир (banker); бартер (barter); бенефициар (beneficiary); бренд (brand); бюджет (budget); брокер (broker); ваучер (voucher); дилер (dealer); дистрибьютер (distributor); дефольт (default); фирма (firm); менеджмент (management); менеджер (manager); инфляция (inflation); бизнес (business); маркетинг (marketing); дебитор (debtor); депозит (deposit); депозитор (depositor); кредит (credit); кредитор (creditor); экономика (economy); индоссамент (endorsement); индекс (index); импорт (import); экспорт (export); супермаркет (supermarket); гипермаркет (hypermarket); капитал (capital); консалтинг (consulting); инвестиция (investment); инвестор (investor); холдинг (holding); компания (company); индустрия (industry), etc.

президент (president); парламент (parliament); сенат (senate); премьер -министр (prime-minister); декларация (declaration); делегат (delegate);департамент (department); дипломат (diplomat); кандидат (candidate); оппозиция (opposition); стратегия (strategy); конгресс (congress); автономия (autonomy); комитет (committee);

демонстрация (demonstration); депутат (deputation); конституция (constitution); партия (party); реформа (reform), etc.

As we see in the table, considerable part of the Anglicisms in Kazakh is used in nominative function. Semantics peculiar for these words in Russian is transferred into Kazakh languge. During penetrating the borrowed word in new linguistic sphere, the aspiration to convey their semantics through explanation is observed as it is incomprehensible for speakers of the borrowing language.

In 2007, the cultural project «Trilingualism» was approved after the Message of the President Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «A New Kazakhstan in a New World», where he emphasized: «Kazakhstan must be perceived throughout the world as a highly-educated country, whose population employs three languages: the Kazakh language - as a state language, Russian - as a language of international communication and English -language of successful integration into the global economy». Undoubtedly, there were also supporters, and opponents of this idea. For example, one of the supporters of this program, the dean of philological faculty of the Kazakh National University Khanseit Abdezuly estimated this project as one of the main priorities of a state policy (Abdezuly 2007).

The project titled «Trilingualism» underwent a rigid criticism by some of the Kazakh intellectuals. On November 26, 2009 known figures of culture, the editors-in-chief of the republic editions, representatives of the scientific intelligentsia, and also heads of public organizations - signed by 124-people, with support declared more than 5 thousand citizens, subsequently to policy of «Trilingualism» the Kazakh language will gradually die out, Russian and English languages will occupy a dominating and progressing role.

In this regard a neutral point of view is held by William Fierman, professor of Central Eurasian Studies of Indiana University (USA). Here is what he said to Kazakh journalists in response to the question on how he views the Kazakhstan president's initiative for implementing «Trilingualism» in the country: «In my opinion, this idea is a correct one, and will promote the development of the state. It is too early, however, to speak of trilingualism in Kazakhstan. At present your country has one prevailing language - Russian. Even though according to the Constitution Kazakh is the state language. In my opinion, in contemporary Kazakhstan the Kazakh language must begin to play a greater role, particularly in the cities, as it has always prevailed in the villages. For example, the

6. Economy and business

7. Policy and society

Kazakh language is not often used in the east and the north of the country, unlike the south and the south-east. English, oddly enough, has very quickly begun to occupy a significant place in Kazakhstan, which is a very positive trend» (Fierman, 2008).

Summarizing aforesaid theses, it is necessary to note that, borrowing is an inevitable language process. The borrowed words enrich any language and can help to replenish vocabulary with the borrowed words. Any language, including Kazakh and other Turkic languages shall borrow the missing words and certain terms from the other languages. It was estimated that a number of the vernacular words in English vocabulary is only 30%, and the borrowed words in English can be found in about 500 languages.

5.Conclusion

Studying the process of mastering of the Anglicisms in Kazakh language, the following trends can be noted:

1. The most of Anglicisms in Kazakh language were borrowed through Russian.

2. The most of Anglicisms in Kazakh language were borrowed through semantic assimilation.

It was found out that the most of the borrowed words in Kazakh language are the international words, i.e. the units of international lexical fund.

In spite of the fact that the problem of borrowings always drew attention of linguists to itself, the sociolinguistic nature of Anglicisms, i.e. processes of emergence, dissemination and functioning of English words and their meanings in system of the Kazakh language - still needs the complex studying.

The most important reasons for penetration and use of the words borrowed from English in modern Kazakh have extralinguistic nature. However, intralinguistic factors aren't an exception. Owing to distinctions of graphic bases of the alphabets and pronunciation norms of Kazakh language, the level of phonetic, grammatical and semantic assimilation of loan words in these languages are not identical. Because of incomplete morphophonological and graphic adaptation of loan words, it becomes clear that in the Kazakh language national coloring, phonetic and orthographic norms are partly changed. This problem can be solved by the systematization of national terminological fund and transition into the Latin graphic.

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