Scholarly article on topic 'Sustainable use of industrial-waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate for preparation of concrete – A review'

Sustainable use of industrial-waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate for preparation of concrete – A review Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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{"Industrial solid waste" / "Waste management" / "Waste foundry sand" / "Steel slag" / "Copper slag"}

Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Manoj Kumar Dash, Sanjaya Kumar Patro, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Abstract Utilisation of industrial waste materials in concrete compensates the lack of natural resources, solving the disposal problem of waste and to find alternative technique to safeguard the nature. There are a number of industrial wastes used as fully or partial replacement of coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. This review carries out a thorough assessment about industrial waste substances, which can be adequately utilised in concrete as fine aggregate substitution. This paper reviewed some of these industrial wastes like waste foundry sand, steel slag, copper slag, imperial smelting furnace slag (ISF slag), blast furnace slag, coal bottom ash, ferrochrome slag, palm oil clinker etc. Out of these materials, maximum number of experiments have been conducted using waste foundry sand and copper slag as fine aggregate replacement, but still more examinations are required for other waste materials as replacement of sand in concrete. Different physical and mechanical properties of industrial waste as well as of industrial waste concrete, in which natural sand is substituted have been reviewed and comparisons are made between them. Deflection and leaching study review are carried out additionally and compared. It can be observed that the concrete where sand is replaced by copper slag, imperial smelting furnace slag, class F fly ash exhibits improved strength and durability properties, but it’s slump increases as the rate of replacement increases in the case of copper slag and the slump decreases in the case of class F fly ash. There is a less research work reported on ferrochrome slag and palm oil clinker used as sand substitution, so it is felt that further detailed investigations are required.

Academic research paper on topic "Sustainable use of industrial-waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate for preparation of concrete – A review"

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Review Article

Sustainable use of industrial-waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate for preparation of concrete - A review

Manoj Kumar Dasha1, Sanjaya Kumar Patrob'*, Ashoke Kumar Ratha2

a School of Civil Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Department of Civil Engineering, VSS University of Technology, Burla, Odisha, India

Received 20 December 2015; accepted 20 April 2016

Abstract

Utilisation of industrial waste materials in concrete compensates the lack of natural resources, solving the disposal problem of waste and to find alternative technique to safeguard the nature. There are a number of industrial wastes used as fully or partial replacement of coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. This review carries out a thorough assessment about industrial waste substances, which can be adequately utilised in concrete as fine aggregate substitution. This paper reviewed some of these industrial wastes like waste foundry sand, steel slag, copper slag, imperial smelting furnace slag (ISF slag), blast furnace slag, coal bottom ash, ferrochrome slag, palm oil clinker etc. Out of these materials, maximum number of experiments have been conducted using waste foundry sand and copper slag as fine aggregate replacement, but still more examinations are required for other waste materials as replacement of sand in concrete. Different physical and mechanical properties of industrial waste as well as of industrial waste concrete, in which natural sand is substituted have been reviewed and comparisons are made between them. Deflection and leaching study review are carried out additionally and compared. It can be observed that the concrete where sand is replaced by copper slag, imperial smelting furnace slag, class F fly ash exhibits improved strength and durability properties, but it's slump increases as the rate of replacement increases in the case of copper slag and the slump decreases in the case of class F fly ash. There is a less research work reported on ferrochrome slag and palm oil clinker used as sand substitution, so it is felt that further detailed investigations are required. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development.

Keywords: Industrial solid waste; Waste management; Waste foundry sand; Steel slag; Copper slag

* Corresponding author. Cell: +91 9439502377. E-mail addresses: mkd6519@gmail.com (M.K. Dash), litusanjay@yahoo.com (S.K. Patro), akrath1947@yahoo.co.in (A.K. Rath).

1 Cell:+91 9438244644.

2 Cell:+91 8763054230.

Peer review under responsibility of The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.04.006

2212-6090/© 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development.

Contents

1. Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................00

2. Physical properties of industrial wastes as fine aggregate................................................................................................00

2.1. Shape and appearance........................................................................................................................................00

2.2. Particle gradation ..............................................................................................................................................00

2.3. Specific gravity..................................................................................................................................................00

2.4. Bulk density......................................................................................................................................................00

2.5. Water absorption..............................................................................................................................................00

3. Mechanical properties of industrial waste......................................................................................................................00

4. Chemical properties....................................................................................................................................................00

5. Fresh properties of concrete........................................................................................................................................00

5.1. Slump test........................................................................................................................................................00

5.1.1. Waste foundry sand ................................................................................................................................00

5.1.2. Copper slag......................................................................00

5.1.3. Steel slag........................................................................00

5.1.4. Granulated blast furnace slag.........................................................00

5.1.5. ISF slag..................................................................................................................................................00

5.1.6. Bottom ash......................................................................00

5.1.7. Ferrochrome slag..................................................................00

5.1.8. Class F fly ash....................................................................00

5.1.9. Palm oil clinker...................................................................00

5.2. Compaction factor test ......................................................................................................................................00

5.3. Air content........................................................................................................................................................00

6. Leaching test..............................................................................................................................................................00

7. Density of concrete....................................................................................................................................................00

7.1. Waste foundry sand ..........................................................................................................................................00

7.2. Steel slag ..........................................................................................................................................................00

7.3. Copper slag ......................................................................................................................................................00

7.4. ISF slag ............................................................................................................................................................00

7.5. Bottom ash........................................................................................................................................................00

7.6. Class F type fly ash............................................................................................................................................00

7.7. Palm oil clinker..................................................................................................................................................00

8. Hardened concrete properties......................................................................................................................................00

8.1. Compressive strength..........................................................................................................................................00

8.1.1. Waste foundry sand................................................................00

8.1.2. Steel slag........................................................................00

8.1.3. Copper slag......................................................................00

8.1.3. ISF slag..................................................................................................................................................00

8.1.5. Blast furnace slag..................................................................00

8.1.6. Bottom ash......................................................................00

8.1.7. Ferrochrome slag..................................................................00

8.1.8. Class F fly ash....................................................................00

8.1.9. Palm oil clinker...................................................................00

8.2. Splitting tensile strength......................................................................................................................................00

8.2.1. Waste foundry sand................................................................00

8.2.2. Steel slag ................................................................................................................................................00

8.2.3. Copper slag ............................................................................................................................................00

8.2.4. Blast furnace slag..................................................................00

8.2.5. Bottom ash ............................................................................................................................................00

8.2.6. Class F fly ash ........................................................................................................................................00

8.3. Flexural strength................................................................................................................................................00

8.3.1. Waste foundry sand................................................................00

8.3.2. Steel slag ................................................................................................................................................00

8.3.3. Copper slag ............................................................................................................................................00

8.3.4. ISF slag..................................................................................................................................................00

8.3.5. Blast furnace slag ....................................................................................................................................00

8.3.6. Bottom ash ............................................................................................................................................00

8.3.7. Class F fly ash ........................................................................................................................................00

8.3.8. Palm oil clinker ......................................................................................................................................00

8.4. Modulus of elasticity (MOE)..............................................................................................................................00

8.4.1. Relation between compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity..........................00

8.5. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV)..........................................................................................................................00

8.5.1. Relation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity..............................00

8.5.2. Prediction of modulus of elasticity using ultrasonic pulse velocity................................00

9. Durability of industrial waste concrete..........................................................................................................................00

9.1. Water absorption and permeability......................................................................................................................00

9.2. Initial surface absorption ....................................................................................................................................00

9.3. Rapid chloride permeability test ..........................................................................................................................00

9.4. Abrasion resistance ............................................................................................................................................00

9.5. Acid resistance ..................................................................................................................................................00

9.5.1. Loss in mass.....................................................................00

9.5.2. Change in compressive strength ................................................................................................................00

9.5.3. Relation between percentage loss in weight and reduction compressive strength ............................................00

9.6. Sulphate resistance ............................................................................................................................................00

9.6.1. Loss in mass.....................................................................00

9.6.2. Change in compressive strength ................................................................................................................00

9.7. Drying shrinkage................................................................................................................................................00

9.8. High-temperature effect......................................................................................................................................00

9.9. Freeze-thaw resistance........................................................................................................................................00

9.10. Drying-wetting effect........................................................................................................................................00

9.11. Carbonation....................................................................................................................................................00

10. Structural behaviour of industrial waste-concrete ........................................................................................................00

10.1. Deflection test..................................................................................................................................................00

10.2. Pull-off strength..............................................................................................................................................00

11. Micro-structural analysis ..........................................................................................................................................00

11.1. X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD)..............................................................................................................00

11.2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)................................................................................................................00

12. Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................................................00

References ................................................................................................................................................................00

1. Introduction

Concrete the most broadly used construction material (Prabhu et al., 2014), aggregate makes 70% of its volume is the principal component material in concrete production and consumes globally 8-12 million tons of natural aggregate annually (Devi and Gnanavel, 2014; Al-Jabri et al., 2009). The aggregate classifications used are course aggregate with 4.75 mm particle size or more and fine aggregate with 4.75 mm particle size or less. Fine aggregate (Sand) is a significant material utilised for the composition of mortar and concrete and assumes a most essential part in design mix. Sand is a major component of concrete and properties of a specific concrete mix will be determined by the proportion and type of sand used to formulate concrete. It has significant impact on the workability, durability, strength, weight, and shrinkage of concrete. Sand is usually a larger component of the mix than cement. Sand can fill up the pores or voids in the concrete, which is also a contributing factor for the strength of concrete. Sand reduces volume changes resulting from setting and hardening process and provides a mass of particles which are suitable to resist the action of applied loads and show better durability than cement paste alone. Hence sand has a major role for concrete to solidify to give the necessary strength. Use of regular sand is high, because of the large utilisation of mortar and concrete. Thus the need of sand is more in growing countries to mitigate the fast infrastructure development.

The growing demand of sand results in non-availability of good quality sand and especially in India, deposits of natural sand are being exhausted which create an extreme menace to the environment. Fast withdrawal of sand from waterway bed, brings about such a large number of issues like losing water holding soil strata, extending to the sliding of the banks of river (Sankh et al., 2014). The extraction of sand from the waterway enhances the cost of sand and has severely affected the financial viability of the construction industry. As such finding an alternate material to natural sand has got to be imperative. As the industrialisation increases, the amount of waste material product is also increasing, which has turned into an ecological issue that must be managed. Pappu et al. (2007) stated that in India 960MT solid waste is being generated yearly, out of which 290MT are unwanted inorganic waste of mining & industrial division. Regular resources are exhausting largely while in the meantime the produced wastes from the industries are expanding significantly. To safeguard the environment, efforts are being made for using industrial waste in concrete for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of construction materials. Assuming industrial waste in the form of fine aggregate for concrete production can be considered one of the environmental benefits and also shows better performance in concrete. The utilisation of waste items in concrete makes it inexpensive and reutilize of wastes is supposed as the best ecological option for taking care of the issue of waste disposal (Bahoria et al., 2013).

Different types of industrial waste materials such as waste foundry sand (Prabhu et al., 2014; Khatib et al., 2013; Basar and Aksoy, 2012; Singh, 2012; Salokhe and Desai, 2009; Singh and Siddique, 2012a,b; Etxeberria et al., 2010; Siddique et al., 2009, 2011, 2015; Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014), steel slag (Devi and Gnanavel, 2014; Qasrawi et al., 2009; Rajan, 2014; Khajuria and Siddique, 2014; Chang-long et al., 2008; Kothai and Malathy, 2014), copper slag (Al-Jabri et al., 2009a,b, 2011; Alnuaimi, 2012; Wu et al., 2010; Rose and Suganya, 2015; Meenakshi and Ilangovan, 2011; Chavan and Kulkarni, 2013; Ambily et al., 2015; Velumani and Nirmalkumar, 2014; Poovizhi and Kathirvel, 2015; Wu et al., 2010), imperial smelting furnace slag (Tripathi et al., 2013; Weeks et al., 2008; Atzeni et al., 1996; Morrison et al., 2003), blast furnace slag (Yuksel et al., 2006, 2007, 2011; Valcuende et al., 2015; Yuksel and Genc, 2007; Yuksel et al., 2011), coal bottom ash (Bai et al., 2005; Singh and Siddique, 2014; Kim et al., 2014; Andrade et al., 2009; Bilir, 2012; Kim and Lee, 2011; Shi-Cong and Chi-Sun, 2009), ferrochrome slag (Panda et al., 2013), class F type fly ash (Rajamane et al., 2007; Siddique, 2003), and Palm oil clinker (Rashad, 2016; Kanadasan et al., 2015; Wahab et al., 2015; Abdullahi et al., 2010; Ahmmad et al., 2014; Mohammed et al., 2011, 2013) have been used as partially or fully sand replacement material in concrete production and their properties with control concrete are compared.

Indian foundries deliver roughly 1.71MT of waste foundry sand (WFS) in every year (Khatib et al., 2013; Singh, 2012). Foundry sand is a derivative of alloy casting industries, where the sand has been used for its thermal conductivity as moulding substances. Depending upon the type of binder used in casting, foundry sands are of two types such as clay bonded system also known as green sand and chemically bonded system (Chemically Bonded Sand). Many researchers like Prabhu et al. (2014), Khatib et al. (2013), Basar and Aksoy (2012), Singh (2012), Salokhe and Desai (2009), Singh and Siddique (2012a,b), Etxeberria et al. (2010), Siddique et al. (2009, 2015) have carried out research works to evaluate the use of foundry sand as a substitute substances for sand in concrete production. Prabhu et al. (2014) have evaluated the utilisation of foundry sand obtained from aluminium casting industry used as a substitute for fine aggregate in five different substitution rates (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) and concluded that the strength properties of concrete mixture incorporating foundry sand up to 20% is moderately near to the strength value of control mix. Khatib et al. (2013) have reported that there is a systemic increment in water absorption; diminish in compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) with growing amount of waste foundry sand in concrete. Basar and Aksoy (2012) have stated that waste foundry sand can be successfully used in making great quality ready-mix concrete as partial supplanting of fine aggregate with no unfavorable mechanical, micro-structural and ecological effect, but substitution should not exceed 20%.

