Scholarly article on topic 'Long-term scenarios for reaching climate targets and energy security in UK'

Long-term scenarios for reaching climate targets and energy security in UK Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Catalina Spataru, Paul Drummond, Eleni Zafeiratou, Mark Barrett

Abstract The construction and subsequent analysis of scenarios using energy systems models is an essential tool in energy policy making. This paper presents two descriptive scenarios for the development of the UK energy system to 2050, using four subsequent decadal time-slices. The two scenarios, K_Scenario and Z_Scenario, were modelled with the use of the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 2050 Pathways Calculator. K_Scenario is a scenario in which the use fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage (CCS) are prominent in the power sector, while Z_Scenario focuses on the development of renewables with energy storage and nuclear power. Both scenarios seek to achieve the UK's legally binding target of an 80% reduction in GHG emissions from 1990 levels by 2050. Abatement is achieved through numerous developments in each of the scenarios, including the development and use of shale gas, hydrogen, additional wind and solar deployment, the expansion of bioenergy and use of carbon capture and storage (CCS). These developments must be driven by policies designed to pursue dramatic decarbonisation.

Academic research paper on topic "Long-term scenarios for reaching climate targets and energy security in UK"

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Long-term scenarios for reaching climate targets and energy security in UK


Catalina Spatarua *, Paul Drummondb, Eleni Zafeiratoua, Mark Barrett2

a UCL Energy Institute, 14 Upper Woburn Place, Central House, London WC1H0NN, UK b UCL Institute for Sustainable Resources, 14 Upper Woburn Place, Central House, London WC1H 0NN, UK


Article history:

Available online 17 April 2015

Keywords: Energy resources Policy Scenarios


The construction and subsequent analysis of scenarios using energy systems models is an essential tool in energy policy making. This paper presents two descriptive scenarios for the development of the UK energy system to 2050, using four subsequent decadal time-slices. The two scenarios, KScenario and Z_Scenario, were modelled with the use of the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 2050 Pathways Calculator. KScenario is a scenario in which the use fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage (CCS) are prominent in the power sector, while ZScenario focuses on the development of renewables with energy storage and nuclear power. Both scenarios seek to achieve the UK's legally binding target of an 80% reduction in GHG emissions from 1990 levels by 2050. Abatement is achieved through numerous developments in each of the scenarios, including the development and use of shale gas, hydrogen, additional wind and solar deployment, the expansion of bioenergy and use of carbon capture and storage (CCS). These developments must be driven by policies designed to pursue dramatic decarbonisation.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license


1. Introduction

The development of a low-carbon energy system, coupled with security, reliability and affordability of supply is of crucial importance if we are to produce a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In recent decades, the UK has emphasised the use of coal, nuclear energy and natural gas in electricity generation. However, rapid and significant changes are beginning to occur. Ofgem, the UK's energy regulator, has stated that the statistical probability of severe power blackouts in the UK would increase to almost one in 12 years by 2015 compared to the present rate of one in 47 years, an impact resulting from the decommissioning of power plants owing both to EU legislation (principally the Large Combustion Plant Directive), and the expiry of operating lifetimes. Over the coming decade, a total of 20% of the UK's existing electricity capacity is expected to come offline (Wintour & Inman, 2013). Without new capacity rapidly coming on-line to replace such capacity, the issue of security of supply will exacerbate rapidly. North Sea oil and gas reserves are in decline (a reduction of 82 Mtoe was experienced between 1995 and 2011, UK Government, 2013b), producing an unstable and increasingly expensive energy market in the UK (Simms, 2013).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 20 3180 5902; fax: +44 20 3180 5902. E-mail address: (C. Spataru).

However, the recent discovery of potentially vast reserves of shale gas may satisfy demand over the short to medium term - although geological, economic and environmental issues compound to produce uncertainties surrounding the potential for this resource. Progress is being made, however. In June 2013, negotiations between the Government and the UK Onshore Operators Group resulted in a new charter for the shale gas extraction industry (Harris, 2013).

Within this context of change and uncertainty, and while considering the grand challenges of energy supply reliability, affordability, and climate change (the Energy Trilemma, WEC, 2012), the UK must transform its energy sector to meet the legally binding 80% reduction of GHG emissions by 2050, from 1990 levels - as codified by the 2008 Climate Change Act UK Government (2008). Despite expected difficulties in the future, positive developments are already occurring. A decrease of 9 Mtoe in total final energy consumption occurred between 1990 and 2011, a consequence of changes in consumption patterns, a reduction in demand due to the economic recession, and active energy-related policies (DECC, 2012).

