Scholarly article on topic 'Relationship among introvertism - extrovertism, narcissistic developmental line, locus of control and level of trait and state anxiety in a Turkish adolescent population preparing for university enterance exam'

Relationship among introvertism - extrovertism, narcissistic developmental line, locus of control and level of trait and state anxiety in a Turkish adolescent population preparing for university enterance exam Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Abstract of research paper on Psychology, author of scientific article — Temel Alper Karslı, İrem Anlı

Abstract Individuals with neurotic personality properties are more prone to built fast and persistent associations between noxious events and their consequences which might result in high risk for anxiety disorders. Developmental structure also seems to be a determinant of individuals’ resistance and coping capacity against events inducing anxiety. This study examined the relationship among particular trait features of personality, narcissistic developmental line, state/trait anxiety level, and locus of control. Our results indicate that introvert adolescents making internal attributions are more prone to develop a narcissistic self structure and display high trait and state anxiety levels when compared to extrovert adolescents.

Academic research paper on topic "Relationship among introvertism - extrovertism, narcissistic developmental line, locus of control and level of trait and state anxiety in a Turkish adolescent population preparing for university enterance exam"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

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Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 787-791

WCES-2010

Relationship among introvertism - extrovertism, narcissistic developmental line, locus of control and level of trait and state anxiety in a Turkish adolescent population preparing for university

enterance exam

Temel Alper Karsli*, Irem Anlia

aHalig University, Buyukdere Cad. No:101 Sisli, Istanbul 34394,Turkey Received October 7, 2009; revised December 16, 2009; accepted January 5, 2010

Abstract

Individuals with neurotic personality properties are more prone to built fast and persistent associations between noxious events and their consequences which might result in high risk for anxiety disorders. Developmental structure also seems to be a determinant of individuals' resistance and coping capacity against events inducing anxiety. This study examined the relationship among particular trait features of personality, narcissistic developmental line, state/trait anxiety level, and locus of control. Our results indicate that introvert adolescents making internal attributions are more prone to develop a narcissistic self structure and display high trait and state anxiety levels when compared to extrovert adolescents. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Intrrovertism; extrovertism; anxiety; narcissistic developmental line.

1. Introduction

University enterance exam is a major and long-lasting source of anxiety which constitutes the neccessary grounds for certain personality features to be expressed more overtly than usual. In terms of attributional theory, achievement in this sort of a challenge mainly depends on the way how an individual makes attributions about his/her past failures and success (Cole et al, 1998). It can be either internal (to someones personal skills, handicaps etc.) or external (luck, enviromental conditions etc.). Data indicate that tendency to make internal locus of control is an important indicator of academic success. Students who perceive that outcomes are related to their personal features and efforts take higher grades and have a higher GPA eventually when compared to those making external attributions (Mush and Broder, 1998).

Personality type and attributional styles are known to be reciprocally connected. Particular personality traits like introvert personality, in terms of Eysenck's theory, are more prone to make internal attributions in comparison to

* Temel Alper Karsli. Tel.: +0-212-275-20-20; fax: +0-212-274-81-22 E-mail address: karslita@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.103

extrovert individuals who tend to make external attributions about outcomes throughout their lifes. Introvert individuals are known to build fast and persistent associations between noxious events and their consequences which in turn results in high risk for anxiety disorders (Eysenck and Kelley, 1989).

Though, anxiety might also act as a facilitator in cognitive tasks including school exams. People who are high on anxiety levels and making internal attributions seems to do better on cognitive tasks like maths exam (Culler and Holahan, 1980). In fact, along with their anxious character, intovert individuals are known to display a better performance on various tasks especially when they are able to work on their own (Eysenck and Haapsalo, 1989).