According to the report of Singh (2012), Singh and Siddique (2012a,b), partial supplanting of sand with waste foundry sand up to 15% increases compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and abrasion resistance of concrete mixtures with the increment of waste foundry sand as replacement for fine aggregate. Siddique et al. (2009, 2015) assess the properties of concrete in which sand was partially supplanted with three different percentages (10%, 20%, 30%) of used foundry sand as partial substitution (Siddique et al., 2009) and studied two grades of concrete M-20 & M-30 incorporating waste foundry sand as partial substitution with five percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) Siddique et al., 2015. They inferred that with the rate of increment of foundry sand content in concrete, the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity of concrete mixes increased (Siddique et al., 2009) and enhanced chloride permeability resistance of concrete (Siddique et al., 2015). Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) have evaluated the effect of waste foundry sand and bottom ash in equal quantities as fractional substitution of fine aggregate in various percentages on concrete properties. The outcomes indicate there is an increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture by substituting 30% of the natural sand with equal quantities of waste foundry sand and bottom ash. Kaur et al. (2012) investigates the outcome of inclusion of fungal treated waste foundry sand and effect of aspergillus spp. on compressive strength and water absorption of concrete.

Steel slag is the waste product of steel and iron creating process. Electric arc furnace steel slag has low or no poz-zolanic activities and not suitable to be utilised in blended cement manufacture (Qasrawi et al., 2009). Devi and Gnanavel (2014) concluded that, the concrete with partial substitution of fine aggregate by steel slag shows preferred imperviousness to hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Qasrawi et al. (2009) stated the utilisation of steel slag has a negative effect on the workability of cement particularly the substitution proportions over 50%. Best results for compressive strength are obtained when substitution proportions are somewhere around 1530%. In the research they have suggested better outcome can be acquired if powder finer than 0.15 mm is excluded from slag. John and John (2013) and Rajan (2014) have studied on the utilisation of induction furnace steel slag/ steel slag and inferred that the compressive strength of concrete containing induction furnace steel slag greater than 30% is found to be lower than control mix. Khajuria and Siddique (2014) have affirmed that by replacing fine aggregate with iron slag a by-product of iron and steel making industry in concrete, the compressive strength increases with increase in the substitution up to 30%.

Presently worldwide around 33MT of copper slag is generated yearly amongst that India contributes 6.0-6.5 million tons. 50% copper slag can be utilised as substitution of regular sand into acquire mortars and concrete with performance needed, durability and strength (Sankh et al.,

2014). Al-Jabri et al. (2009a,b, 2011) have considered the impact of utilising copper slag as sand substitution on the properties of high strength concrete and some of the concrete properties such as physical, chemical, workability and mechanical properties. Alnuaimi (2012) has examined the utilisation of copper slag substitution for sand in reinforced concrete slender column and concluded that substitution up to 40% sand with copper slag created no significant change in column failure load. Wu et al.

(2010) investigated that under 40% copper slag as fine aggregate substitutions can accomplish a high strength concrete that is similar to or better than the control blend. According to them strength enhanced with 40% supplanted by copper slag was mostly credited to its physical properties. It has a superior compressibility than sand, which can partially mitigate the stress concentration (Al-Jabri et al., 2011). Rose and Suganya (2015) have concluded that compressive strength increased by surrogating fine aggregate by 40% of copper slag. Meenakshi and Ilangovan

(2011) have researched the impact of utilising copper slag and ferrous slag by equivalent rate as partial substitution of sand and achieved higher strength at the 100% replacement level than control concrete. Chavan and Kulkarni (2013) examined the impact of utilising copper slag as substitution of sand on strength properties and reached to a conclusion that concrete acquire increased strength than reference concrete mix when 75% fine aggregate is replaced by copper slag.

Imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slag is produced during the pyrometallurgical refining of sulphide metal. Tripathi et al. (2013) have assessed the potential of imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slag in concrete as fine aggregate, considering the existence of toxic components (lead and zinc) and their negative effect on hydration of cement. They presumed that there is improvement in mechanical properties of concrete and leaching of toxic element within the safe limit by replacing natural sand by the imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slag. Weeks et al. (2008) have carried out their study on retardation of cement hydration created by substantial metal available in slag from the imperial smelting furnace system of zinc generation, when used as sand in concrete and inferred that ISF slag utilised as sand retard the setting of Portland cement. Atzeni et al. (1996) have analysed the possibility of using granulated slag resulting from the lead and zinc processing from the Kivet and Imperial smelting plant in partial or total substitution of fine aggregate in concrete and reported it is feasible to use in concrete.

Granulated blast furnace slag (GBF Slag), which is obtained from rapidly water-cooled slag from blast furnace in the production of pig iron, has been effectively utilised in concrete mixes because of lime content. GBF Slag is used as partial substitution for Portland cement. Yuksel et al. (2006, 2007) in their research work focus on using non ground GBF slag in concrete as sand replacement in concrete. Valcuende et al. (2015) researched the effect of ground GBF slag as a partial substitution of sand on the compressive strength and drying shrinkage in

self-compacting concrete. The researchers concluded, at an early age concrete replaced with slag show similar com-pressive strength, but at 365 days, the higher the quantity of sand supplanted by slag the higher the concrete's com-pressive strength tends to be.

Presently, India is delivering in more than 100 million tons of coal ash, from which 15-20% ash is, remaining at base and the balance is fly ash. There are numerous clients for fly ash, but the ash remains at bottom and keeps on contaminating nature with risky disposal (Sankh et al., 2014). Furnace bottom ash (FBA) generated from thermal power plants is a waste material, it generally has no poz-zolanic property, for which it is inadmissible to be utilised as a cement substitution material in concrete. On the other hand, its grain size distribution is like that of sand which makes it alluring to be utilised as a sand substitution material. Several researchers like Bai et al. (2005), Singh and Siddique (2014) and Kim et al. (2014) have considered the use of bottom ash as a partial substitution of normal sand in concrete. Bai et al. (2005) have concentrated on the impact of bottom ash with two design mixes (i) definite water-cement (WC) proportion and (ii) constant slump ranges. They observed that at a definite WC ratio, the drying shrinkage and compressive strength decrease with the increment in bottom ash incorporation in concrete, but at constant slump ranges, the compressive strength was equivalent with the reference concrete mix, while the drying shrinkage expanded with the increment when natural sand substituted by furnace bottom ash above 30%. Singh and Siddique (2014) have investigated that bottom ash concrete exhibits better dimensional stability, better imperviousness to chloride particle infiltration and sulphuric acid attack as compared to traditional concrete. Kim et al. (2014) have investigated chloride resistance of high strength concrete by supplanting fine aggregate with fine bottom ash and the results shows that bottom ash in high strength concrete can significantly reduce the amount of chloride diffusion. Andrade et al. (2009) explore the properties of concrete by utilisation of coal bottom ash (CBA) as a swap for regular sand in the fresh state and concluded that water loss by bleeding due to existence of bottom ash, the higher the CBA content of the concrete more prominent this impact.

Ferrochrome slag produced as water cooled granulated slag is a major solid waste generated during manufacture of ferrochrome alloy. Panda et al. (2013) carried out a test examination to study the use of air cooled slag as a partial substitution of coarse aggregate in concrete and water cooled granulated slag as a part substitution of sand in concrete. The study demonstrates the concrete mix with ferrochrome slag supplanted as sand exhibits perfect outcome regarding compressive strength and the leachable chromium stays all around immobilized in the concrete matrix and cement and with low to non-perceivable level of chromium leaching.

In India, the amount of fly ash generated from thermal power plants is nearly 80MT every year, amongst it the

lion's share of fly ash produced is of class F type and its percentage utilisation is less than 10% in manufacturing of cement, known as Pozzolana Portland cement. Rajamane et al. (2007) investigated fly ash as a partial substitution material as natural sand and suggested an equation to anticipate concrete compressive strength at 28 day. Siddique (2003) has investigated the supplanting natural sand by class F fly ash. This study concluded that splitting tensile strength, compressive strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity of concrete were higher in which class F fly ash incorporated than control mix.

Palm oil factories generate different types of waste which incorporates oil palm fibre, oil palm shell (OPS) palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB). The yearly production of solid waste from the palm oil industry in South East Asian countries, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand is around 90.5 million tones and it is one of the most growing agricultural waste materials of the world (Rashad, 2016). Lack of proper management of these wastes could lead to environmental pollution (Kanadasan et al., 2015). Supplanting these wastes as aggregate replacement in concrete is an alternative approach to solve this problem (Wahab et al., 2015). The oil palm shell aggregate being an organic material might disintegrate with time and this would have an adverse effect on the durability of the resulting concrete (Abdullahi et al.,

2010). The incineration process of oil palm shell and oil palm fibre for 4 h at 400 °C produces palm oil clinker (POC), which is obtained in chunks ranging between 100 and 400 mm being crushed into aggregates are substituted partially as coarse or fine aggregate in concrete. Ahmmad et al. (2014) have been carried out to study the displacement ductility and torsional ductility of lightweight concrete element containing crushed oil palm shell (OPS) is used as coarse aggregate in different mixes and palm oil clinker (POC) as fine aggregate for sand replacement and concluded that modulus of elasticity of concrete with 100% OPS as coarse aggregate and natural sand replaced with 50% palm oil clinker sand is 8.57 GPa in compared to normal weight concrete (control concrete) modulus of elasticity 28.34 GPa, but its modulus of resilience and modulus of toughness are significantly higher. Mohammed et al. (1863) have investigated chloride resistance of lightweight concrete with palm oil clinker aggregate and concluded that chloride-ion penetrability at 28 days are high due to the porous nature of palm oil clinker aggregate.

This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation about industrial waste substances that can be viably utilised in concrete as fine aggregate substitution and the objective is to discuss some of the properties like physical, chemical composition of industrial waste, fresh concrete, hardened concrete properties and leaching study using the above industrial waste and their comparison.

G) Imperial smelting furnace slag H) Steel Slag

Figure 1. Industrial wastes.

2. Physical properties of industrial wastes as fine aggregate

Physical properties of industrial wastes such as grain size distribution, density, specific gravity, fine substance and absorption help to acknowledge its suitability and workability to be replaced as fine aggregate in concrete (see Fig. 1).

2.1. Shape and appearance

The blast furnace slag is dark smooth particle and granular (Sankh et al., 2014). In general foundry sand is sub-rakish to round in shape. Green foundry sands are dark or grey, whereas chemically bonded foundry sands are of greyish in colour (Singh, 2012). The copper slag is granular in nature, dark polished particle and has a grain size distribution like natural sand (Ambily et al., 2015). ISF slag is dark in shading, vitreous, granular and contain toxic metal (lead and zinc) (Tripathi et al., 2013). The molecules of coal bottom ash have a rough texture and are rakish, irregular and permeable (Siddique, 2014). Palm oil clinker (POC) is porous in nature and grey in colour (Wahab et al., 2015).

2.2. Particle gradation

The grain size distribution of the copper slag is about 75% particles between 1.18 mm and 0.3 mm as reported by Sankh et al. (2014). Particle size distribution is uniform in the case of WFS with 85-95% of the substances in between of 0.6 mm to 0.15 mm and more or less 5-20% of foundry sand is smaller than 0.075 mm (Singh, 2012). Khatib et al. (2013), Basar and Aksoy (2012) also stated that the grain size of foundry sand with 78-94% substances is between 0.6 mm and 0.15 mm. Particle distribution of steel slag is uniform with 83% of the material in between 0.6 mm and 0.15 mm (Qasrawi et al., 2009). Abdullahi et al. (2010) reported that grain size distribution of the palm oil clinker fine aggregate is about 46% particles between 1.18 mm-0.075mm and the particle size distribution also agrees with the limits specified in ASTM 3302004 (ASTM 330, 2004). Grain size distribution of the ISF slag is about 75% particles between 1.18 mm and 0.3 mm as stated by Morrison et al. (2003). The grain size distribution of granulated blast furnace slag is with 62% material in between1.18 mm and 0.10 mm (Bilir, 2012). The particle size distribution of bottom ash is with 55% material in between 1.18 mm and 0.10 mm (Bilir, 2012). Many researchers have stated the particle size gradation of different industrial waste materials which has been mentioned in Table 1.

It can be observed from the above details and Figs. 2-5 that the particle size distribution of all industrial wastes including palm oil clinker fine aggregate is within the Zone-I and Zone-II except foundry sand and steel slag. The steel slag does neither meet ASTM C 33 (1999) nor BS 882 (1992) grading limits (Qasrawi et al., 2009).

2.3. Specific gravity

Various researchers have reported the specific gravity of different industrial waste materials which has been mentioned in Table 2. The specific gravity of waste foundry sand was observed to be 2.18 (Singh and Siddique, 2012a), where Siddique (2014) expressed that the specific gravity of waste foundry sand somewhere around 2.392.79. The minimum specific gravity of steel slag was 3.0 which is reported by Devi and Gnanavel (2014), however as indicated by Qasrawi et al. (2009), the steel slag's specific gravity was 3.15. Morrison et al. (2003) reported that the specific gravity of ISF slag is 3.88. Valcuende et al. (2015) found the specific gravity of blast furnace slag is 2.45. Siddique (2014) stated that specific gravity of bottom ash in between 1.39 and 2.33, where Aggarwal and Siddique (2014), Singh and Siddique (2014) and Kim and Lee (2011) found specific gravity of bottom ash are 1.93, 1.39 and 1.87, respectively. The specific gravity for copper slag is 3.37 as reported by Ambily et al. (2015), where Sankh et al. (2014), Velumani and Nirmalkumar (2014) found the same specific gravity of 3.91 for copper slag in their research work which is accounted for in Table 2. Panda et al. Panda et al. (2013) have reported that the specific gravity of ferrochrome slag is 2.72. Patel and Pitroda (2013) have stated in their research that the specific gravity of pond ash is 1.89. Abdullahi et al. (2010) and Mohammed et al. (2013) have stated that the specific gravity of the palm oil clinker fine aggregate is 2.

2.4. Bulk density

Bulk density (both loose and compacted) of all industrial wastes is mentioned in Table 2. Singh (2012) have observed loose bulk density of waste foundry sand is 1690 Kg/m3, where the compacted bulk density is 1890 Kg/m3. Chang-long et al. (2008) have stated that the apparent density of steel slag is 2395 Kg/m3, packing density is 1475 kg/m3. The bulk density of granulated copper slag is varying from 1900 kg/m3 to 2150 kg/m3 (Ambily et al., 2015). The loose bulk density of bottom ash is 620 kg/m3, whereas the compacted bulk density 660 kg/ m3 (Yuksel et al., 2007, 2011; Bilir, 2012; Yuksel and Genc, 2007). The loose bulk density and compacted bulk density of the granulated blast furnace slag is 1052 kg/m3 and 1236 kg/m3, respectively (Yuksel et al., 2007, 2011; Bilir, 2012; Yuksel and Genc, 2007). Abdullahi et al. (2010) have stated that the bulk density of the palm oil clinker fine aggregate is 1122 kg/m3, where Mohammed et al. (2013) found about same bulk density 1119 kg/m3.