The first comprehensive UK strategy to tackle climate change came in 2000 with the UK's Climate Change Programme, put in place to meet the UK's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This was followed by the 2007 Energy White Paper, the 2008 Climate Change Act (discussed above), the 2009 Low Carbon Transition Plan, and most recently, the 2011 Carbon Plan. The 2007 Energy White

2210-6707/© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article underthe CC BY license (

Paper recognised that the UK will require approximately 30-35 GW of new electricity generation capacity by 2030. The UK 'Low Carbon Transition Plan' details the potential actions to be taken to cut CO2 emissions by 34% by 2020 (from 1990 levels); including the generation of 40% of electricity from low carbon sources by 2020. The 2013 Energy Act introduces measures to facilitate the generation of 30% of its electricity from renewables by 2020.

There are four main policy landscapes, with a number of instruments in each, with different objectives and mechanisms to achieve carbon emission targets. These can be categorised as follows:

o Energy efficiency & energy consumption, which alongside instruments such as the Climate Change Agreements (CCAs), along with the EU Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) and CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme (originally the Carbon Reduction Commitment), the Climate Change Levy (CCL), Climate Change Agreements (CCAs) and Green Deal and Energy Companies Obligation (ECO), significantly overlap with primary instruments; o Carbon pricing which includes policies that price CO2; such as the EU Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) and CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme (originally the Carbon Reduction Commitment), the Climate Change Levy (CCL)) o Promotion of renewable energy, which includes the Renewables Obligation (RO (and Contracts for Difference (CfDs)), feed-in-tariffs and the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), along with the EU-ETS and CCL as key instruments; o The non-carbon dioxide GHGs, which includes the Landfill Tax and the agriculture industry's GHG Action Plan as the primary instruments.

These landscapes together broadly encourage the deployment of renewables across all installation sizes in electricity, heat and transport, and by any sector of society. Many of these have cross-landscape interaction, and therefore they cannot be separated entirely. Many of the instruments in place, including the RO, FITs, RHI, Green Deal, ECO and RTFO do not relate to GHGs directly. Therefore, to different extends the UK climate policy mix covers all sectors of the economy either directly or indirectly, albeit with highly varied levels of attention and stringency.

In order to satisfy the ambition for energy system decarboni-sation in the UK, two alternative descriptive scenarios have been developed, with different combinations of energy resources to satisfy the UK's energy demand (Spataru, 2013). The two alternative scenarios have been modelled with the use of the DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator, which produces several key outputs including energy demand (by sector), energy supply (by fuel) and GHG emissions.

A number of previous studies have examined various scenarios for the UK, further explored in the next section. However, such analysis often focuses only on the electricity sector, rather than the wider energy system. Moreover, according to literature, there is not much research focussed on exploring the combination of different options, such as shale gas, biogas and hydrogen integration.

2. Overview of existing energy scenarios

The literature provides several studies producing energy system scenarios, focussed on varied spatial and temporal scales. Global energy scenarios have international relevance and are usually very complex as they integrate a great number of assumptions while covering a broad range of stakeholder groups.

A list of recent studies from inter-governmental, nongovernmental institutions and the industry may be found in Appendix B. These reports cover a projection time horizon from 2020 to 2050, were developed with different criteria and produce

often very different results. All seek through energy system modelling approaches to describe the long-term picture of the energy sector while focusing on the future role of different energy resources. The reports published annually by the 1EA (Energy Technology Perspectives and World Energy Outlook) present scenarios that reflect views of the world in order to compare extremely diverse projections, indicating pathways towards sus-tainability. Non-governmental organisations such as Greenpeace and the World Energy Council (WEC) have developed studies with forecasts based on 'sustainable' practices, considering interde-pendencies between the environment and the economy. Studies conducted by industry, such as ExxonMobil in 2013 and BP in 2014, often focus less on environmental policies and emphasise the illustration of different statistics in order to project a single picture of the future energy system. Studies produce by energy companies such as Statoil and Shell suggest conventional and 'alternative' views of the world based on wide range of technologies, policies and economic indicators around the globe. On the other hand, Bloomberg (2013) focuses principally on renewable energy deployment for three different scenarios.