On the other hand, along with trait-based personality features like neuroticism developmental structure also seems to be a determinant of individuals resistance and coping capacity against events inducing anxiety. In terms of Kohut, "grandiose self' line and "idealized parental imago" line which naturally develop in parallel constitute child's purposes, ideals and values. If parents do not meet the child's needs appropriately in these phases, traumatic frustrations occur and subsequently results in developmental arrests like narcissicm which might well lead to tendency for anxiety disorders more easily probably due to direction of causal attributions (Kohut and Tolpin, 1980). However, Jung in contrast, regards introversion as a useful tool in the service of the endless psychic quest for adaptation strategies (narcissism being one such strategy). Thus, besides probobal genetic tendency to anxiety disorders, introverts might well use narcissism as a defence mechanism.

This study examined the relationship among anxiety level, introvert-extrovert personality and locus of control in the context of narcissistic developmental line in a Turkish youth population preparing for university enterance exam.

2. Materials and Methods

180 high school students (90 male and 90 female) were allocated to 3 groups with 60 subjects in each group with regard to scores they got on "Eysenck Personality Questionnaire". Participants who scored more than 13 points were allocated to "extrovert" group, participants who scored 7 to 9 points were allocated to "introvert" group and participants who scored 10 to 13 points were allocated to "control" group. In the second phase all participants were given "State/Trait Anxiety" (STAI), "Internal/External Locus of Control" quetionnaire and "Self Psychology" inventories which comprises 4 subscales (Healthy Grandiose Self-referred in the text as HGS-, Defending Grandiose Self-referred in the text as DGS-, Healthy Idealized Parental Imago-referred in the text as HIPI-and Defending Idealized Parental Imago-referred in the text as DIPI).

Data were analysed with via SPSS. One-way ANOVA was followed by LSD for post-hoc analysis so as to reveal possible inter-group differences.

3. Results

One-way ANOVA revealed significant inter-group differences (table 1and 2). Post-hoc analysis indicated significant inter-group differences on 4 subscales of "Self Psychology" inventory as well as on first and second forms of STAI and l/E Locus of Control .

Table 1. Groups' Means And Standarts Deviations Of SPI

Introverts Extroverts Control

(n=60) (n=60) (n=60)

M SD M SD M SD F

SPI HGS 40.66 3.43 44.13 4.50 60.00 5.80 38.92

DGS 51.00 8.01 56,13 7.13 38.15 5.31 24.32

HIPI 58.53 6.35 41.00 5.34 55.46 6.85 8.72

DIPI 56.13 7.36 37.73 8.40 38.8 9.04 8.05

Table 2. Groups' Means And Standarts Deviations of STAI and I/E LOC-Q

Introverts (n=60)

Extroverts (n=60) M

Control (n=60)

I/E LOC-Q

56.53 41.26 8.8

6.50 8.30 1.5

7.00 5.02 1.90

31. 4.73 12.28

In HGS subscale introvert and extrovert groups score is significantly lower than mixed group. However, on DGS subscale introvert group made a significantly higher score in comparison to extrovert and control groups. On HIPI subscale introvert and control groups' score were significantly higher than that of extrovert group whereas on DIPI subscale introvert group scored significantly higher than other two groups (table 3).

Table 3. Post-Hoc Analysis Results of SPI, I/E LOC-Q and STAI (1 refers introverts, 2 refers to extroverts and 3 refers to control)

(I) (J) Mean D fference

Groups Groups (I J St . Error 95% Confidence In erval

Ipper Low«'Bound Lower

Lower Bound ound Sig. Uppi Bound ound

HGS ,00 ¡,00 -3,46667 1,77555 ,058 -7,0499 ,1165

3,00 -19 33333(*) 1,77555 ,000 -¡¡,9165 -15,7501

¡,00 1,00 3,46667 1,77555 ,058 -,1165 7,0499

3,00 -15 86667(*) 1,77555 ,000 -19,4499 ^¡,¡835

1,00 1,00 19 33333(*) 1,77555 ,000 15,7501 ¡¡,9165

¡,00 15 86667(*) 1,77555 ,000 ^,¡835 19,4499

DGS ,00 ¡,00 3,00 -5 13333(*) ¡,51514 ,048 -10^091 -,0576

1: 93333(*) ¡,51514 ,000 7,8576 18,0091

¡,00 1,00 5 13333(*) ¡,51514 ,048 ,0576 10,M91

3,00 1! 06667(*) ¡,51514 ,000 ü,9909 ¡3,14M

1,00 1,00 ¡,00 -1; 93333(*) -1! 06667(*) ¡,51514 ¡,51514 ,000 ,000 -18,0091 -¡3,14M -7,8576 -ü,9909