2.5. Water absorption

Singh (2012) carried out the water absorption of waste foundry sand and found the value is 1.2%. Siddique et al. (2009) and Siddique (2014) found nearly the same specific water absorption of 1.3% for waste foundry sand in their

cS ciS H ph

¿1 g E—1

00 ciS

PH S-,

m a O m

Ph o M 5

•a 1

00 . CS

s-, «

n â O w

00 'O cn

"Ai m "A)

oo "A) ^t- ^t-

m m m iN

oooooooooooo

¡73 Ph

T3 d d ,o

O 80 K

-Copper Slag (Sankh et al.,2014 ) WFS (Khatib et al.,2013) Steel Slag (Qasrawi et al., 2009) POC (Abdullahi et al.,2010) - ISF Slag (Morrison et al.,2003)

GBF Slag (Bilir,2012) -Bottom Ash (Bilir,2012)

Z-I (Lower) -Z-I (Upper)

PARTICLE DIAMETERS

Figure 2. Particle Size distribution of Industrial waste & Compared with Zone-I Sand (IS-383) IS 383, 1970.

0.1 1 PARTICLE DIAMETERS

-Copper Slag (Sankh et al.,2014 ) WFS (Khatib et al.,2013) Steel Slag (Qasrawi et al., 2009) - POC (Abdullahi et al.,2010) ISF Slag (Morrison et al.,2003) GBF Slag (Bilir,2012) -Bottom Ash (Bilir,2012) —Z-II (Lower) —Z-II (Upper)

Figure 3. Particle Size distribution of Industrial waste & Compared with Zone-II Sand (IS-383) IS 383, 1970.

"Î 40

- Copper Slag (Sankh et al.,2014 ) WFS (Khatib et al.,2013) Steel Slag (Qasrawi et al., 2009) POC (Abdullahi et al.,2010) ISF Slag (Morrison et al.,2003) GBF Slag (Bilir,2012) -Bottom Ash (Bilir,2012) Z-III (Lower) Z-III (Upper)

0.1 1 PARTICLE DIAMETERS

Figure 4. Particle Size distribution of Industrial waste & Compared with Zone-III Sand (IS-383)IS 383, 1970.

Copper Slag (Sankh et al.,2014 ) WFS (Khatib et al.,2013) Steel Slag (Qasrawi et al., 2009) POC (Abdullahi et al.,2010) ISF Slag (Morrison et al.,2003) GBF Slag (Bilir,2012) Bottom Ash (Bilir,2012) -Z-IV (Lower) -Z-IV (Upper)

0.1 1 PARTICLE DIAMETERS

Figure 5. Particle Size distribution of Industrial waste & Comparison with Zone-IV Sand (IS-383) IS 383, 1970.

research work. Al-Jabri et al. (2011) observed that the water absorption of copper slag was 0.17%, whereas Ambily et al. (2015) stated that the water absorption of copper slag was in between 0.30% and 0.40%. Water absorption capacity of ISF slag as reported by Morrison et al. (2003) is 0.20%. Devi and Gnanavel (2014) observed the water absorption of steel slag was 1.32% in their research, whereas Qasrawi et al. (2009) found water absorption of steel slag was 0.80%. According to Yuksel et al. (2007), Bilir (2012), water absorption of granulated blast furnace slag was 10.0%. Several researchers like Kim and Lee (2011), Yuksel and Genc (2007), Yuksel et al. (2011) found water absorption capacity of bottom

ash was 5.45% and 6.10%, respectively. Abdullahi et al. (2010) observed that the water absorption of palm oil clinker fine aggregate was 14.29%, whereas Mohammed et al. (2013) stated that the water absorption of palm oil clinker fine aggregate was 26.45%.

3. Mechanical properties of industrial waste

There is only one industrial waste i.e. waste foundry sand in which mechanical properties reported by Singh (2012). As per low Micro-Deval abrasion test, WFS has superior durability properties and results comes <2. The angle of shearing resistance of WFS varies between 33

t D n Г

u s r ,

1 . f K

Table 2

Physical properties of different industrial wastes.

Properties WFS Prabhu et al. Steel slag C. Slag Al-Jabri ISF Slag GBF Slag B. Ash Aggarwal and FeCr POC Ranges in

(2014), Basar and Devi and et al. (2009), Al- Tripathi Yuksel et al. Siddique (2014), Slag Abdullahi physical

Aksoy (2012), Singh Gnanavel Jabri et al. (2009), et al. (2007), Yuksel et al. (2007), Panda et al. (2010) properties of

(2012), Singh and (2014), Al-Jabri et al. (2013)and Valcuende Bai et al. (2005), et al. and normal

Siddique (2012a), Qasrawi (2011), Wu et al. Morrison et al. (2015), Singh and Siddique (2013) Mohammed weight

Singh and Siddique et al. (2010), Ambily et al., Bilir (2012), (2014), Bilir (2012), et al. (2013) aggregate

(2012b), Etxeberria (2009) et al. (2015), 2003 Yuksel and Kim and Lee (2011), Materials for

et al. (2010), Siddique and Velumani and Genc (2007) Yuksel and Genc Concrete

et al. (2009) Chang- Nirmalkumar andYuksel (2007), Yuksel et al. Construction

Aggarwal and long et al., (2014)and Poovizhi et al. (2011) (2011)andShi-Cong (1999)

Siddique (2014) and 2008 and Kathirvel and Chi-Sun (2009)

Aggarwal and (2015)

Siddique (2014)

Specific gravity 2.18-2.61 3.0-3.19 3.40-3.91 3.69-3.88 2.08-2.45 1.39-1.93 2.72 2.0 2.3-2.9

Loose bulk density (kg/m3) 1160 2395 - - 1052 620 - 1122

Compacted Bulk Density (kg/m3) - - - - 1236 660 - -

Unit weight (kg/m3) 1520-1784 - - - - 948 - -

Density (kg/m3) - 3600 3900 - 2190 - -

Fineness Modulus 1.60-1.89 2.08 1.76-3.76 - 1.37-1.83 4.8 3.31 2.3-3.1

Water Absorption% 0.33-7.67 0.8-1.32 0.3-0.4 0.20-0.45 8.0-10.0 5.45-32.2 - 14.29-26.45 0-8

Moisture Content% 0.11 - 0.1 - - - - - 0-10

Materials finer than 75 im (%) 1.08-24 - - - - - - -

Clay lumps and friable particles (%) 0.40-1.44 - - - 1 2.0-2.4 - -

Particle Grading Zone - - Zone-I - - Zone-I -

И в i

С D. С

2 c о e

и ci) n

WFS - waste foundry sand, C.slag - copper slag, ISF slag - imperial smelting furnace slag, GBF slag - granulated blast furnace slag, B.ash -bottom ash, FeCr slag: ferrochrome slag, POC - palm oil clinker.

Table 3

Chemical composition of different industrial wastes used as fine aggregate.

Component WFS (Prabhu et al. (2014), Steel slag

Khatib et al. (2013), Basar Qasrawi et al.

and Aksoy (2012); Singh (2009),

(2012), Etxeberria et al. Chang-long

(2010); Siddique et al. et al. (2008)

(2009) andAggarwal and andKothai

Siddique (2014) and Malathy (2014)

Copper slag Al-Jabri et al. (2009), Al-Jabri et al. (2009), Al-Jabri et al. (2011), Wu et al. (2010), Ambily et al. (2015)andPoovizhi and Kathirvel, 2015

ISF slag Tripathi et al.

(2013)

andMorrison et al., 2003

GBF slag Yuksel et al. (2006), Yuksel et al. (2007), Valcuende et al. (2015), Bilir (2012), Yuksel and Genc (2007)andYuksel et al., 2011

Bottom ash Aggarwal and Siddique (2014), Yuksel et al. (2007), Bai et al. (2005), Singh and Siddique (2014), Bilir (2012), Yuksel and Genc (2007) Yuksel et al. (2011) andShi-Cong and Chi-Sun, 2009

FeCr Slag Panda et al. (2013)

Class F POC

fly ash Ahmmad

(Siddique et al.

(2003) (2014)

l tt e a b B' e

b o. e

htt te p

w Bl b

SiO2 78.81-95.10 0.8-35 25.84-33.05 16.30-18.08 30.20-35.09 56.44-61.80 56.44-61.80 55.3 59.63

Al2O3 0.81-10.41 1.0-16.0 0.22-2.52 8.17 17.54 17.80-29.24 17.80-29.24 25.7 3.7

Fe2O3 0.94-5.39 97.05 53.45-68.29 34.28-38.33 0.7 6.56-13.00 6.56-13.00 5.3 4.62

CaO 0.14-1.88 0.40-52 0.15-6.06 11.98-17.91 37.80-39.50 0.75-3.25 0.75-3.25 5.6 8.16

MgO 0.30-1.97 0.4-11 1.56-1.65 1.93 5.50-7.50 0.40-3.20 0.40-3.20 2.1 5.01

SO3 0.03-0.84 - 0.11-1.89 10.26 0.70-1.90 0.02-0.82 - 1.4 0.73

K2O 0.25-1.14 - 0.23-0.81 0.71 0.3 1.08-2.12 - 0.6 11.66

Na2O 0.19-0.87 - 0.28-1.40 0.68 0.3 0.086-0.95 - 0.4 0.32

TiO2 0.04-0.22 0.01 0-0.41 - 0.68 0.88-0.95 - 1.3 0.22

Mn2O3 0.047 - 0.06-0.22 1.33 - - -- -

MnO - 1.07-8.0 - - 0.83 - -- -

Cr2O3 0.025-0.37 - - - - - -- -

NiO 0.005 - - - - - -- -

ZnO 0.018 - - 9.21-11.37 - - -- -

SrO 0.005 - - - - - -- -

CI 0.04-0.071 0.01-0.018 - - 0.01 -- -

IR - 14.88 6.28 - - -- -

CuO - 0.46-1.20 - - - -- -

P2O3 - - - 0.37 - -- -

P2O5 0.02-0.05 0.5-1.0 - - - 0.2 -- 5.37

PbO - - 1.22-7.39 - - -- -

Fe - 0.5-10.0 - - 0.7 13 -- -

Sulphide - 0-0.4 0.25 0.25-1.41 0.66 0.604 -- -

Sulphur

Loss on 1.32-6.93 - 6.59 5.68-6.59 1.08 0.89-5.80 - 1.9 -

ignition

WFS - waste foundry sand, ISF slag - - imperial smelting furnace slag, GBF.slag - - Granulated blast furnace slag, FeCr slag - ferrochrome slag, POC - palm oil clinker.

and 40 degrees, which is similar to that of ordinary sand. Valcuende et al. (2015) have reported that Micro-Deval index of blast furnace slag is 14.

4. Chemical properties

Chemical constitution of the industrial wastes relies on the kind of metal, sort of combustible utilised, which has been mentioned in Table 3. WFS are rich in silica content and covered with a slim film of burnt carbon, remaining binder (resins/chemicals, bentonite, sea coal,) and dust (Singh, 2012). Copper slag contains Fe2O3 which is about 53.45% (Al-Jabri et al., 2011), whereas ISF slag consists of Fe2O3 which is 38.33% (Morrison et al., 2003). The chemical constitution of bottom ash differs based upon type of coal used and the process of burning. Bottom ash is basically made out of silica, iron and alumina with little quantity of magnesium, calcium, and sulphate etc. (Siddique, 2014). The chemical constituent of steel slag differs with furnace type, grade of steel and pre-treatment process. The steel slag mainly consists of SiO2, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, MnO, P2O5 (Yi et al., 2012). The main chemical constituent of blast furnace slag is CaO which is 56.10%. Siddique (2003) has determined the chemical constitution of class F fly ash, as indicated by ASTM C 311 (2013) and found primary constituent silicon dioxide 55.3% and aluminium oxide 25.7%. The Palm oil clinker is mainly consist SiO2 and K2O (Ahmmad et al., 2014).

5. Fresh properties of concrete

5.1. Slump test

Consistency of fresh concrete is a mix property which incorporates the different necessities of stability, mobility, compatibility, finishability and placeability (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014). Slump test is used extensively in site work all over the world. Suggested ranges for low workability, medium workability and high workability of concrete, the slump value are 25 mm-75 mm, 50 mm-100 mm and 100mm-150mm, respectively (IS 456, 2000). Various researchers who carried out the slump test using different industrial waste materials in concrete are explained below.

5.1.1. Waste foundry sand

Prabhu et al. (2014) investigated that the slump value was decreased when the partial substitution of WFS increased in constant water-cement ratio 0.44. However, they concluded that the impact of foundry sand on workability was not significant with the substitution rate up to 10% and the slump value of mixtures was equal to control mix. Siddique et al. (2009) studied the impact of WFS on the slump of concrete. Normal sand was partly supplanted with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% WFS with a constant water-cement ratio 0.50. It was noticed that slump of WFS concrete decreases as the replacement ratio increases. This may be most likely because of the presence of clayey type fine

substances in the WFS, which are compelling in diminishing fresh concrete fluidity (Singh, 2012). Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) presented the results of an exploratory examination into concrete produced with constant slump 30 mm by replacing natural sand with WFS and bottom ash which gave an idea about the increase in water demand due to increase in substitution of sand with WFS and bottom ash.

5.1.2. Copper slag

The workability of copper slag was evaluated by Al-Jabri et al. (2009) and described that the workability of concrete increases altogether with the increment of copper slag content in concrete mixes. Slump was measured to be 28 mm for reference mix, whereas for concrete with 100% copper slag, slump was 150 mm. Wu et al. (2010) inferred that that addition of copper slag enhances the workability of the concrete mix, because of the smooth polished surface composition and low moisture soaking up characteristic of the copper slag.

5.1.3. Steel slag

The slump decreases as the substitution rate level increases which was found by Devi and Gnanavel (2014) using the steel slag as a substitution of sand. The greater rate of substitution of sand by steel slag makes the workability of concrete less. Qasrawi et al. (2009) reported that concrete in which sand supplanted by steel slag has been classified as medium workability up to replacement level 50%. The mixes consisting 100% slag were sticky instead dry. It was presumed that the loss of workability is because of two variables, the increment of fines and the increment of angularity.

5.1.4. Granulated blast furnace slag

Yuksel and Genc (2007) reported that increase in slump value was noticed while the replacement ratio increased for granulated blast furnace slag. For reference concrete the measured slump was 60 mm though for 50% replacement of granulated blast furnace slag, the measured slump was 100 mm.

5.1.5. ISF slag

According to Tripathi et al. (2013) fresh concrete with sand substitutions over 50% by ISF Slag, appeared harsh, without adequate paste, hard to close-pack, and had a generally uneven finished surface. This was a consequence of lacking fines and surface qualities of ISFS particles, which get to be apparent particularly at higher replacement levels.

