Scholarly article on topic 'Validated RP-HPLC method for determining the levels of bromhexine HCl, chlorpheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and guaiphenesin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms'

Validated RP-HPLC method for determining the levels of bromhexine HCl, chlorpheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and guaiphenesin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Chemical sciences, author of scientific article — Vishal Jain, Mukesh C. Sharma

Abstract A simple, precise and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of bromhexine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and guaiphenesin in their tablet dosage form. The chromatographic conditions were standardised using a Chromatopak C18 (25cm×4.6mm i.d.×5μm) with UV detection at 265nm, and the mobile phase consisted of methanol:acetonitrile:0.025M phosphate buffer (50:25:25, v/v/v). The retention times of bromhexine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and guaiphenesin were 16.254min, 12.219min, 6.156min and 9.432min, respectively. The calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients of 0.9987, 0.9988, 0.9981 and 0.9981 over a concentration range of 4.0–24.0μg/ml for bromhexine hydrochloride, 5.0–30.0μg/ml for chlorpheniramine maleate, and 10.0–60.0μg/ml for both dextromethorphan hydrobromide and guaiphenesin, respectively. The proposed method has been validated according to the ICH guidelines and was successfully applied to estimate the levels of four drugs in a combined formulation with good accuracy and precision.

Academic research paper on topic "Validated RP-HPLC method for determining the levels of bromhexine HCl, chlorpheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and guaiphenesin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms"

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Title: Validated RP-HPLC Method for determination of Bromhexine HCl, Chlorpheniramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Guaiphenesin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Author: Vishal Jain Mukesh C. Sharma

PII: DOI:

Reference:

S1658-3655(15)00063-1

http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jtusci.2015.02.019 JTUSCI 172

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Received date: Revised date: Accepted date:

15-11-2014

7-2-2015

15-2-2015

Please cite this article as: Vishal, Validated RP-HPLC Method for determination of Bromhexine HCl, Chlorpheniramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Guaiphenesin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Journal of Taibah University for Science (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2015.02.019

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Validated RP-HPLC Method for determination of Bromhexine HCl, Chlorpheniramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Guaiphenesin in

Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Vishal Jain and Mukesh C. Sharma*

* School of Pharmacy, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Takshashila Campus, Indore (M P.) 452001, India

* Corresponding Author

E-mail: vishaljain.sop9849@gmail.com, mukeshcsharma@yahoo.com

Abstract

A simple, precise and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Bromhexine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and Guaiphenesin in their tablet dosage form. The chromatographic conditions were standardized using Chromatopak C18 (25cm*4.6mm i.d.*5^m) with UV detection at 265 nm and mobile phase consisting of methanol: acetonitrile: 0.025 M phosphate buffer (50: 25: 25 v/v/v). The retention times of Bromhexine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and Guaiphenesin have been found to be 16.254 min, 12.219 min, 6.156 min and 9.432 min respectively. Calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficient 0.9987, 0.9988, 0.9981 and 0.9981 over a concentration range of 4.0 |ig/ml-24.0 |ig/ml for Bromhexine hydrochloride, 5.0-30.0 |ig/ml for Chlorpheniramine maleate, 10.0-60.0 |ig/ml for both Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and Guaiphenesin respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per guideline of ICH and successfully applied to the estimation of four drugs in combined formulation to the determination of the examined drugs with good accuracy and precision.

Keywords: RP-HPLC, Bromhexine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide, Guaiphenesin, ICH guideline