HIPI ,00 ¡,00 1' 53333(*) ¡,10778 ,000 13,¡797 ¡1,7870

3,00 3,06667 ¡,10778 ,153 -1,1870 7,3¡03

¡,00 1,00 -1" 53333(*) ¡,10778 ,000 -¡1,7870 -13,¡797

3,00 -14 46667(*) ¡,10778 ,000 -18,7¡03 -10,Ü30

1,00 1,00 -3,06667 ¡,10778 ,153 -7,3¡03 1,1870

¡,00 14 46667(*) ¡,10778 ,000 10,¡130 18,7¡03

DIPI ,00 ¡,00 1! 40000(*) ¡,96491 ,000 1¡,4166 ¡4,3834

3,00 1 33333(*) ¡,96491 ,000 11,3499 ¡3,3168

¡,00 1,00 3,00 -1! 40000(*) -1,06667 ¡,96491 ¡,96491 ,000 ,7Ü -¡4,3834 -7,0501 -1¡,4166 4,9168

1,00 1,00 -1 33333(*) ¡,96491 ,000 -¡3,3168 -11,3499

¡,00 1,06667 ¡,96491 ,7Ü -4,9168 7,0501

LOC ,00 ¡,00 3,00 -■ 73333(*) ,93333 ,54588 ,54588 ,003 ,095 -¡,8350 -,1683 -,6317 ¡,0350

¡,00 1,00 1 73333(*) ,54588 ,003 ,6317 ¡,8350

3,00 i 66667(*) ,54588 ,000 1,5650 3,7683

1,00 1,00 ¡,00 -,93333 ,54588 ,095 -¡,0350 ,1683

- 66667(*) ,54588 ,000 -3,7683 -1,5650

STAI1 ,00 ¡,00 19 ¡0000(*) ¡,95^6 ,000 13^407 ¡5,1593

3,00 ¡1 40000(*) ¡,95m ,000 15,4407 ¡7,3593

¡,00 1,00 -19 ¡0000(*) ¡,95m ,000 -¡5,1593 -13^407

3,00 ¡,¡0000 ¡,95m ,460 -3,7593 8,1593

1,00 1,00 -¡1 40000(*) ¡,95m ,000 -¡7,3593 -15,4407

¡,00 -¡,¡0000 ¡,95m ,460 -8,1593 3,7593

STAI2 ,00 ¡,00 5 46667(*) ¡¿¡160 ,043 ,1761 10,7573

3,00 • 86667(*) ¡¿¡160 ,005 ¡,5761 13,1573

¡,00 1,00 -5 46667(*) ¡,6¡160 ,043 -10,7573 -,1761

3,00 ¡,40000 ¡,6¡160 ,365 -¡,8906 7,6906

1,00 1,00 -7 86667(*) ¡,6¡160 ,005 -13,1573 -¡,5761

¡,00 -¡,40000 ¡,6¡160 ,365 -7,6906 ¡,8906

In I/E LOC inventory no significant difference was observed between introvert and mixed groups, whereas these two groups took significantly lower scores in comparison to extrovert group which indicates that extrovert group is more prone to external attributions. In both first and second forms of STAI introvert group did higher scores when compared to extrovert and control groups (table-2).

4. Discussion

Our results indicate that introvert and extrovert groups revealed similar developmental features in terms of self psychology inventory. Lower scores were obtained by introvert and extrovert groups on HGS and HIPI subscales of self psychology inventory, however on DGS and DIPI subscales introvert and extrovert groups made higher scores in comparison to control group.