Although most global scenario studies disaggregate results for the Europe area, several studies have been developed for the European continent exclusively, examining 2020, 2030 and 2050 targets. The main studies were produced by or for the European Commission, such as the "European energy and transport - Trends to 2030" series published in 2003,2005,2007 and 2009, with the latest version in 2013 expanding its projection horizon to 2050 (European Commission, 2013). The EU Commission reports are based on the PRIMES model and present projections under current policies, with most presenting a single such scenario. The European Commission also published a Roadmap for the EU energy system by 2050, which examined five different pathways to decarbonisation, plus a reference case, projecting the impact of existing policies. Each scenario considers varied technologies development and policy choices, producing scenarios with different emphasis on either enhanced renewables, low levels of nuclear, energy efficiency, etc. The European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) developed a special report suggesting a scenario for a 100% renewable energy system for Europe. Additionally, EREC together with WWF in 2010 prepared another scenario study with three extremely different cases ranging from a future energy sector with slight emissions declines, to an almost net zero carbon future. The National Technical University of Athens (NTU) released an individual study in 2007 with four scenarios for 2050, however they are not comparable with those presented in the 2005 and 2007 reports by the EU (Capros, Mantzos, Kouvaritakis, & Panos, 2007). University College London (UCL) also presented a decarbonisation study with six scenarios projected to 2050 (Barrett, 2007; Spataru and Barrett, 2012). As 2050 targets are clearly stated, the majority ofthese studies set their projection horizon at 2050, however many focused on developments to 2020 or 2030 only. For example, a scenario published by Ecofys in 2012, and two scenarios produced by ENTSOE. Finally, EWEA (EWEA, 2011) published a number of reports with the most recent being released in 2011 presenting the penetration of various renewables in the energy system by 2020 under the 20-20-20 targets.

In order to explore in detail the scenarios for the UK energy system under the EU and national targets a review of several detailed UK scenario studies was conducted. The purpose of this review was to compare and assess the different assumptions used and approaches taken, along with the outputs generated. According to Rotmans et al. (2000), the two key categories of energy scenarios are backcasting, which begin from a desired end point or target and work backwards to a previous situation and forecasting studies, which examine a future result of different hypothesises developed from an earlier (usually current) starting point. The majority of older UK energy scenarios belong to the latter category (Berkhout

and Hertin, 2002; Elders et al., 2006; Hankinson, 1986; Thomas, 1980). However, the majority of more recent studies can be characterised as backcasting (Anderson et al., 2008; Ault, Frame, Hughes, & Strachan (2008); DECC, 2011; DTI, 2006; McDowall, 2006; National Grid, 2012; UKERC, 2013). This is likely due to the presence of a concrete UK emissions target for 2050, which now provides a tangible basis for a backcasting approach. Additionally, scenarios may be divided into quantitative and qualitative. According to Mander et al. (2008) the majority of the UK energy scenarios are quantitative. Some qualitative scenarios have been produced however, such as in the 'Energy - The Changing Climate' study by the Royal Commission (2000), or the Foresight Future Scenarios by Berkhout and Hertin (2002).

Another classification of energy system scenarios was proposed by Hughes, Mers, and Strachan (2009). This study categorises many (but not the complete literature) of the UK's scenario studies. The first category is Trend Driven Studies, such as Royal Commission (2000), Berkhout and Hertin (2002), McDowall (2006), Elders et al. (2006), Ault et al. (2008) and DECC (2011), where extrapolated trends have key roles in scenario development. The second category, Technical Feasibility Studies, are the most common scenario typology and is the approach taken by many of the studies used to inform the provisions of the 2008 Climate Change Act. These scenarios emphasise the technical aspects of the energy system, and are highly quantitative. Examples of this type of study are: Friends of the Earth (2006), DTI (2006), ILEX (2006), WWF (2008), HM Government (2010) and National Grid (2012). The third and final category proposed by Hughes et al. (2009) is Modelling Studies. These studies focus on the connection between energy supply and demand and have many common features with technical feasibility studies, although modelling studies have some significant advantages, as they often allow a much higher level of detail in their analysis. Examples of modelling studies are Thomas (1980), Fouquet, Hawdon, Pearson, Robinson, and Stevens (1993) and UKERC (2013).

As observed there are various ways to classify energy system scenario studies. Further attributes to consider are whether scenarios are descriptive or normative, or if they were developed by expert or participatory stakeholders (Rotmans et al., 2000). 1n any case, the key aims of many energy or electricity system scenarios studies (Anderson et al., 2008; Ault et al., 2008; DT1, 2006; HM Government, 2010; 1LEX, 2006) are to examine pathways ofachiev-ing a low-carbon system, whilst considering various constraints and developments on a wide range of resources and technologies, under assumed final demand trends (driven principally by assumed economic growth rates) in various sectors. An exploration of existing energy scenarios studies and their predictions with actual data is provided in Zafeiratou and Spataru (2014). They show the importance of assessing the historic projections in order to improve future energy scenarios.