1. Introduction

Combinations of decongestant, and antihistaminic, preparations are widely used for cough and cold treatment. Bromhexine HCl (Fig:1), chemically named 2-amino-3, 5-dibromo-N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl benzenemethanamine hydrochloride, is a mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus [1,2]. Its mechanism is by increasing the production of serous mucus in the respiratory tract and makes the phlegm thinner and less viscous. Bromhexine HCl (BROM) is a mucous modifying drug helps to improve the flow properties of bronchial mucous and eases expectoration. A literature survey reveals some HPLC methods reported for the simultaneous determination of along with some other active ingredients which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixture [3], liquid chromatography [4], liquid gas chromatography [5], Gas Chromatography with mass detection [6], combined formulations using HPLC [7-9] and UV spectrophotometry [10-13]. Chlorpheniramine maleate (CHL), 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-pyridyl)-N,N-dimethyl propylamine (Fig:1), is a powerful first-generation alkyl amine antihistamine, H1-receptor antagonist, widely used for symptomatic relief of common cold and allergic rhinitis, with weak sedative properties [14]. These symptoms include rash, watery eyes, itchy eyes, throat, cough, and sneezing. It is also effective against nausea and motion sickness, with its primary mechanism of action being its ability to reduce acetylcholine levels in the brain. Literature survey shows that several HPLC methods have been reported for chlorpheniramine maleate single and in combinations in pharmaceuticals liquid chromatographic [15-17], HPTLC [18], spectrophotometry [19] and micellar electrokinetic chromatography [20]. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX), [(+)-3-Methoxy-17-methyl-9a, 13a, 14a morphinan hydrobromide monohydrate] is a cough suppressant, used for the relief of non-productive cough; it has a central action on the cough centre in the medulla [21]. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) is an antitussive drug and used for pain relief and psychological applications [22]. The chemical structures of DEX are shown in Fig: 1. The combination of these drugs is used as antitussive and mucolytic in bronchitis and chronic pulmonary conditions. Several analytical techniques have been reported in the literature, most commonly liquid chromatography [23-24], first and second-derivative technique UV spectrophotometric [25-27] capillary electrophoresis [28] Gas Chromatography [29]. Guaiphenesin (GUA; Fig: 1) is (2RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propane-1, 2-diol [30], it is reported to increase the volume and reduce the viscosity of tenacious sputum and is used as an expectorant for productive cough. It is the glyceryl ether of guaiacol (a constituent of guaiac resin from the wood of Guajacum officinale Linne), it act as expectorant by increasing the

volume and reducing the viscosity of secretions in the trachea and bronchi. It is the component of numerous cough cold preparations available worldwide. Also it has been given to patients with altered nasal mucociliary clearance associated with HIV infection [31]. The literature survey revealed that some techniques have been published for the determination of Guaifenesin either in their combined form or in combinations with other drugs by capillary gas chromatography [32], HPLC [33], LC-MS [34], LC-MS/MS [35-36].

There is no method reported for the simultaneous estimation of Bromhexine hydrochloride (BROM), Chlorpheniramine maleate (CHL), Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and Guaiphenesin (GUA) in combined dosage form. Therefore, communicate here rapid and cost-effective quality-control tool and reliable method for simultaneous assay of these four drugs in mixture seemed to be necessary. The method should have sufficient accuracy and precision and permit a simple and time-saving assay of BROM - CHL - DEX and GUA in mixtures.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Apparatus

To develop a suitable LC method for the analysis of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in their combined dosage form, different mobile phases were tried. The Chromatographic system consists of pump (Shimadzu LC 10AT VP ) with universal loop injector (Rheodyne 7725i) of injection capacity 20 |iL. Detector consists of photodiode array detector (PDA) SPD-10 AVP UV-Visible detector and column used was Chromatopak C18 (25cm*4.6mm i.d.*5^m). The equipment was controlled by a PC work station equipped with software CLASS M 10-VP software (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). UV/Visible double beam spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Model 1700) was employed with spectral bandwidth of 1nm and wavelength accuracy of 0.3 nm (with automatic wavelength correction with a pair of 1cm matched quartz cells). 2.2. Reagents and Materials

Pure drugs sample BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA were generously obtained as a gift sample from TABLIKE and SCHON Pharmaceutical, Indore, India. The tablet doses form, MARICOF, (Label claim: 8.0 mg BROM, 2.0 mg CHL, 10.0 mg DEX and 100.0 mg GUA) was procured from the local market (Manufactured by G.S. Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Roorkee, India). HPLC grade methanol and acetonitrile were obtained from Merck (Mumbai, India).

2.3 Chromatography conditions

The solubility of the four drugs indicated that reversed phase chromatographic method would be best option for simultaneous estimation of BROM, CHL, DEX, and GUA. The mobile phase consists of organic phase methanol, acetonitrile and 0.025M phosphate buffer in the ratio of 50:25:25 (v/v/v adjusted to pH 5.5 using orthophosphoric acid). Mobile phase and working solutions were filtered through 0.2 pm nylon and degassed using sonicator before use. To determine the appropriate wavelength for simultaneous determination of BROM, CHL, DEX, and GUA solutions of these compounds were scanned by UV-visible spectrophotometer in a range 200-400nm. From the overlain UV spectra suitable wavelength choices considered for monitoring these drugs was 265 nm.