5.1.6. Bottom ash

The particle size of bottom ash is generally smaller (75 im) than sand. The utilisation of bottom ash (BA) as replacement of sand in concrete increases the quantity of fines and uneven textured, irregular shaped and permeable particle, in this way increasing the internal particles friction. These properties enhance the water demand and

Table 4

Fresh concrete and Mechanical properties of concrete using industrial waste as a fine aggregate replacement.

Author

Industrial waste

W/C % Replacement Slump in mm/CF Compressive Strength* Split Tensile Strength* Flexural strength*

0.44 0 115 33.14 2.77 4.09

10 113 33.24 2.61 3.99

20 101 32.58 2.6 3.99

30 93 31.24 2.51 3.88

40 77 29.48 2.31 3.69

50 63 25.23 2.21 3.66

0.5 0 30 36.27 2.08 4.44

0.52 5 + 5= 10 30 29.02 1.8 4.1

0.53 10+10 = 20 30 29.63 2.05 4

0.55 15 + 15 = 30 30 31.81 2.46 4.34

0.58 20 + 20 = 40 30 29.95 2.35 3.87

0.61 25 + 25 = 50 30 30.53 2.25 3.95

0.68 30 + 30 = 60 30 21.08 1.45 3.6

0.55 0 35 20.67 2.26 1.72

10 28 19.56 - -

20 23 20.1 - -

30 18 20.78 - -

40 13 28.3 2.47 6.8

50 11 19.32 - -

0.35 0 65.5 45 3 7.7

10 80 46 3.5 7.2

20 80 47 3.7 7.2

40 110 47.1 3.8 6.5

50 130 47 4.1 7.3

0.5 0 20 25.2 4.05 -

10+10 = 20 32 38.6 6.3 -

20 + 20 = 40 46 39.9 7.3 -

30 + 30 = 60 54 40.1 7.8 -

0.4 0 0.93 48.25 - 6.48

10 0.93 54 - 6.19

20 0.92 52.7 - 6.46

30 0.92 55.46 - 6.44

40 0.92 56.17 - 6.26

50 0.94 51.5 - 6.9

60 0.92 51.28 - 6.92

70 0.9 50.74 - 4.94

0.477 0 60 46.5 3.3 4.71

10 80 45.63 3.23 5.22

20 90 42.4 3.2 -

30 110 41.7 3 4.5

40 100 41.7 2.76 -

50 120 36.1 2.3 4.5

0.477 0 60 46.5 3.3 4.71

10 80 38.81 3.28 3.7

20 90 35.38 2.93 -

30 80 37.15 2.68 3.66

40 70 35.3 2.26 -

50 50 35.6 2.11 3.72

0.477 0 60 46.5 - -

5 + 5= 10 80 37.6 - -

10+10 = 20 90 33.6 - -

15 + 15 = 30 90 33 - -

20 + 20 = 40 80 31.33 - -

25 + 25 = 50 70 31.25 - -

0.5 0 48-60 30.5 - -

20 48-60 29.4 - -

40 48-60 29.6 - -

60 48-60 29.8 - -

80 48-60 30.1 - -

100 48-60 30 - -

Prabhu et al. (2014)

Aggarwal and Siddique (2014)

WFS + BA

Devi and Gnanavel (2014)

Steel slag

Al-Jabri et al. (2011)

Copper slag 0.35

Meenakshi and Ilangovan (2011) CS + FS

Tripathi et al. (2013)

ISF slag

Yuksel and Genc (2007)

GBF slag

Yuksel and Genc (2007)

Bottom ash

Yuksel and Genc (2007)

GBFS + BA

Panda et al. (2013)

FeCr slag

(continued on next page)

Table 4 (continued)

Author Industrial waste W/C % Replacement Slump in mm/CF Compressive Strength Split Tensile Strength Flexural strength

Siddique (2003) Cl. F fly ash 0.47 0 100 26.4 3 3.7

0.48 10 90 28.2 3.1 4.0

0.49 20 65 30.8 3.2 4.2

0.49 30 40 34.9 3.4 4.4

0.49 40 30 38.9 3.5 4.4

0.5 50 20 40 3.54 4.3

ESA (0000) POC - 0 - 30 - 6.17

- 5 - 33.06 - 7.9

- 10 - 35.27 - 8.22

CF: compaction factor, CS - copper slag, FS - ferrous Slag, BA - bottom ash, POC - palm oil clinker, FeCr - ferrochrome slag. Strength are measured after 28 days of curing in Mpa.

reduce the workability (Siddique, 2014). The slump values which were found by Yuksel and Genc (2007) using the furnace bottom ash as a substitution material are recorded in Table 4. Replacement caused an increase in slump value up to 20% replacement beyond that slump values were decreased. Shi-Cong and Chi-Sun (2009) investigated that at the fixed W.C. ratio, the slump of the furnace bottom ash replaced concrete was increased with an increment in the percentage of furnace bottom ash substitution. This was because of furnace bottom ash had higher absorption value than that of normal sand resulting more free water available and make the fresh concrete fluidity. Bai et al. (2005) had done the analysis with fixed water cement ratio and constant slump. They concluded that without changing water cement ratio, the slump was increased with the increment of the FBA and in constant slump range, the increment of the FBA; there was an abatement of free water content. Kim and Lee (2011) explained that the slump values were not changed as the bottom ash substitution proportion was increased. FBA consumed a lesser quantity of cement paste and water on the surface of the particle because of its lower porosity and water absorption.

5.1.7. Ferrochrome slag

Panda et al. (2013) found that the substitution of fer-rochrome slag as more or less exhibit comparative results as that with normal sand i.e. within the range 48 mm-60 mm.

5.1.8. Class F fly ash

Siddique (2003) reported that a decrease in slump value was observed while the replacement ratio increased for

class F type fly ash. For reference concrete the measured slump was 100 mm for W.C. ratio 0.47 whereas for 50% replacement of class F type fly ash measured slump was 20 mm at W.C. ratio 0.50.

5.1.9. Palm oil clinker

Ahmmad et al. (2014) have reported that a decrease in slump value was observed when replacement ratio increased by palm oil clinker fine aggregate. Slump of control concrete was found to be 196 mm, where slump of the concrete in which coarse aggregates were fully replaced by oil palm shell and natural sand substituted 50% by palm oil clinker fine aggregate was 83 mm.

So from the above discussion and Fig. 6, it can be concluded that steel slag concrete, WFS slag concrete, class F fly ash concrete, and palm oil clinker concrete show low workability whereas a slump value increases with replacement ratio increases in copper slag and GBF slag concrete, but in case of bottom ash concrete the slump value increases up to 20% replacement and beyond that it decreases.

5.2. Compaction factor test

The compaction factor test is in light of the definition, that workability of the concrete is that property that decides the quantity of work needed to create full compaction. The test comprises basically of applying a standard measure of work to the standard amount of concrete and measuring the subsequent compaction. The compaction factor of concrete in which fine aggregate is replaced by fer-rochrome slag found by Panda et al. (2013) is 0.88 and

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Industrial Waste Replacement (%)

-WFS (Prabhu et al.,2014) - Steel Slag (Devi and Gnanavel, 2014) -C. Slag (Al-jabri et al. ,2011) -Class F fly ash (Siddique,2003) -POC (Ahmmad et al.,2014) B.Ash [53] GBFS [53]

Figure 6. Slump of different industrial waste concretes.

90 100

0.92 showing midway workability for concrete items. Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) investigated with constant compaction factor 0.78-0.83 by replacing natural sand with WFS and bottom ash presented the results that increase in water demand with increase in supplanting of sand with waste foundry sand and bottom ash.

5.3. Air content

Siddique et al. (2009) found the air content between 4.2% and 4.5% in concrete in which natural sand is replaced by three percentages (10%, 20%, 30%) of used foundry sand. Singh and Siddique (2012b) found the same air content like Siddique et al. (2009) between 4.2% and 4.5% in concrete in which natural sand is replaced by four rates (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) of waste foundry sand, whereas Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) found it in the range of 2.13.4% in concrete in which natural sand is replaced by waste foundry sand and bottom ash. In fresh concrete, the air content of class F fly ash concrete is lower than that of normal weight concrete. The air content is 3.2%, 3.8%, 4.0% for 50%, 40%, 30% class F fly ash concrete respectively in comparison to the control concrete air content 5.2% (Siddique, 2003).

6. Leaching test

The general objective of the leaching tests is to quantify the mobility of chemical species present in waste or waste based materials in a given leachant. In other words leaching test is a test during which a material is put into contact with a leachant and some constituents of the material are extracted. Basar and Aksoy (2012) have reported that there was an increase in total organic carbon value with the addition of waste foundry sand, but TOC values were still under points of confinement characterised as EULFD class-III. Tripathi et al. (2013) observed that leaching of lead and cadmium from the concrete in which 70% natural sand supplanted by ISF slag were within acceptable limit 5 and 1 ppm respectively but these limits in the case of raw ISFS were higher. Morrison et al. (2003) worked to focus the levels of lead and zinc discharged from the ISF slag in different solutions. They had concluded that leaching of metal ions from the ISF slag could be controlled by utilisation of pulverized fuel ash and GBF slag. Panda et al. (2013) performed short tank leaching test on concrete specimen having a disparate percentage of fer-rochrome slag as fine aggregate and sand with normal distiled water with pH value 6.68 and with toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extraction liquid pH 2.88. They concluded that chromium leaching study results exhibited low level leaching, Cr (VI) and total chromium limitations are within the Indian regulatory discharge standard and USEPA. According to them blast furnace slag based Portland cement is best in disabling Cr (III) as well as Cr (VI).

7. Density of concrete

Concrete's compressive strength primarily relies on the workability of concrete. The poor workability of the concrete diminishes the compaction of the concrete and increases the porosity of the concrete. The increase in porosity decreases the density of the concrete and leads to a reduction in compressive strength. That's why density is one of the most prime variables to consider in the design of concrete structure.

7.1. Waste foundry sand

Prabhu et al. (2014) reported that the density of concrete in hardened stage decreases as the percentage of replacement of foundry sand increases. According to them many foundries still are using clay, sawdust and wood flour as a binding material to form the moulds. The presence of those particles reduces the specific density of the material, and also decreases the density of the concrete by creating air voids in the concrete. But according to Siddique et al. (2009) density of fresh concrete of control mix was almost equal to the density of concrete in which sand was substituted by foundry sand from 10% to 30%.

7.2. Steel slag

Qasrawi et al. (2009) reported that the utilisation of steel slag in concrete, density of concrete was increased because it supplanted sand which has a lesser specific gravity. However the increment in the density is little and considered as normal-density concrete.

7.3. Copper slag

Al-Jabri et al. (2009) reported that, there is merely increment in the density of the concrete with copper slag replacement increases, which is ascribed to the high specific gravity of copper slag. This perception is in accordance with comparative perception from different studies (Poovizhi and Kathirvel, 2015), where it has been stated that density of concrete was increased as the rate of substitution of sand by copper slag increases.

7.4. ISF slag

Morrison et al. (2003) noted that density of concrete increases when ISF slag was added as sand substitution because of high specific gravity of ISF slags. The other researchers like Tripathi et al. (2013) have also confirmed that the density of concrete was increased as the percentage of replacement of sand by ISF slag increases.

7.5. Bottom ash

Kim and Lee (2011) noticed that the densities of concrete in hardened stage linearly diminished as the

substitution proportion of bottom ash were increased. They found density was less than 2000 Kg/m3, when 100% natural sand was supplanted by bottom ash.

7.6. Class F type fly ash

Siddique (2003) reported that the fresh concrete density is almost similar to control mix up to replacement level 50%. They found fresh density of concrete in which fine aggregate is replaced 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by class F type fly ash were 2310, 2314, 2314, 2316 and 2319 kg/m3, respectively in comparison to control concrete fresh density 2308 kg/m3.

7.7. Palm oil clinker

Ahmmad et al. (2014) have stated that density control concrete was 2342 kg/m3, where the density of the concrete in which coarse aggregate fully replaced by oil palm shell and natural sand substituted 25%, 37.5% and 50% by palm oil clinker fine aggregate were 1913, 1902 and 1889 kg/m3, respectively.

From this review it can be observed that in cases like copper slag, steel slag and ISF slag density of concrete increases with inclusion of replacing industrial waste materials, density of class F type fly ash concrete and waste foundry sand concrete is almost similar with that of control concrete, but the concrete in which sand was replaced by bottom ash and palm oil clinker, the density of concrete decreases. It is observed that densities of all concrete specimens, where natural sand was replaced by different industrial wastes were within the range of 2000-2600 kg/m3 which are valid for normal concrete class (Basar and Aksoy, 2012). The densities of palm oil clinker concrete were ranging from 1360 to 1920 kg/m3 which agree with the limits specified for light weight aggregate concrete (Materials for Concrete Construction, 1999).

8. Hardened concrete properties

8.1. Compressive strength

Out of numerous tests connected to the concrete, com-pressive strength test is the extreme vital which gives a thought regarding all the qualities of concrete. Conducting this particular test one can determine whether concrete work has been done legitimately or not. All other mechanical parameters directly depend on the compressive strength of the concrete. Selected compressive strength values of concrete after 28 days of curing examined by different researchers in which fine aggregate fully or partially is replaced by different industrial wastes are listed in Table 4.

8.1.1. Waste foundry sand

Prabhu et al. (2014) reported that even though no marginal improvement in compressive strength was observed in foundry sand replaced concrete, the concrete mixture

containing foundry sand up to 20% replacement was relatively close to the strength of control mix, but beyond 20% replacement concrete mixtures showed lower strength than control mix. It is due to the fineness of foundry sand decreases the workability of concrete and decreases the compressive strength of concrete as a result. Basar and Aksoy (2012) reported that increased proportions of replaced waste foundry sand in concrete result in a dimin-ishment in compressive strength because of the higher surface area of fine molecules which prompted the decrease in the water cement gel in concrete matrix; henceforth no helpful tying of aggregates with cement paste can be completed. Singh and Siddique (2012a) stated that higher compressive strength of waste foundry sand concrete mixes was achieved than reference concrete mix. According to them, compressive strength of reference mix was 40 MPa at 28 days, where concrete mix with fine aggregate supplanted 15% by WFS, found 17% increment in compressive strength than control concrete. Salokhe and Desai (2009) carried out their test by supplanting sand with waste foundry sand from ferrous and non-ferrous casting industry. Concrete made with ferrous waste foundry sand displayed lesser compressive strength than reference concrete for 10% and 20% substitution rate and it was verging on equivalent to that of control blend for 30% substitution level. Though, the compressive strength of concrete in which 10% non-ferrous waste foundry sand were incorporated showed practically equivalent value as that of reference concrete and continues diminishing for 20% and 30% substitution level. Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) reported that there was a decline in compressive strength of concrete mixes with the incorporation of waste foundry sand and bottom ash as substitution in equal percentage of fine aggregate.