3. Long-term techno-economic scenarios for high GHG emission reduction and energy security

These two binary scenarios, differentiated by energy carrier focus, were developed to most clearly demonstrate the challenges presented by different pathways for decarbonisation of the UK's energy system. A realistic pathway is likely to be somewhere between these two options, the combinations for which are numerous. Different challenges therefore are also likely to be emphasised to different degrees. The inspection of two 'extreme' scenarios allows for the presentation of implications that may not be as forthcoming in a scenario examining different combinations of 'middle of the road' pathways, but which may be important to consider.

3.1. Descriptions of the scenarios

The names of these two scenarios Z.Scenario and K_Scenario derive from two famous dances: Z_Scenario (Z comes from Zorba's dance - a Greek dance song made famous by the film 'Zorba the Greek', which in the Greek tradition is considered a way of life, an integration of mind, body and spirit) and K_Scenario (K comes from Kalinka which is a Russian song, with a speedy tempo, and light-hearted, cheerful lyrics. 1t is believed that the nature of this dance comes from a need to stay warm during the long winters). Both scenarios were developed using a backcasting methodology with the prerequisite of achieving high GHG emission reduction (close to 80%) in the UK energy system by 2050.

Z_Scenario is a scenario where renewables (with storage) are predominant, and focuses on long term energy security and rapid emissions reduction. This scenario aims to reduce energy cost uncertainty in the future (particularly electricity), with significant investments in renewables and storage technologies by 2030, with significant direction and support provided by Government. On the other hand, K.Scenario is based on a continued reliance on fossil fuels, with the development of CCS relied upon to deliver emissions reduction. It emphasises the attainment of short-term energy security and recovering economic growth through cheap energy, and avoids the system stress of immediate and rapid technological revolution. As in the dance, has a speedy tempo (reflecting rapid changes), but with cheerful lyrics, in the sense that despite the fact that fossil fuels are the basis of the current energy system, CCS will receive significant investments in R&D to attain large-scale technical and commercial viability in the long term. Limited attention is given to emissions reduction in the short term.

An assessment horizon of 2050 is used for both scenarios, with a base year of 2010. Under each scenario, the period until 2020 is characterised by uncertainties as preparations for significant changes to the energy system take form. By 2030, policymakers have devised, committed to and implemented long-term decarbonisation policies, learning from the experiences of initial developments in the 2020s. Towards 2040, issues regarding implementation and management of the new system configuration should largely be clear, with technological and policy learning continuing apace. By 2050, the goal of significant decarbonisation of the system is achieved. Under each scenario, developments must take account of inter alia, economic growth goals, which energy supply industries need support, the sourcing and timing of the investments required and which policy instruments maybe utilised to guide these system transformations. Four steps were developed and explored for each scenario, as presented in Table 1.

Each scenario focuses around a particular primary energy source (fossil fuels or renewables) which is likely to face challenges in the future. This may include uncertainty surrounding technological development (e.g. CCS or energy storage), energy distribution infrastructure (e.g. grid management and connection), public acceptance (e.g. onshore wind, nuclear energy, shale gas fracking), security of supply and economic viability. These challenges will vary in their prominence depending on the energy resource and technology, and the emphasis placed on them in the two proposed scenarios.

As part of a workshop undertaken inJuly 2013, participants were divided into six groups, reflecting the key energy resource industries (coal, oil, gas, nuclear, wind and other renewables). Each group was given time to consider the key challenges to their industry in meeting the development of the "required" energy system by 2050, as described by the Z_Scenario and K_Scenario, and included considerations of the three aspects of the Energy Trilemma. Based on the key challenges identified, each group was required to put forth five key policy instruments to overcome these challenges for their particular resource, for each scenario. 1t was assumed that the

Table 1

Description of K_ and Z_Scenario - decadal steps.

Pathway steps



2010-2020 - The Black step

2021-2030 - The Grey step

2031-2040 - The Blue step

2041-2050 - The Green step

Current system configuration with high investments in CCS Research, Design and Development between 2020 and 2030 and lower in energy storage

Nuclear still in use in low levels-new nuclear power plants will be built

CCS is retrofitted to many existing gas-fired plants and included in all new gas-fired plants.

Some of the existing power plants will be used along with new ones which would replace the decommissioned plants Use of efficient methods to extract fossil fuels Government provides and implements policy options to support different industries3

25% increase in renewables installation compared to 2010.

CCS established mostly in new power plants Higher proportion of renewables

Use of renewables to produce Hydrogen for use in transport Peak-load electricity back-up provided by fossil fuels Most of the existing power plants in nuclear were improved plus use of new power plants Use of geosequestration in low levels

Predominant use of hydrogen (from renewables electricity) in transportation.