2.4 Preparation of standard stock solutions

Standard stock solution of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA were prepared separately by dissolving accurately weighed 10.0 mg of each BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA (reference standard) transfer it to 20.0 ml of HPLC grade methanol in 100 ml volumetric flask. Sonicated in bath sonicator for 10 minutes to ensure complete solubilization. After sonication, the volume was made up to the mark 100 ml. with same solvent HPLC grade methanol, to result in a final concentration of 0.1 mg/ml (100pg/ml) of each reference standard.

A combined standard solution containing BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA were prepared by 160 mg, 40 mg, 200 mg and 2000 mg of each reference standard respectively and transferring it to 1000 ml volumetric flask and 200 ml of diluents (HPLC grade methanol) was added to the volume and sonicated in bath sonicator for 10 minutes to ensure complete solubilization. After sonication, the volume was made up to the mark 1000 ml. with same diluent, to result in a final concentrations of 160 pg/ml of BROM, 40 pg/ml of CHL, 2 pg/ml of DEX and 2000 pg/ml of GUA of each reference standard respectively.

2.5 Estimation from pharmaceutical dosage form

Twenty tablets of MERICOF were taken and calculated average weight of one tablet. They were homogenized to a fine powder and it was transferred to a 1000.0 ml volumetric flask and dissolved in 200.0 ml of diluents (HPLC grade methanol) and sonicated in bath sonicator for 20.0 minutes to ensure complete solubilization. After sonication, the supernatant liquid was transferred to 1000.0 ml of volumetric flask through whatmann paper no. #41 filters paper. The residue was washed three times with 10.0 ml portion of methanol and the combined filterate was made up to

the mark 1000.0 ml with the same diluents to result in a final concentration 160.0 |g/ml of BROM, 40.0 |g/ml of CHL, 2.0 |g/ml of DEX and 2000.0 |g/ml of GUA respectively.

A constant volume of sample solution was injected six times under the conditions described above. From the chromatogram it was found that BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA retention time 16.254, 12.219, 6.156 and 9.432 respectively with a resolution 3.15 between DEX and GUA, 2.72 between GUA and CHL, 3.98 between CHL and BROM. The result of capacity factor, tailing factor, theoretical plate number are reported in Table 1.The total runtime was 20 min. The peak areas were measured at 265 nm for BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA, respectively, and their concentrations in the samples were determined using multi-level calibration curve developed on the same HPLC system under the same conditions using linear regression equation.

2.6 Preparation of linearity solution

From the above standard stock solution 1, 100.0 |g/ml of each (BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA), different working standards were prepared for each drugs concentration 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 20.0 and 24.0 |g/ml for BROM, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 |g/ml for CHL, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0 and 60.0 |g/ml for DEX and GUA respectively for linearity determination. Six replicates of each different working standard were prepared for each drug. The peak areas were plotted against the corresponding concentrations to obtain the calibration graphs.

2.7 Analytical method validation

The method was validated for analytical procedures according to ICH guidelines in order to determine the linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy for the analyte. System suitability test of the chromatography system was performed before each validation run. Five replicate injections of a system suitability standard and one injection of a check standard were made. Regression characteristics, validation and system suitability parameters analysis of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in pharmaceutical dosage form are shown in Table 3.

2.7.1 Linearity:

The method was linear from 4.0 |g/ml - 24.0 |g/ml for BROM, 5.0 - 30.0 |g/ml for CHL, 10.0 - 60.0 |g/ml for both DEX and GUA respectively. The calibration curve was plotted using area vs. concentration each compound had R2 value of 0.9980 or greater.

2.7.2 Accuracy:

Recovery study of MERICOF was carried out as per ICH guidelines [37], where to a preanalyzed solution of tablet formulation, a known concentration of all four standards solutions was added that are equivalent to 80, 100, 120 % of total drug content and the % age recovery was calculated.