8.1.1.1. Fungal treated waste foundry sand

Kaur et al. (2012) reported that at 28 days of curing, the reference concrete mix achieved a compressive strength of 33.10 N/mm2, while 10%, 15% and 20% untreated WFS in concrete achieved a compressive strength of 33.76 N/ mm2, 29.30 N/mm2 and 27.80 N/mm2 individually. There is a negligible decline in compressive strength when sand is substituted partially by the WFS. In the event of sand substituted by fungal treated WFS demonstrates superior compressive strength which is even if more than control mix.

8.1.2. Steel slag

Devi and Gnanavel (2014) have reported that there is an increment in compressive strength of concrete by 27.04% in which sand was supplanted by 40% steel slag. Qasrawi et al. (2009) had concluded that improvement of compres-sive strength was achieved when fine aggregates were replaced by steel slag between 15% and 30%, beyond the 30% replacement level concrete mix exhibits lower com-pressive strength than the reference concrete mix at the age of 28 days, 90 days and 180 days.

8.1.3. Copper slag

Al-Jabri et al. (2009) have stated that the compressive strength of concrete is marginally more as copper slag replacement increments up to 50% after that the compres-sive strength was decreased notably because of increase in the free water which is excess than the needed for cement paste hydration. Al-Jabri et al. (2009) the same researcher also carried out the test by adopting fixed slump in the concrete by diminishing the water content as copper slag replacement amount increased. The maximum compressive strength was achieved by a concrete mix in 28-day with 100% substitution of copper slag which was 107.4 N/mm2 though the compressive strength for the reference concrete was 88.1 N/mm2. This proposes that there was around 22% enhancement in the compressive strength of concrete in which fixed slump was kept (Al-Jabri et al., 2009). Poovizhi and Kathirvel (2015) have also concluded that there was maximum increment of compressive strength when 40% normal sand substituted by copper slag.

8.1.3. ISF slag

Tripathi et al. (2013) have reported that the compressive strength of the reference control concrete with W.C ratio 0.55, 0.50, 0.45, and 0.40 were 41.70, 43.83, 45.77, and 48.20 N/mm2 individually. For elevated W.C ratio 0.55 compressive strength was diminishing with an increment in ISF slag, although this decline was not significant for sand substitutions up to 60%. The strength of ISF slag concrete mixes with W.C ratio 0.45 was like the control mix, while the strength of 0.40 W.C ratio ISF slag concrete was pretty nearly 5-16% more than the reference mix.

8.1.6. Bottom ash

Bai et al. (2005) examined the compressive strength of furnace bottom ash concrete by taking four different mix proportions with a constant WC ratio of 0.45 and at fixed slump, resulted that the compressive strength diminished with increment of furnace bottom ash in constant water cement ratio at all ages. However, at the constant slump the compressive strength of the furnace BA concrete was similar to that of the control concrete at all the ages. Singh and Siddique (2014) reported that they found the seven day compressive strength of BA concrete diminished with the increment in replacement level. With the advancement of age, the compressive strength of BA concrete mixture increased at a faster rate. Bottom ash concrete mixtures at 28 days of curing, achieved compressive strength comparable to that of control concrete mixture. At 90 days of curing, the compressive strength of bottom ash replaced by 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% in concrete mixtures was 5.27%, 12.29%, 6.30%, 6.93%, 2.67% and 2.06%, respectively higher than that of control concrete. At 365 days of curing, bottom ash concrete mixtures with 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% replaced level gained compres-sive strength 33.69%, 31.69%, 35.87%, 31.84%, 37.04% and 37.96%, respectively over their 28 day compressive strength as compared to 30.02% gained by control concrete. Shi-Cong and Chi-Sun (2009) also found the same result as Bai et al. (2005) that the compressive strength diminished with increment of furnace bottom ash in constant water cement ratio at all ages attributed to high initial free water content. However, at the constant slump, furnace bottom ash concrete compressive strength at all the ages was higher than the control concrete.

8.1.5. Blast furnace slag

Yuksel et al. (2006) have reported that the compressive strength of blast furnace slag concrete is diminishing when the rate of replacement increases. They achieved the com-pressive strength of control mix 15.47 MPa and 14.83 MPa at 25%, 12.24 MPa at 50%, 10.92 MPa at 75%, 9.66 MPa at 100% by inclusion of blast furnace slag in concrete. Valcuende et al. (2015) have concluded that at early ages, the concrete in which fine aggregate replaced by blast furnace slag show similar compressive strength to the reference concrete. However, at 365 days due to slag reactivity, the higher the quantity of sand replaced by slag the higher the concrete's compressive strength tends to be.

8.1.7. Ferrochrome slag

Panda et al. (2013) found that there is no significant change in compressive strength with the increment in slag percentage. At 100% substitution of slag, there is no significant change in compressive strength as compared with cubes with river sand as fine aggregate.

8.1.8. Class F fly ash

Siddique (2003) examined the compressive strength of class F fly ash concrete by taking six different mix proportions with a water cement ratio of 0.47, 0.48, 0.49, 0.49, 0.49, 0.50, respectively and resulted that strength achieved at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, were 26.4 MPa, 28.2 MPa, 30.8 MPa, 34.9 MPa, 38.9 MPa, 40 MPa,

3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000

- WFS (Siddique et al.,2009) Steel Slag (Qasrawi et al., 2009) Class F fly ash (Siddique,2003) ISF Slag (Morrison et al.,2003) -Bottom Ash (Siddique et al.,2014) Copper Slag (Wu et al. ,2010)

20 30 40 50 60 70 Industrial Waste Replacement (%)

Figure 7. Density of different industrial waste concretes.

90 100

respectively and concluded that compressive strength increases by increasing the rate of replacement of class F fly ash (see Fig. 7).

8.1.9. Palm oil clinker

Wahab et al. (2015) have reported that the compressive strength of palm oil clinker concrete is increasing when the rate of replacement increases. They achieved the compres-sive strength of control mix at 28 days of curing was 30.0 MPa, where the compressive strength for 5% and 10% replacement of natural sand by palm oil clinker fine aggregate in concrete was 33.06 MPa and 35.27 MPa, respectively.

Figs. 8 and 9 show the comparison of compressive strength of different industrial waste concretes in which Class F fly ash concrete, Copper slag concrete and ISF slag concrete up to 50 percentages of replacement, steel slag up to 40% replacement and palm oil clinker up to 10% replacement gives the more strength than control concrete. Waste foundry sand can be replaced up to 20% without affecting any effect on strength

8.2. Splitting tensile strength

The splitting tensile strength is a well known derivative test used for determining the tensile strength of concrete. Tensile strength is amongst the most imperative essential properties of concrete. An exact expectation of tensile strength of concrete will assist in reducing cracking problems, enhance shear strength forecast and minimise the failure of concrete in tension (Singh, 2012). Splitting tensile strength is about 9-10% of the compressive strength

(Basar and Aksoy, 2012). Selected splitting tensile strength of industrial waste concretes is shown in Table 4.

8.2.1. Waste foundry sand

Prabhu et al. (2014) have reported that the tensile strength of the concrete diminishes with the increment in the foundry sand substitution rate, however the tensile strength values of the mixtures with the replacement rate of 20%, are roughly equal to the strength of reference concrete. At 28 days of curing, compared to control mix the decrease in tensile strength of the concrete mixtures with 10%, 20% and 30% replaced by foundry sand was 4.53%, 6.03% and 7.08%, respectively. They also proposed a relation between split tensile strength and compressive strength and calculated split tensile strength from the Eq. (1)

fs = 0.85{fck )°'315 (1)

where, fst = Split tensile strength, fck = Compressive strength. Basar and Aksoy (2012) concluded that there is a systematic decrease in the splitting tensile strength of concrete as waste foundry sand replacement increases. Comparable results were reported by Salokhe and Desai (2009) that splitting tensile strength decreased with incorporation of waste foundry sand in concrete increases. They found splitting tensile strength of control mix was 3.3 MPa at 28 days. There was decline in strength to 1.87 MPa for 10%, 2.85 MPa for 20%, 2.71 MPa for 30% replaced by ferrous foundry sand and 2.08 MPa for 10% 2.64 MPa for 20%, 2.08 MPa for 30% replaced by non-ferrous foundry sand respectively. But results of Singh and Siddique (2012a) were not in similar trend to those of Prabhu et al. (2014), Basar and Aksoy (2012), Salokhe and Desai (2009) that with increment of foundry sand replacement

iiilnlihi

WFS (Prabhu WFS+BA ISF Slag F fly Ash GBF Slag Bottom Ash GBFS+FBA Steel Slag Copper Slag FeCr Slag POC

et al. , 2014) Aggarwal (Tripathi et Siddique Yuksel and Yuksel and Yuksel and Kothai and Poovizhi and (Panda et al. , (Wahab et a

and Siddique al. , 2013) (2003) Genc (2007) Genc (2007) Genc(2007) Malathy Kathirvel 2013) , 2015)

(2014) (2014) (2015)

I1-0 =

Figure 8. Compressive strength of different industrial waste concretes.

■ WFS (Prabhuet al., 2014)

■ WFS+BA Aggarwal and Siddique (2014)

■ ISF Slag (Tripathi я al., 2013)

■ Class F fly Ash, Siddique (2003)

■ GBF Slag, Yuksel and Genc (2007)

■ Bottom Ash, Yuksd and Genc (2007)

■ GBFS+FBA Yuksel and Gene(2007)

■ Steel Slag, Kothai and Malathy (2014) Copper Slag, Poovizhi and Kathirvel (2015)

■ FeCt Slag (Panda et al-, 2013) РОС (Wahabet al., 2015)

20% 30% 40%

Replacement in %

Figure 9. Compressive strength ratio, different industrial waste concretes/ control concretes.

in concrete, splitting tensile strength was diminished. Singh and Siddique (2012a) found splitting tensile strength of control mixture at 28 days was 4.23 MPa. It was increased by 3.55%, 8.27%, 10.40% and 6.38% in which sand was replaced 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by waste foundry sand, respectively than control mix (Singh and Siddique, 2012a). Etxeberria et al. (2010) found higher splitting tensile strength 3.0 MPa and 2.7 MPa in concrete mix where fine aggregates are replaced by chemically foundry sand and green foundry sand respectively in comparison with control mix splitting tensile strength 2.4 MPa. Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) reported that in 28 day curing, there was decrease in 13.46%, 1.44% and 30.29% in split tensile strength for mixes in which the sand replaced level was 10%, 20%, 60% by foundry waste sand and bottom ash equally and it was observed with an increase in 18.27%, 12.98%, and 8.17% for the mixes in which sand replaced level was 30%, 40%, 50% in comparison to the reference mix.

8.2.2. Steel slag

Devi and Gnanavel (2014) have found split tensile strength of control mix was 2.26 MPa and 2.47 MPa for concrete mix in which fine aggregate replaced by 40% steel slag which is 9.29% higher than the control mix.

8.2.3. Copper slag

Al-Jabri et al. (2009) found higher splitting tensile strength 6.2 MPa, 6.1 MPa and 6.1 MPa in concrete mix where fine aggregates replaced by 20%, 40%, and 50% with copper slag and found lesser splitting tensile strength 5.2 MPa, 4.8 MPa, 4.7 MPa, 4.4 MPa in concrete mix where fine aggregates are replaced by 10%, 60%, 80%, 100%, respectively in comparison with control mix splitting tensile strength 5.4 MPa. They stated that for design purpose the tensile strength can be experientially taken as

fst = 0.45V7ffi (2)

where fst and fcu are tensile and compressive strength at 28 days, respectively. Al-Jabri et al. (2011) have stated there was an increase in split tensile strength with incorporation of copper slag in concrete mix up to 80%. They found splitting tensile strength of reference nix at 28 days was 3.0 MPa and 3.5 MPa, 3.7 MPa, 3.8 MPa, 4.1 MPa,

3.6 MPa, 3.6 MPa in concrete mix where fine aggregates were replaced by 10%, 20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80% copper slag respectively. Wu et al. (2010) found splitting tensile strength 9.6 MPa in concrete mix where fine aggregates were replaced by 40% with copper slag and found less splitting tensile strength in concrete mix where fine aggregates were replaced by 20%, 60%, 80%, 100%, respectively in comparison with control mix splitting tensile strength

9.3 MPa. Similar results reported by Velumani and Nirmalkumar (2014) like Wu et al. (2010) state that split tensile strength of concrete with 40% surrogating fine aggregate by copper slag has the maximum split tensile strength and it was 7.25 N/mm2 where split tensile strength of conventional concrete was 4.89 N/mm2.

8.2.4. Blast furnace slag

Yuksel and Genc (2007) observed that the split tensile strength diminishes as the rate increments for granulated blast furnace slag replacements and no distinction in the split tensile strength was seen up to a 10% substitution. For the granulated blast furnace slag substitution up to 30%, the decrease in the split tensile strengths is 12%.

8.2.5. Bottom ash

Yuksel and Genc (2007) found that the split tensile strength diminishes as the rate for furnace bottom ash substitutions increases. They concluded that no distinction in the split strength was seen up to a 10% substitution and beyond that the reductions in the values of split strength for the furnace bottom ash substitutions were much higher. For 50% furnace bottom ash replacement split tensile strength was obtained 58% less than the control mix.

8.2.6. Class F fly ash

Siddique (2003) concluded from his research that the split tensile strength of class F fly ash concrete increases by increasing the percentage of replacement of class F fly ash. The split tensile strength accomplished in 28 days of curing at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, replaced by class F fly ash were 3.0 MPa, 3.1 MPa, 3.2 MPa,

3.4 MPa, 3.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa, respectively.

Figs. 10 and 11 show the comparison of Split tensile strength of different industrial waste concretes in which WFS + BA concrete, class F fly ash concrete and copper

WFS (Prabhu et WFS+BA Aggarwal F fly Ash Siddique GBF Slag Yuksel Bottom Ash Steel Slag Kothai Copper Slag al.,2014) and Siddique (2003) and Genc (2007) Yuksel and Genc and Malathy Poovizhi and

(2014) (2007) (2014) Kathirvel (2015)

■ 40%

■ 50%

Figure 10. Split tensile strength of different industrial waste concretes.