High score in HGS subscale indicate realistic self-confidence, enthusiasm and a determined character, whereas low scores of introvert and extrovert groups on this subscale are in accordance with depiction of these types of personality in Eysenck's theory (Sinha and Watson 1997; Slyter, 1989). Both clearly introvert and extrovert individuals are known to lack ability for a healthy analysis of reality and are biased in perception of situational context. Furthermore, our results obtained on this subscale is similar to findings from studies on narcissistic and borderline personality disorder in the sense that these two personality disorders are also characterized with higher HGS scores on self psychology inventory in comparison to normal group.

Both introvert and extrovert groups' scores were significantly higher than the control group on DGS subscale (introvert groups DGS subscale score was significantly higher than that of extrovert group). A high score on this subscale indicates an exaggerated and unstable self-confidence in these individuals which is sensitive to approval from other people (Slyter, 1989). Along with fantasies of perfection and dominance on other people, demanding constant attention, approval and appreciation from others is a tool as to continue feeling his/herself precious, successful and unique. Especially in introvert individuals passive-aggressive attitudes can be observed if they feel detainment, dismissed or humiliated.

An unexpected and interesting finding is that on HIP subscale introvert and mixed groups' scores were higher than that of extrovert groups score. In fact, high scores on this subscale is indicative of coping ability with ever-changing and stressful environmental conditions which is in accordance with Jung's ideas about introvertism. On the other hand our results from DIP subscale indicate that introvert groups score was significantly higher than extrovert and control groups score. This result might stem from the fact that introvert individuals are more sensitive to separation anxiety and may give depressive reactions, as well as regression, in the absence of beloved ones. However, this situation might raise the problem that higher scores on DIPI subscale is also indicative of frequent depressive attacks, having problem in regulation of inner tension and reactive aggression.

I/E LOC inventory results, when taken into account with data from previous research on people with borderline personality disorder, extrovert group, unlike introvert group, is more prone to make external attributions about outcomes in their lives. It seems that whereas introvert and extrovert individuals exhibit some similar developmental problems, in terms of self psychology inventory, unlike sensitive constitution of introvert personality type, sensation-seeking structure of extravert personality may obstacle the ability for making significant, constant and long-lasting emotional investment on others as revealed by scores of this group on DIPI subscale and I/E LOC inventory. From the point of view of Eysenck's theory extrovert individuals even have tendency to develop antisocial personality disorder eventually which may be entails from problem observed in extrovert individuals in making connections about their behaviors and consequences.

STAI result show that introvert group is significantly more anxious than extrovert and mixed groups on both state and trait anxiety manner. Individuals with neurotic personality properties, in terms of Eysenck's theory, are more prone to built fast and persistent associations between noxious events and their consequences which even in turn results in high risk for anxiety disorders. Under continous stress conditions like preparation for university enterance exam it is likely that an eventual increase might have occurred in already anxious state of our subjects in the intovert group. Our results from STAI, like I/E LOC inventory, is also in accordance with results of DIPI subscale of self psychology inventory which can well be accepted as an indicative of anxious personality structure. However, it is possible that internal attribution style of introvert individuals, when considered their ability to learn faster under stressful conditions, might act as a facilitator for their academic achievement.

Our results, in a general manner, indicate that along with proposed basic genetic trait features of personality like introvertism-extrovertism by Eysenck's theory, interaction of these trait features with developmental factors should also be taken into account. It seems that introvertism and extrovertism differ not only on their proposed neurobiological basis but also differ on narcissistic developmental line on which they suffer. From this standpoint of view, further studies considering perceived parenting style of parents of introvert and extrovert individuals should be conducted to determine the extent to which child rearing environment might effect personality development in either introvertism or extrovertism direction.

In addition, given the relation between anxiety levels and academic achievement levels above, longitudinal studies can give us the answer of whether higher anxiety levels in introverts, as observed in our study, reflects as success on university enterance exam.

References

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