2.7.3 Precision:

The intra and inter day precision study of MERICOF were calculated by assay of sample solution (marketed formulation) on the same day and different days at different time in interval respectively. It was performed with at least six replicates of assay of sample solution. An amount of the sample powder equivalent to 100% of the label claim of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA was accurately weighed and assayed. Method repeatability was achieved by repeating the same procedure six times on the same day for intra-day precision. The intermediate (inter-day) precision of the method was checked by performing the same procedure on different days under the same experimental conditions.

2.7.4 Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation (LOD and LOQ):

The LOD and LOQ were calculated using the following equation as per ICH guidelines:

LOD=3 .3 X o /S, LOQ = 10 X o /S

Where is the standard deviation of -intercepts of regression lines and S is the slope of the

calibration curve.

For LOD and LOQ, 10.0 pg/ml. of all four standard solution were prepared from the 100.0 pg/ml of each standard stock 1 solution (BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA) 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 pg /ml working dilution for BROM and CHL, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3 pg/ml for working dilution DEX, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 pg/ml working dilution for GUA. LOD and LOQ values were calculated to check the detection limit of the method by using following equation:

2.7.5 Selectivity and Specificity:

A combination of methanol: acetonitrile: 0.025M phosphate buffer pH 5.5 ratio (50: 25: 25 v/v) was used as a specific mobile phase and 265.0 nm selected as a specific analytical wavelength for simultaneous determination of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in a marketed formulation (MERICOF) analysis in HPLC method. Specificity was assessed by a qualitative comparison between chromatograms obtained from sample, standard, blank and placebo solutions. Diluent was injected as a blank. Placebo (Fig:2) interference study was conducted by injecting placebo solution prepared from the excipients most commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations including starch, lactose monohydrate, and magnesium stearate.

3. Results and Discussion

A new, rapid, sensitive and accurate RP- HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Bromhexine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and Guaphenesine in Pharmaceutical formulation has been developed. After trying different column, the final choice of the stationary phase giving satisfactory resolution and run time was the reversed phase column C18 cromatopack Peerless (250.0 mm. X 4.6 mm. X 5^m. i.d). There were many mobile phases that tried to resolve all four chromatographic peaks, in that first with simple methanol: water (80: 20, v/v), methanol: water (50:50, v/v), but found broadness of peaks and could not get satisfactory results in these chromatograms. To improve these, with phosphate buffer and for sharpness of chromatographic peaks we worked with acetonitrile with slightly acidic condition. Finally, the mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile: 0.025 M phosphate buffer (50: 25:25, v/v/v) (pH: 5.5) adjusted with O-phosphoric acid was found to be satisfactory which gave four symmetric peaks for BROM - CHL - DEX and GUA. Total run time was 20 minutes at a 1.0 ml min-i and ambient temperature. The retention times of Bromhexine Hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Guaiphenesin have been found to be 16.254 min, 12.219 min, 6.156 min and 9.432 min (Fig:3) respectively. The best fit for the calibration curve could be achieved by a linear regression equation, which was found to be y = 9040x + 9993 (BROM), y = 9579x - 308 (CHL), y = 25935x + 25500 (DEX) and y = 34255x + 14194 (GUA) separately by plotting a calibration curve of peak area against their respective concentration. The proposed method was evaluated in the assay of formulation containing BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA. Four replicate determinations were carried out on capsules. % assay found was 100.45 % for BROM, for 100.25 % CHL, for DEX 99.88 % and that for GUA was, 100.56 %. Under the proposed chromatographic condition all four drugs were completely separated from each other with a resolution 3.15 between DEX and GUA, 2.72

between GUA and CHL and 3.98 between CHL and BROM. It indicates that the method is selective for simultaneous estimation. Specificity was assessed by comparing the chromatogram of tablet solution with the placebo solution and also with the chromatograms obtained from standard drugs. As the retention time of all four drugs were same in quaternary mixed standard solution's well as marketed formulation (MERICOF) solution and also there was no interference found of excipients. It indicates the specificity of the method for quantitative estimation of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in marketed formulation (Table 2). The recoveries of the all component were found between 99.0-102%. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 21.49 and 65.13 ng ml-1, 29.17 and 88.39 ng ml-1, 11.65 and 35.51 ng ml-1 , 8.1 and 24.57 ng ml-1 for BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA respectively Table 2. No interference of the excipients with the peaks of interest appeared; hence the proposed method is applicable for the routine simultaneous estimation of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