■U *J

r f TTT1

■ WFS (Prabhuet al.,2014)

■ WFS+BA, Aggarwal and Siddique(2014)

■ Class F fly Ash, Siddique (2003)

■ GBFSlag, Yuksd and Genc (2007)

■ Bottom Ash, Yuksd and Genc (2007)

■ Sted Slag, Kothai and Malathy (2014)

■ Copper Slag, Poovizhi and Kathirvel (2015)

30% 40%

Replacement in %

Figure 11. Split Tensile strength ratio, different industrial waste concretes/control concretes.

slag concrete give more strength than control concrete up to 50 percentages of replacement and steel slag up to 50% replacement shows similar strength like control concrete.

8.3. Flexural strength

of concrete increments by increasing the percentage of substitution of sand by steel slag in all ages. At 50% steel slag replacement, the flexural tensile strength of concrete achieve highest value beyond that though flexural tensile strength were higher than control mix, but less than the strength achieved at 50% replacement in all ages of curing.

Flexural strength is a measure to resist failure in bending of an unreinforced concrete beam or slab. Modulus of rupture or flexural Strength of concrete is about 10-20 percent of the compressive strength. Flexural strength of different industrial waste concretes is listed in Table 4.

8.3.1. Waste foundry sand

Prabhu et al. (2014) reported that like compressive strength, the flexural strength of the concrete mixtures up to a 20% substitution rate was comparatively equal to the flexural strength of the reference concrete mix beyond that the flexural strength of the concrete started to decrease significantly. The flexural strength of the control mixture was 4.087 N/mm2 at the age of 28 days, whereas the mixtures in which replacement level were 10%, 20% and 30% by waste foundry sand achieved strengths of 3.986, 3.988 and 3.879 N/mm2 respectively, which were only 2.47%, 2.42% and 5.08%, respectively lower than the strength of control mix. They suggested an Eq. (3) to estimate the flexural strength of the concrete from the compressive strength.

ff = 0.70 x f (3)

where, fft is the flexural strength and fck is the compressive strength. Siddique et al. (2009) explained in their research that flexural strength is increased marginally with increase in foundry sand content in concrete. Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) reported that in 28 day curing, there was a decrease in flexural strength 7.66%, 9.91%, 2.25%, 12.84%, 11.04% and 18.91% in concrete mix where the fine aggregate replaced by both equally waste foundry sand and bottom ash 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% in comparison with control mix flexural strength 4.44 MPa.

8.3.2. Steel slag

Devi and Gnanavel (2014) found that the flexural strength increased by 74.2% for 40% fine aggregate substitution by steel slag than the reference mix for 28 day curing. Qasrawi et al. (2009) reported that flexural strength

8.3.3. Copper slag

Al-Jabri et al. (2009) stated that flexural strength diminishes with increment of copper slag replacement ratio in concrete. They found flexural strength of control mix was 14.6 MPa and 13.0 MPa, 12.4 MPa, 12.5 MPa, 12.9 MPa, 11.1 MPa 10.3 MPa, 10.1 MPa in concrete mix where fine aggregates replaced by 10%, 20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80%, 100% respectively. Al-Jabri et al. (2011) have also got similar results that flexural strength diminishes with increment of copper slag substitution ratio in concrete. Wu et al. (2010) investigated the effect of copper slag as a substitute for fine aggregate on the flexural strength and found that the flexural strength diminishes with increment of copper slag presence in concrete, but at 40% copper slag substitution level flexural strength was achieved on 9.58 MPa which is 3% more than the control mix flexural strength 9.30 Mpa.

8.3.4. ISF slag

Tripathi et al. (2013) have chosen four water cement ratio (0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40) to study flexural strength of concrete where ISF slag incorporated as sand. The flex-ural strength of all concrete mix up to 60% ISF slag were similar with or somewhat higher than strength of the reference concrete at all water cement ratio, beyond 60% replacement, the flexural strength of ISFS mixtures at all water cement ratio decreases in all ages of curing.

8.3.5. Blast furnace slag

Yuksel et al. (2006) have designed two types of concrete mixes where in one concrete mix sand was used 0-7 mm and in another mix with fine aggregates in 0-3 mm and 0-7 mm sizes were used. The fine aggregate was replaced by blast furnace slag in five percentages which are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% in both groups. They concluded that the flexural strength of concrete decreases as the blast furnace slag inclusion in concrete increases. The flexural strength of concrete mix in which 100% sand was replaced

20 15 10 5 0

HI HI Ml III feiiHil 1

WFS (Prabhu WFS+BA F fly Ash GBF Slag Bottom Ash Steel Slag

et al.,2014) Aggarwal and Siddique Yuksel and Yuksel and Kothai and

Siddique (2003) Genc (2007) Genc (2007) Malathy

(2014) (2014)

Copper Slag POC (Wahab Poovizhi and et al. , 2015) Kathirvel (2015)

Figure 12. Flexural strength of different industrial waste concretes.

by blast furnace slag is 3.56 MPa in comparison with control mix flexural strength 5.15 MPa and other flexural strength value are listed in Table 4. Yuksel and Genc (2007) observed that for the 10% substitution blast furnace slag, flexural strength increased 10% than control mix. For the 20% and 50% blast furnace slag substitutions, the tensile strength values were near to the control specimen value.

8.3.6. Bottom ash

Yuksel and Genc (2007) observed that furnace bottom ash replacement in concrete decreases the flexural strength quite considerably. The flexural strength of control mix was 4.71 MPa, where for 10%, 20% and 30% replacement, the flexural strength were 3.7 MPa, 3.66 MPa and 3.72 MPa, respectively. The result shows a decline in the tensile strength is almost 10% for 10% replacement of sand by furnace bottom ash and important to note that there is virtually no change in the tensile strength values beyond the 10% furnace bottom ash replacement (see Fig. 12).

8.3.7. Class F fly ash

Siddique (2003) reported the flexural behaviour of class F fly ash concrete as that behaves same like compressive strength that flexural strength increases when the percentage replacement increased. The flexural strength of 50% class F fly ash concrete at 28 days of curing was 4.3 MPa with respect to control concrete strength 3.7 MPa (see Table 5).

8.3.8. Palm oil clinker

Wahab et al. (2015) have stated that the flexural strength of palm oil clinker concrete is increasing when the rate of replacement increases. The flexural strength of control mix at 28 days of curing was 6.17 MPa and 7.90 MPa at 5%, 8.22 MPa at 10% by substitution of palm oil clinker as fine aggregate in concrete.

Figs. 12 and 13 shows the comparison of Flexural strength of different industrial waste concretes, which shows better flexural strength than control concrete up to 50 percentages of replacement in case of class F fly ash concrete and copper slag concrete. Waste foundry sand concrete up to 20% and steel slag concrete up to 50% replacement shows similar strength like control concrete.

Palm oil clinker concrete up to 10% substitution exhibits more flexural strength than reference concrete.

8.4. Modulus of elasticity (MOE)

Modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material and utilised to describe the elastic properties of items when they are stretched or compressed. Young's modulus of concrete is a standout amongst the most vital parameters in the design of structural members. Waste foundry sand is the only industrial waste materials on which modulus of elasticity property has been studied. There are less number of researchers who have found out this E-value on one industrial waste concrete in which sand is supplanted by WFS. Basar and Aksoy (2012) reported that there was a lessening in the modulus of elasticity of concrete mix in which normal sand is partially substituted by WFS. The modulus of elasticity of the concrete mixes was assessed by them at the ages of 7, 28, 56 and 90 days utilising the observational relationship recommended by TS 500:2000 (TS 500, 2000) as follows:

Ecj = 3250 fj + 14,000 Mpa (4)

where, Ecj is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete in MPa at j-day and fckj is the compressive strength of the concrete in MPa at j-day. Singh and Siddique (2012a) reported that incorporation of waste foundry sand in concrete led to increment in modulus of elasticity at all ages. Increase in modulus of elasticity by 1.67%, 5.01%, 6.35% and 4.35% of concrete mix was observed in which fine aggregate was replaced by 5% WFS, 10% WFS, 15% WFS and 20% WFS respectively than the control concrete mixture modulus of elasticity 29.91 GPa in 28 day curing. Etxeberria et al. (2010) concluded that there is a decrease in modulus of elasticity by increasing the substitution level of waste foundry sand in concrete mix. Further, variation in modulus of elasticity was observed linearly increasing up to 15%, at 20% supplanting of natural sand with foundry sand, it starts decreasing. At 28-day, control mixture acquired a MOE of 25.1 GPa, whereas modulus of elasticity of mixes with 10% used foundry sand (UFS), 20% UFS and 30% UFS accomplished 26.75, 27.60, and 28.4 GPa individually (Etxeberria et al., 2010). Siddique (2003) stated

Table 5

Selected Density of Industrial waste Concrete.

Author Industrial waste W/C % Replacement Fresh density (kg/m3) Harden density (kg/m3)

Prabhu et al. (2014) WFS 0.44 0 - 2387

10 - 2383

20 - 2366

30 - 2358

40 - 2338

50 - 2315

Siddique et al. (2009) WFS 0.50 0 2331 -

10 2332 -

20 2332 -

30 2332 -

Al-Jabri et al. (2009) Copper Slag 0.35 0 - 2568

10 - 2530

20 - 2588

40 - 2586

50 - 2625

60 - 2658

80 - 2673

100 - 2700

Wu et al. (2010) Copper Slag 0.27 0 2370 -

20 2380 -

40 2410 -

60 2430 -

80 2450 -

100 2480 -

Tripathi et al. (2013) ISF Slag 0.50 0 2351 -

10 2414 -

20 2406 -

30 2420 -

40 2425 -

50 2494 -

60 2428 -

70 2593 -

Morrison et al. (2003) ISF Slag 0.74 0 2410 -

50 2625 -

100 2820 -

Kim and Lee (2011) Bottom Ash 0.30 0 - 2336

25 - 2281

50 - 2260

75 - 2240

100 - 2220

Siddique (2003) Class F fly ash 0.47 0 2308 -

0.48 10 2310 -

0.49 20 2314 -

0.49 30 2314 -

0.49 40 2316 -

0.50 50 2319 -

WFS - waste foundry sand, ISF slag - imperial smelting furnace slag.

■ WFS (Prabhu et al.,2014)

■ WFS+BA, Aggarwal and Siddique (2014)

■ Class F fly Ash, Siddique (2003)

■ Sted Slag, Kothai and Malathy (2014)

■ Copper Slag, Poovizhi and Kathirvel (2015)

■ GBFSlag, Yuksel and Genc (2007) Bottom Ash, Yuksd and Genc (2007)

■ РОС (Wahab et al., 2015)

Replacement in %

Figure 13. Flexural strength ratio, different industrial waste concretes/control concrete.

that the modulus of elasticity of class F fly ash concretes up to 50% substitution was higher than the control blend.

8.4.1. Relation between compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity

Dynamic modulus test is a simple nondestructive test. The dynamic modulus of elasticity of waste foundry concrete can be predicted from compressive strength using equations as recommended by IS 456 (2000), IS 13311 (Part 1) (1992) and proposed by Prabhu et al. (2014) which are

E = 5000 x VfCk q(1 +1)(1 - 2i)

1 — i

where E is the dynamic Young's Modulus of elasticity in Mpa, fck is the compressive strength of concrete, p is the density of concrete in kg/m3, V is the pulse velocity in m/s and i is the dynamic poison's ratio of the concrete. The difference between the dynamic elastic modulus values computed using IS 456 (2000) and IS 13311(1) (1992) does not show any great difference and the values were relatively close (Prabhu et al., 2014).

8.5. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV)

The ultrasonic pulse velocity test is a non-destructive test to evaluate the consistency and relative nature of concrete. UPV test involves the computation of electronic wave velocity through concrete. The quality of concrete is analysed by utilising this test. Khatib et al. (2013) found a similar trend that decreases in USPV decreased with an increase of, waste foundry sand content in concrete. USPV test was performed by Singh and Siddique (2012a) and USPV value at 28 days of curing was found 4.231 km/s, 4.245 km/s, 4.253 km/s, 4.266 km/s, 4.255 km/s for concrete in which sand is supplanted by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of WFS, from this it can be concluded that as the rate of substitution increases the value of USPV increased. Siddique et al. (2015) have also got similar results that increase in WFS in concrete the USPV values were increased. Velumani and Nirmalkumar (2014) have reported that USPV values for concrete mixes were increased in which fine aggregate were replaced by copper slag. They found maximum UPSV value 5.208 km/s for both the concrete mix containing 40% and 100% copper slag in comparison with control mix UPSV value 4.615 km/s.

8.5.1. Relation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity

Khatib et al. (2013) describe the relationship between UPV and strength for all curing days for all concrete mixes Y = 0.019e1 6009x, with R2 = 0.9699 indicating strong relation, where X is the UPV and Y is the compressive strength.

This equation is by all accounts free of WFS content or the curing time.

8.5.2. Prediction of modulus of elasticity using ultrasonic pulse velocity

Dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed) can be measured utilising ultrasonic pulse velocity. The equation utilised for this intention was given in Eq. (7) that needs Poisson's ratio. UPSV technique was used by Yuksel et al. (2011) for measuring dynamic modulus of elasticity

Ed = V 2p/K (7)

where Ed = dynamic modulus of elasticity in KN/mm2,

V = compression wave velocity in km/s, K = (1 — v)/[(1 + v) (1-2v)], p = density in kg/m3, v = dynamic Poisson's ratio which was assumed as 0.2 for the test.

9. Durability of industrial waste concrete

9.1. Water absorption and permeability

High water absorption ratio of concrete mixes has lower strengths (Basar and Aksoy, 2012). The capillary water absorption as demonstrated by rate of water consumed per unit area and it increases when rate of substitution of WFS increased. An increase in water absorption capacity causes diminishing in compressive strength. A linear function appears to describe the relation between strength and water absorption coefficient by Khatib et al. (2013), that is:

Y = —13.349X + 59.949, with an R2 = 0.9234 showing a decent relationship, where X is the water absorption coefficient and Y is the compressive strength. Basar and Aksoy (2012) found water absorption for concrete mixture containing WFS was found 5.4%, 5.8%, 6.4%, and 6.6% on concrete containing 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of WFS at the age of 28 days in comparison of control mix water absorption 5%. It is apparent that the traditional concrete without WFS shows slightest water absorption ratio and there is increment in water absorption ratio when the rate of substitution of WFS increases (Basar and Aksoy, 2012). For the durability of hardened concrete, porosity and water absorption are vital pointers. Diminishment of water retention & porosity can extraordinarily upgrade the long haul performance. Decrease in porosity additionally enhances the compressive & flexural strengths of concrete (Salokhe and Desai, 2009). Salokhe and Desai (2009) have reported that no obvious impact of foundry waste sand on water absorption of mixes was seen except concrete mix with 20% ferrous foundry sand shows water absorb 1.13% in comparison to the control mix water absorption 1.91%. Al-Jabri et al. (2009) concluded that up to 40% substitution of sand by copper slag there is a general diminishing in the surface water absorption, after that the water absorption quickly increases. They recommend that the substitution of 40% of copper slag in the concrete blend will have reduced surface water absorption. Velumani and Nirmalkumar (2014) found a similar trend

that the rate of substation of copper slag increases up to 40%, the surface water absorption decreases. Yuksel and Genc (2007) observed that when the fine aggregate is replaced by either granulated blast furnace slag, furnace bottom ash or both, water absorption ratios of concretes was increased. For 20% GBF slag and/or furnace bottom ash substitutions the water absorption ratios are 5.0%, 4.66%, 4.73% with respect to the control specimen value 4.73%. Kaur et al. (2012) reported that 20% WFS concrete with the addition of fungal (Aspergillus spp.) treated shows decrease 68.8% in water absorption and 45.9% in porosity.

9.2. Initial surface absorption

To evaluate the durability of high performance concrete the initial surface absorption test was conducted by Al-Al-Jabri et al. (2009) and found surface absorption diminishing was for the most part sharp during the initial 30 min, diminished subsequently up to 120 min. The highest absorption rate was observed in concrete mix with 100% copper slag Concrete mixes with 40% copper slag and 20% copper slag demonstrated the lowest absorption rate for the whole time term. Khatib et al. (2013) reported that rate of initial water absorption is generally higher when the waste foundry sand content in the mixture increases. Following 1 day of curing, the water absorption coefficient is detectably higher than that at the other curing periods. The WAC decreases for all blends beyond 7 days of curing (see Fig. 14).

9.3. Rapid chloride permeability test

A durable concrete is the particular case that performs attractively under expected presentation condition amid its service life period. One of the fundamental attributes affecting the strength of concrete is its porousness to the ingress of chloride. The chloride particle introduce in the concrete can cause detrimental effects on concrete additionally on the reinforcement. Due to chloride particle penetration, swelling of concrete is occurred (Singh and Siddique, 2012a). Singh and Siddique (2012a) found on the rapid chloride permeability test for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% substitution by WFS at 28 days of curing, charges passed were 1368, 1250, 1150, 1060 and 1190 coulombs. Concrete mix in which WFS content increased up to 15% coulomb

I 20 | 10

y = 0.019e1-61

♦ ■ 1 day _Z Day R2 = 0.9699

▲ 28 Day

♦-* .....

UPV (km/Sec)

Figure 14. Relationship between compressive strength and UPV (Khatib et al., 2013).

value increased, which demonstrate that concrete turned out to be denser. At 20% WFS concrete, there is marginal increment in coulomb value in comparison to 15% WFS concrete but yet it is not as much as control concrete mix. The results obtained for all concrete mixtures are low permeability ranges as per ASTM C 1202 (between 1000 and 2000). With the increment of WFS percentage in concrete mixtures, RCPT values are diminished. Siddique et al. (2015) have compared rapid chloride permeability in M20 and M30 grades of concrete with sand substituted by spent foundry sand. In both the grades of concrete coulombs charge diminish with increase in foundry sand content as well as with age, The RCPT values in coulombs found by Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) were 578, 628, 616, 600, 664, 652, and 741 in concrete mix where fine aggregates are replaced 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% by waste foundry sand, respectively at 90 days. From this it can be concluded that chloride-ion permeability of concrete mixtures increased with the increment in waste foundry sand but still have low permeability as per ASTM C 1202-97 (ASTM C1202, 0000). Devi and Gnanavel (2014) reported that charge passed in coulombs more in 40% fine aggregate replacement by steel slag concrete than conventional concrete, but still comes under low. According to Yuksel et al. (2006) charge passing through the concrete samples in RCPT were 2016.27, 1319.94 and 1347.03 in concrete mix where 0%, 25% and 50% fine aggregate were replaced by granulated blast furnace slag. Bilir (2012) have concluded that inclusion of non-ground GBF Slag, bottom ash or both as fine aggregate in concrete builds the resistance against chloride penetration. Concrete up to 40% replacement with GBF slag and bottom ash single or both as fine aggregate demonstrate lower charge passing, even if at 50% substitution proportions the charges passing are more than control mix but within the same low chloride particle permeability group corresponding to ASTM C 1202-97 (ASTM C1202, 0000). Singh and Siddique (2014) found in bottom ash concrete mixtures, resistance to chloride ion penetration increased with increase in coal bottom ash content in concrete. The charge passed through all bottom ash concrete blends was lower than that passed through reference specimen at all the ages of curing. It is obvious from test outcomes that after 28 days of curing age, resistance to chloride ion penetration increased significantly due to poz-zolanic action of coal bottom ash. Shi-Cong and Chi-Sun (2009) compared the chloride ion penetration resistance on concrete mix with constant water cement proportion and steady slump. With increasing percentages of furnace bottom ash in concrete mix with fixed water cement ratio, the resistance to chloride-particle ingress of the concrete mixes were less, where resistance to chloride-ion infiltration of all furnace bottom ash concrete mixes at same slump range was superior to anything that of the reference mix and the impact was most noteworthy for the FBA blends presumably because of the pozzolanic impact between the small FBA particles and the hydrated cement paste. The

3000 1 2500

5 2000

1 1500

I 1000

—i i i i-1 i i i-1-

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Industrial Waste Replacement (%)

Chloride ion penetrability as per ASTM C1202-1997 >4000 High 2000-4000 Moderate 1000-2000 Low 100-1000 Very low <100 Negligible

» Sted Slag, Deri and Gnanavel (2014) —«—WFS, Singh and Siddique (2012) —•— BA Singh and Siddique (2014) -GBFS. Bilir(2012)

Figure 15. Effect of Industrial waste on chloride ion permeability.

resistances to chloride ion penetration in palm oil clinker concrete mixes are less due to the porous nature of palm oil clinker aggregate (Mohammed et al., 2011).

Fig. 15 shows the comparison of effect of industrial waste on chloride ion permeability of different industrial waste concretes, which shows maximum decline in RCPT value at 30% in Bottom ash concrete, GBFS concrete and 15% in WFS concrete.

9.4. Abrasion resistance

Singh and Siddique (2012b) reported that the presence of increasing amounts of waste foundry sand in concrete mix the depth of wear diminished and improved the abrasion resistance. Tripathi et al. (2013) compared the abrasion resistance of concrete mix with 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 water cement ratio. They found water cement ratio 0.55 and 0.50 in concrete mixes, the depth of wear increased with an increment in the supplanting of sand with ISF slag. The mixes for water cement ratio 0.45, the depth of wear diminished marginally for sand substitutions up to 40% by ISF slag and increment noticed after that. The depth of wear in the water cement ratio 0.40 mixtures were alike to control mix up to 40% sand substitutions and beyond that slightly increased. They concluded that the porosity of ISF Slag concrete may increase because of its irregular particle shape which impacts the depth of wear. Yuksel et al. (2007) compared surface abrasion on concrete mix with inclusion of GBF slag, BA or both as river sand in concrete and concluded that loss of mass is diminishing marginally for low substitution proportions and it increases again for high substitution ratios. The Surface abrasion loss expressed in mass in cm3/50 cm2 and the

values were within the upper limit 15 cm3/50 cm2 as specified by ASTM C 936 (1982).

Fig. 16 shows the comparison of effect of industrial waste on depth of wear in abrasion test of different industrial waste concretes which shows depth of wear minimum at 30% replaced ISFS concrete and at 15% replaced waste foundry sand concrete.

9.5. Acid resistance

Concrete being alkaline in nature is susceptible to attack by sulphuric acid formed from either bacterium processes in sewage system or sulphur dioxide available in the atmosphere (Singh and Siddique, 2014). Devi and Gnanavel (2014) have carried out their acid resistance experiment of concrete cube in both sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. From their outcome, the weight reduction is less for 40% substitution of normal sand by steel slag when compared to the control concrete. By adding steel slag in fine aggregate has preferable acid resistance than reference concrete. At the point when contrasted the weight reduction is more when dipped in sulphuric acid than hydrochloric acid, this is on account of the lack of hydration rate which is high in Sulphuric acid. Amount of CSH gel constituted by the hydration activity, when dipped in sulphuric acid will be lower than when dipped in hydrochloric acid. They found external surface of the cubes submerged in sulphuric acid had deteriorated more than the cubes submerged in hydrochloric acid.

9.5.1. Loss in mass

Singh and Siddique (2014) reported that bottom ash concrete mix performed slightly better than control

Industrial Waste Replacement (%)

Figure 16. Effect of Industrial waste on depth of wear in abrasion test.

concrete, when immersed in 3% sulphuric acid solution and percentage loss of weight of CBA concrete specimens decreased with increment in CBA incorporation in concrete. After 28 days of immersion period the weight loss of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% and 100% bottom ash concrete mixtures was 9.53%, 10.05%, 8.97%, 8.94%, 8.75% and 7.89%, respectively as compared to 10.87% weight loss of the control concrete. From this it is evident that loss of mass in bottom ash concrete is less than reference mix.

9.5.2. Change in compressive strength

The loss in 28-day compressive strength of 0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% and 100% bottom ash concrete mixtures was 49.23%, 48.76%, 50%, 49.10%, 40.32%, 35.52% and 37.11%, respectively. The percentage loss of 28 days compressive strength diminished with increase in coal bottom ash content in concrete, perhaps the lower permeability of bottom ash concrete mixtures contributed towards enhancing the resistance to external sulphuric acid attack (Singh and Siddique, 2014).

9.5.3. Relation between percentage loss in weight and reduction compressive strength

Singh and Siddique (2014) expressed that the loss in compressive strength increment approximately linearly with the increase in mass loss of concrete specimens and derived an equation of relationship between mass loss and compressive strength loss of concrete due to external sulphuric acid attack is given as under

Ar = 4.2383Am + 7.2194 R2 = 0.9467 (8)

where, Ar = percentage loss in compressive strength, Am = percentage loss in mass.

9.6. Sulphate resistance

Permeability of concrete plays an important role in protecting against external sulphate attack. Sulphate attack can take the form of expansion, loss in compressive strength and loss in mass of concrete. The sulphate related expansion of concrete is associated with the formation of ettringite and gypsum (Singh and Siddique, 2014). Since magnesium sulphate attack is more severe on concrete, Singh and Siddique (20140 immersed the concrete specimen in a 10% solution of magnesium sulphate and found at 28 days of immersion period, the expansion values (%) of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% and 100% bottom ash concrete mixtures were 53.33 x 10—6, 60 x 10—6, 66.67 x 10—6, 60 x 10—6, 53.33 x 10—6 and 53.33 x 10—6 respectively as compared to 50 x 10—6 of control concrete.

9.6.1. Loss in mass

Singh and Siddique (2014) reported that bottom ash concrete specimen, even after 210 days of immersion in 10% magnesium sulphate solution, no loss in mass of all the concrete specimens was observed.

9.6.2. Change in compressive strength

There was no reduction in compressive strength took place after immersion in 10% magnesium sulphate solution rather it continued to increase during the test period. After 28 days of immersion period, percentage increase in com-pressive strength of the bottom ash concrete mixture was lower than that of reference concrete. However, after 90 days of immersion period, increase in compressive strength of 30%, 75%, and 100% bottom ash concrete mixes was higher than that of reference concrete; this indicates that the cement continued to hydrate in magnesium sulphate solution over the test period. The increase in strength of BA concrete may be attributed to continuous hydration and the filling of pores with CSH gel formed because of pozzolanic action of bottom ash (Singh and Siddique, 2014).

9.7. Drying shrinkage

Hardened concrete in unsaturated air experiences drying shrinkage. It is the movement of water, which causes expansion, or shrinkage of hardened concrete (Yuksel et al., 2006). According to Singh and Siddique (2014) shrinkage strains was diminished with the increase in CBA content in concrete. At 90 days of drying period, the shrinkage strains of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% and 100% bottom ash concrete mixtures were 520 x 10—6, 413.33 x 10—6, 406.67 x 10—6, 366.67 x 10—6, 320 x 10—6 and 300 x 10—6, respectively where during the same period, shrinkage strain of control concrete was 493.33 x 10—6. The reduced shrinkage strain exhibited by bottom ash concrete mixes was probably due to lower free water cement ratio. During the mixing procedure the porous particles of dry coal bottom ash retained part of water internally. It is also believed that, the porous coal bottom ash particles released the water during drying of specimens. This resulted in lesser shrinkage strains on drying of bottom ash concrete mixtures (Singh and Siddique, 2014). Shi-Cong and Chi-Sun (2009) have reported that the similar conclusion that drying shrinkage diminished with the increment of the furnace bottom ash content. Bai et al. (2005) studied drying shrinkage on concrete mix in same water cement proportion and constant slump and concluded that at 0.45 and 0.55 fixed water cement ratio, values of the drying shrinkage of furnace bottom ash concretes were lower than the reference mix at all curing ages but at the constant decided slump ranges the drying shrinkage of the furnace bottom ash concretes was higher than reference mix. Valcuende et al. (2015) found that higher the drying shrinkage in the concrete mix with higher the blast furnace slag content in concrete mix. Since the concretes made with slag are more porous, water is lost faster, as can be seen evaporates the internal pressure in the capillary network increases and promotes drying shrinkage.

9.8. High-temperature effect

Yuksel et al. (2006) concluded that under the high temperature effect, there has not been a decrease in the strength

of the concrete in which both type 0-3 mm and 0-7 mm sand were used with respect to control concrete provided that GGBFS/sand ratio is less than 75%. Yuksel et al. (2007) reported that the residual strength of concrete in which sand was substituted by blast furnace slag and bottom ash up to 40% is higher than control specimen. This implies that substitution of GBFS and/or BA does constructive outcomes on resistance to high temperature.

9.9. Freeze-thaw resistance

Yuksel et al. (2007) used 90-day's values of compressive strength as referral values to compare the strength of concrete replaced with blast furnace slag, bottom ash and both as river sand in different ratio series specimens after the freeze-thaw cycles. Concrete mixes up to 20% substitution, there is increment in resistance to freeze-thaw and decreases again for the replacement level above 20%. Bilir (2012) stated that the loss of strength after the freeze-thaw cycles in concrete replaced with 20% and 30% granulated blast furnace slag was 2.21% and 2.28% with respect to concrete mix loss 6.49% at 90 days of curing. Concrete replaced with 20% and 30% bottom ash the loss of strength after the freeze-thaw cycles was 4.92% and 5.53% with respect to concrete mix loss 6.49%. Therefore concrete made by utilising GBF slag and BA as sand substitution can be stated as durable to freezing-thawing and 20-30% substitution proportions can be acknowledged as an ideal substitution proportion.