4. Conclusion:

In the present work a successful attempt for simultaneous analysis of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in a single marketed formulation (MERICOF) by RP-HPLC method were performed by laboratory research experiment based on literature survey. All of the critical steps in method development have been summarized and prioritized. In order to develop a RP-HPLC method effectively, most of the effort should be spent in method development and optimization as this will improve the final method performance. The method validation, however, should be treated as an exercise to summarize or document the overall method performance for its intended purpose. Thus the present method is rapid, easy and accurate for the simultaneous estimation of BROM, CHL, DEX and GUA in a commercially available pharmaceutical formulation.

5. Acknowledgement:

The authors are thankful to TABLIKE and SCHON Pharmaceutical Jumbu Di Hapsi Hatod Road, Indore, M.P, for providing gift samples. One of author VJ thanks the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi, India, for the financial support for this research. We are grateful to referee to given valuable suggestion.

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BTl 7i fii IE

Table 1: Data for the evaluation of the system suitability

Property Bx HCl CPM Dx HBr GPH

R ' 16.254 12.219 6.156 9.432

Tf 1.09 1.04 1.13 1.29

K' 1.562 1.217 1.764 4.571

N 6359 1276 4925 18743

Rs 3.98 2.72 0.00 3.15

R, retention time; Tf, tailing factor; k\ capacity factor; N, number of theoretical plates Rs,

resolution

Table 2: Results from assay of the marketed formulation

Drug Label claim (mg/tab) n=6 Amount found (mg/tab) Label claim (%) S.D. S.E. % COV

Bx HCl 8 8.0365 100.45 0.5902 0.2410 0.5875

CPM 2 2.0052 100.25 1.2891 0.5263 1.2858

Dx HBr 10 9.9887 99.88 0.7494 0.3059 0.7502

GPH 100 100.5601 100.56 0.7991 0.3262 0.7946

S.D- standard deviation; COV- coefficient of variance; S.E- standard error; n- Number of replicates

Table.3: Summary of validation parameters

Parameter Bx HCl CPM Dx HBr GPH

Linearity range 4 - 24 5 - 30 10 - 60 10 - 60

Slope 9040 9579 25935 34255

Interept (y) 9993 -308 25500 14194

R2 0.9987 0.9988 0.9981 0.9988

Accuracy (Percentage of recovery)

80% 99.67 100.0521 101.2917 101.7354

100% 101.07 100.9583 101.225 101.185

120% 100.15 101.0417 100.9931 100.1035

Intraday Precision

%COV 0.1755 - 0.6333 0.3050 0.6715 0.1806 - 0.6929 0.2813 - 0.8976

Interdays Precision

%COV 0.1018 - 0.2804 0.0675 - 0.1639 0.1529 - 0.4252 0.1227 - 0.2925

L.O.D(ng/ml) 21.49 29.17 11.65 8.1

L.O.Q.(ng/ml) 65.13 88.39 35.51 24.57

Specificity/selectivity No interference

Robustness Reliable results

Ruggedness Reproducible results

hc—cooh hc—cooh

ch2ch2n

Fig-1. Chemical structure of interacting compounds of (a) Bromhexine Hydrochloride (b) Chlorpheniramine Maleate (c) Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide (d) Guaphenesine

Method File Setup Sample Login! Sampe Schedule! Display Mode PDA Setup LC Monitor! Rearrange! Test! Help

[System 1] @CHRM1.M23/@CHRM2.K2G/@CHRM2.R20

rfAh:-: I2400.0

Cursor: 2.13[min)-5667.96[mAbs.)

Ch4-265

Fig.2: RP-HPLC Chromatogram of Placebo

i^SPD MXi Reai Time [System i ] GäCHRMI M35/<aCHHM2.K:32/l»i:HRM2 R32

Method File Setup Sarnple:L,ogin! Sample Schedule! Display Mode -PDA Setup LL Mmfel Rearrange! Help 1

™DD[Chi265"

(GPH R, = 5.432)

(Dx HBr R,= 6.156)

(Bx HCl Rt = 16.254)

(CPMR,= 12.2 J 9)

Fig.3: HPLC-Chromatogram of marketed formulation