9.10. Drying-wetting effect

Yuksel et al. (2007) used 90-day's compressive strength values as referral values to compare the strength of concrete replaced with that of granulated blast furnace slag, bottom ash and both as fine aggregate in different ratio series specimens after the drying-wetting cycles. As indicated by them, strength of concrete diminishes with rate of increment of substitution of GBF slag, bottom ash and both after drying-wetting impact.

9.11. Carbonation

Siddique et al. (2011) have carried out carbonation test and reported that with increase in rate of substitution of foundry sand in concrete shows increase in carbonation depth. For each increment in 10% foundry sand, i.e. mix from 10% to 60%, there is at a normal 0.17 mm increment in carbonation depth in concrete mixes at 90 days. Also, at 365 days at a normal 0.33 mm increment in carbonation depth was seen in concrete mixes. The most extreme carbonation depth watched around 2.17 mm at 90 days and 5 mm at 365 days for concrete mixes which is far less than the cover of reinforcing steel bars to cause corrosion in which sand was substituted by 60% foundry sand.

10. Structural behaviour of industrial waste-concrete

10.1. Deflection test

Devi and Gnanavel (20140 reported that as the load rises, the deflection increases moderately in RCC beams when part of the sand supplanted by steel slag. Load deflection diagrams are for 40% replacement compared with conventional concrete. RCC beams with steel slag indicate particularly the same deflection as reference concrete.

10.2. Pull-off strength

Tripathi et al. (2013) did an experiment by taking steel slag as a part substitution of natural sand and examined the pull-off strength with different water cement ratios. They found an increment in strength for water cement ratio

0.50 mixtures up to 60% ISFS inclusion and for water cement proportion 0.45, sand substitution in between 40 and 60%. The pull-off strength of concrete mixes with water cement ratio 0.40 was alike to the reference concrete. The pull-off strength of concrete mixes with water cement proportion 0.55 with an increment of the sand substitution level. It is evident that ISF slag does not unfavorably influence the tensile strength of cover-zone concrete.

11. Micro-structural analysis

Micro-structural analyses were conducted using X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) by many researchers.

11.1. X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD)

XRD technique is conducted to analyse the components of concrete mixes (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014). The X-ray diffraction standard and examination of the concrete

1.e. reference mix, and 20% WFS concrete mixes ware carried out by Basar and Aksoy (2012) and when the qualitative, quantitative and morphological analysis results of reference concrete and 20% waste foundry sand containing concrete are investigated, no significant differences between them are observed (Fig. 17).

Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) have reported that X-ray diffraction design investigation of the concrete i.e. reference mix, and concrete mixes with waste foundry sand and bottom ash was done at the age of 365 days and in the qualitative and quantitative investigation of cement, there was strong overlapping of major diffraction peaks of all the main phases of cement constituent in the angular range of 2h values from 30° to 35° making the distinguishing of the individual parts exceptionally difficult. In all the mixes, C2S, C3S, and C4AF crests are not noticeable showing that they may be completely consumed or overlapping of the peaks of un-hydrated cement. SiO2 peak demonstrating free silica in control concrete was seen at 1800 (Fig. 18). The X-ray diffraction pattern observed in concrete mix

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Figure 17. X-ray diffraction patterns of (a) control mix and (b) concrete mix having 20% WFS (Basar and Aksoy, 2012).

Figure 18. X-ray diffraction patterns of control mix. (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014).

with 5% waste foundry sand and 5% bottom ash, respectively was similar to control mix as the overall replacement of the sand was only 10%. The concrete mix with 20-50% waste foundry sand and bottom ash showed SiO2 peak between 4000 and 4500 (Fig. 19).

The strength variation in all the above mixes was comparatively less, 60% waste foundry sand and bottom ash concrete gave the SiO2 peak at 3100. Phase determination was not carried out as the mixes are complex.

Kaur et al. (2012) suggest from XRD results that fungal culture (Aspergillus spp.) is competent to form good C-S-H gel than untreated waste foundry sand (WFS) containing concrete which demonstrates that Aspergillus spp. increase

Figure 19. X-ray diffraction patterns of concrete mix having 50% WFS & BA (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014).

the ability of cement to respond properly with foundry sand and consequently because of which C-S-H gel development increments. Presence of silica in WFS is utilised to form C-S-H gel, thus hardened the concrete containing fungal treated WFS. Singh and Siddique (2014) studied the XRD analysis that indicates the concrete specimens were not damaged by the external attack of sulphate. The increase in compressive strength of concrete also supports that sulphate ions could not penetrate and deteriorate the concrete specimens up to the age of the test. After 180 days of immersion in a 10% solution of magnesium sulphate, no change in phase composition of concrete was observed in XRD spectrums. They concluded that from an analysis of XRD spectrums, the absolute intensity of portlandite peaks of bottom ash concrete mixtures except 20% BA concrete mixture was lower than that in control concrete (see Fig. 20).

11.2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

It is no doubt understood that, the calcium-silica-hydr ate (C-S-H) is major phase present (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014). The variables that impact the mechanical behaviour of C-S-H stages are the grain size, grain shape, grain distribution, grain concentration, grain orientation, pore structure and mixture topology, the synthesis of scattered/continual stages. Aggarwal and Siddique (2014) have studied the micrograph especially SEM picture at 1.5 KX magnifications of reference concrete. It demonstrates the formation of proper and clear C-S-H gel in various stages. Micrograph of concrete mix with 10% replacement by WFS and BA shows, the quantity of voids in the concrete mix has remarkably decreased and the C-S-H gel paste was not as broadly spread as it was in the reference blend, demonstrating some detestation to binding paste but more significantly, the impact of waste foundry sand and bottom ash has been defeatist on strength due to less amount of waste foundry sand and bottom ash, clearly evident as the strength of the mix has declined remarkably. The microstructure likewise demonstrates the existence of waste

Figure 20. (A) Micrograph of reference concrete specimen (B) Micrograph concrete mix having 10% WFS & BA (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014).

foundry sand and bottom ash particles of different sizes at different spots. The reduction in strength ascribed to the non-arrangement of legitimate C-S-H gel when contrasted with microstructure of control mix. The micrographs of concrete mix in which fine aggregates replaced by waste foundry sand and bottom ash equally in 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% show similarity in the pattern formation of C-S-H gel in these mixes with all of them nearly having same strength. The micrograph of concrete mix with 60% replacement shows that the mix has crumbled with leaving waste foundry sand and bottom ash particles from mix. The C-S-H gel couldn't be seen at many places in the micrograph (Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014).

The Scanning electron magnifying instrument (SEM) pictures were seen by Yuksel et al. (2007) for the specimens at 90-days and found the control concrete demonstrates a thick structure and no sign of permeable structure. Concretes mixes with low-rate substitution by granulated blast furnace slag are alike to control concrete with consider to microstructure, but when the substitution proportion is more than 30% it demonstrates porous structure (Fig. 21B). In the case of concrete mix, where bottom ash used as fine aggregate structure is turning out to be a larger number of permeable than the reference concrete (Fig. 21C). As the rate of bottom ash substitution grows, the structure is turning out to be more permeable having considerably more pores dispersed around the surface of the aggregate. In this way, the development of discrete particle and permeable territory near to the total surfaces may be the major reason in diminishing the values of

compressive strength with an increment in the rate of bottom ash in sand substitution (Yuksel et al., 2007).

The similar results are obtained by Bilir (2012) in respect of SEM image of blast furnace slag concrete and reported when rate of substitution more than 30% exhibit porous structure and in case of FBA concrete, structure were more permeable than the reference concrete. Singh and Siddique (2014) were studied Scanning Electron Micrographs of fractured pieces of control concrete and 50%, 75%, 100% coal bottom ash concrete generated from compression test of specimens after 180 days immersed in the 10% magnesium sulphate solution. It is apparent from the SEM images that sulphate ion diffusion did not take place even to a depth near to the surface. No signs of gypsum and mono sulphate morphologies, which can indicate the attack by sulphate were observed in either of the concrete mixtures. At higher resolutions, show dense and evenly spread calcium silicate hydrate gel and very small ettringite needles in few voids were observed in the concrete mixtures. Yuksel and Genc (2007) reported by performing SEM analysis that concrete specimens produced by utilising GBFS and FBA substitutions have very distinctive microstructures. The reference concrete sample shows a thick structure made out uneven grains and the hydrated items connect firmly to the surface of the aggregate. Concrete, in which common sand was supplanted by 10% GBFS shows extremely close-packed, had thick structure and few pores could be seen in the closer zones of the aggregate surface. On account of supplanting FBA as fine aggregates rather than regular sand, it can be noticed that

30 M.K. Dash et al. /International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2016) xxx-xxx

Micro cracks in control concrete Micro cracks in concrete with 40% copper slag

Figure 22. SEM micrograph of the (a) control concrete, (b) Concrete with 20% copper slag, (c) Concrete with 40% copper slag, (d) Concrete with 60% copper slag, (e) Concrete with 80% copper slag, (f) Concrete with 100% copper slag (Wu et al., 2010).

microstructure reshapes its network structure. Rather than asymmetrical grains, the grains were getting to be round and the pores were getting to be smaller and dispersed. Strength of FBA concrete is lower since FBA is more permeable and feeble in contrast with GBFS and common sand. In the pore water, the existence of Ca ions would quicken responses occurring at the interface of the C-S-H gel and the surface of the aggregate that is GBFS and can be formed a tough association between surface of aggregate and cement hydration items in correlation to FBA substitution. The reactivity of blast furnace slag relies on fragment diameter. As per these studies, early strengths can be achieved with a particle diameter of blast furnace slag under 3 im, particle within 3 im to 20 im diameter is beneficial for long haul strengths and GBFS with other fragment sizes just has a micro-aggregate effect (Yuksel and Genc, 2007). Wu et al. (2010) have reported that from the SEM perceptions completed on sand surface, particles of copper slag, broke control concrete and copper slag concrete, restricted distinction can be seen amongst cement paste and sand matrix between the reference mix and the concrete with 20% copper slag substitution since limited presence of copper slag in composites. On the other hand, significant difference is seen in the microstructure concrete with surpassing 40% substitution of copper slag, enormous voids, larger density of micro cracks, wider spacing of capillary channels and capillary channels associated together. More than 40% copper slag substitution in CS reinforced concrete, reduction in dynamic compressive strength due to these extra fault (Fig. 22c).

12. Conclusion

Utilisation of different industrial wastes as a fine aggregate replacement was reviewed in this paper. All the concrete properties like physical, fresh, hardened were discussed and compared between them. Micro-structural analysis of industrial-waste based concrete was also discussed and compared with normal concrete. It is certain that there are a number of industrial wastes that can be confidently used as fine aggregate replacement like waste foundry sand, steel slag, copper slag, ISF slag, blast furnace slag, coal bottom ash, ferrochrome slag and class F fly ash in concrete. Based on the review, number of conclusions can be drawn and these are listed below.

(1) Physical properties such as bulk density, specific gravity and grain size distribution of all industrial-wastes were almost equal to the properties of natural sand except the particle size distribution of foundry sand; steel slag does neither meet ASTM C33 nor IS-383-1970 grading limits.

(2) In the case of concrete where fine aggregate is replaced by waste foundry sand, steel slag and palm oil clinker, slump value reduces by increasing the percentage of replacement and concrete mix in which fine aggregate substituted by copper slag and bottom ash, slump value increases by increasing the replacement ratio. Concrete with granulated blast furnace slag shows slump value increasing up to replacement level 20%, beyond that slump value decreases.

(3) Inclusion of steel slag, copper slag and ISF slag in concrete, density of concrete increases but in addition of waste foundry sand and bottom ash in concrete the density decreases.

(4) Waste foundry sand can be utilised as a substitution of 20% of sand without compromising the mechanical and physical properties. Abrasion resistance of concrete mixtures increased with the increase in WFS content as replacement for fine aggregate. Inclusion of WFS increases the USPV values and decreased the chloride ion penetration in concrete. This review also shows that 15.6% increases in compressive strength of concrete after 28 days is achieved with the addition of fungal (Aspergillus spp.) treated 20% WFS containing concrete.

(5) The utilisation of steel slag up to 30% as sand substitution in concrete mixes has a constructive outcome on both compressive and tensile strengths; shows better acid resistance than control concrete. RCC beams with steel slag shows almost the same deflection as conventional concrete, hence introducing it in concrete will eliminate one of the environmental problems created by the steel industry.

(6) From this review it might be reasoned that the utilisation of copper slag up to 40% as sand substitution improves strength and durability characteristics at same workability and there is a decrease in the surface water absorption as copper slag quantity increased up to 40% replacement. Copper slag, an industrial waste material, makes it possible to produce ultra-high performance concrete.

(7) The review uncovers that incorporation of ISF slag enhances the mechanical properties of concrete at lower water cement ratio and abrasion resistance concrete containing ISFS is similar to conventional concrete for sand substitutions up to 50%. Leaching of lead and cadmium from concrete mixes with inclusion of 70% ISF slag is within satisfactory limits.

(8) When granulated blast furnace slag is u utilised as the sand substitution material, they positively diminish the tensile and compressive strength of concrete. SEM investigations and water absorption tests demonstrated that the supplanted concrete was more porous than the control concrete and it could be the principal cause for the reduction in strength with an increment in the substitution rates of GBFS.

(9) Bottom Ash as fine aggregate somewhere around 30% and 50% substitution proportions prompts adequate durability properties. No signs of external attack of sulphate were observed during examination of SEM images and XRD spectrum of specimens immersed in 10% magnesium sulphate solution up to 180 days. Bottom ash concrete mixtures showed better resistance to chloride ion penetration and external sulphuric acid attack. It can be concluded that replacement level for bottom ash, however, is

up to 30% without a noteworthy diminishment in strength of concrete and mix of GBFS and FBA can be utilised as 10% substitution of sand.

(10) Without creating remarkable ecological contamination issue, ferrochrome slag a complicated solid waste having dumping problem can be pertinently used as sand substitution material with chromium immobilization in concrete matrix.

(11) Concrete specimens at all the ages with sand supplanted fly ash up to 50%, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity were higher than the reference concrete.

(12) Palm oil clinker contributed higher compressive strength and flexural strength compared to control concrete due to inclusion of fine POC as partial replacement of sand starts pozzolanic reaction of the concrete matrix and improved interfacial bond between paste and aggregates.

Finally this overall review concluded that industrial byproducts can be utilised as a part of concrete innovations at

greatest amount for a sustainable standard strength, durability and eco-friendly concrete.

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