Extensive use of CCS in the majority of gas-fired power plants

Use of shale gas as a back-up for energy security with CCS

Renewables in higher proportion

Some energy storage capacity for renewables

Nuclear continues with slightly increased share compared to

the previous decades-2050

Use of geosequestration

Current system configuration with high investments in energy storage, renewables and lower in CCS New power plants will be built

Significant improvements in energy storage technologies Nuclear energy increases in utilisation Decreasing use of fossil plant

Incentives for renewables deployment strengthened and taken up.

Low-carbon technologies implemented in existing buildings

(such as insulation techniques domestic wind turbines, PV)

Government provides and implements policy options to

support renewable tech industries

Use of carbon sequestration techniques in high levels

Energy storage implemented

Higher proportion of renewables

Use of renewables to produce hydrogen for use in transport Back-up from nuclear with new nuclear plants Some success in extracting shale gas Extensive use of carbon sequestration techniques

Predominant renewables with well establish energy storage

options, with use of hydrogen for transportation

Use of nuclear from new more efficient facilities

Use of natural gas in relatively small proportions as peak-load

back-up in the electricity system Extensive use of carbon

sequestration techniques

a 2050 Pathways Calculator - assumption level 3: high electrification and CCS in industry sector while the industry grows in parallel with previous trends between 1970 and 2008 fortrajectory Level B. This was found in

Table 2

Priority policy instrument options for energy supply industries.

Energy industry Z_Scenario K_Scenario

Coal Full-scale CCS demonstration Full Scale CCS demonstration

Oil Increased vehicle fuel efficiency Increased vehicle fuel efficiency

Gas Pre-combustion CCS demonstration Pre-combustion CCS demonstration

Nuclear R&D for grid management technologies and strategies Extend existing plant life

Wind Energy storage R&D Energy storage R&D

'Other" renewables Feed-in tariff for full expected lifespan Feed-in tariff for full expected lifespan

existing and planned policy landscape is 'wiped clean', and that the five instruments may overlap between scenarios. Policies that are currently in place or planned for introduction may be 'reinstated'. Table 2 illustrates the single 'priority' policy options for each group, selected from their initial five (one per group, per scenario), as voted for by the full participation group.

The development and demonstration of commercially viable CCS was voted as the key priority for both the coal and natural gas industries, in both scenarios. This indicates that emissions abatement is the key challenge for the fossil fuels industries, over other issues such as security and cost of supply, and incentives to invest in new installations, where required. Such an incentive was voted as the key policy priority for 'other' renewables (e.g. solar, marine, biomass), also in both scenarios. Existing plant lifetime extension was voted as the priority for nuclear power under K_Scenario, in which nuclear is not a major electricity generator. For Z_Scenario however, where nuclear energy plays a more significant role, the most important policy was considered to be provision for R&D into grid management, to enable the combination of relatively static nuclear generation with stochastic renewables. The most important policy for the use of oil in both scenarios (largely in transport), was encouraging end-use efficiency (i.e. increased vehicle efficiency). This has the dual result of reducing carbon intensity

of oil end-use, and reducing exposure to security of supply and affordability issues. Whilst these are presented as the most important policy considerations for each energy supply industry, it does not necessarily follow that these are the five policy priorities overall, for each scenario. Overall, policy priority might be accorded to the promotion of renewables, for example, while policies focussed on the oil industry may be relatively unimportant in light of its decreasing share in consumption. A conclusion may be drawn that if a given energy carrier is to remain to be introduced into the energy mix at any level of importance under a decarbonisation scenario, the key challenges faced by that sector are likely to be the same. As such, these are likely to be 'no regret' items for these industries to pursue (although, they may not prove 'no regret' approaches at a macroeconomic level).

3.2. Model assumptions1

Apart from the assumptions characteristic of each scenario, outlined above and detailed in Appendix, many assumptions applied

1 For a complete description ofthe selected assumptions forthe four steps for each scenario as applied to the DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator, please referto Appendix.

to the DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator are common to both scenarios. Firstly, the UK population is assumed to increase by 25% (to 77 million) by 2050, with the number of households growing by 50% (to 40 million) by 2050. GDP growth is assumed to be a standard rate of 2% per annum, and does not integrate positive or negative feedback implications from the assumptions selected in a specific scenario (e.g. rate of industrial growth). UK GDP is projected to reach £3 trillion by 2050 (DECC, 2010). The outputs of the scenarios are a combination of the above assumptions and other fixed inputs related to each technology and energy resource, along with cost and trajectory assumptions selected as a user input. The selection of assumptions derives from different potential manifestations of policy routes to the long-term decarbonisation target.

3.2.1. Demand side assumptions

Both scenarios have the same demand side assumptions. These reflect increasing energy efficiency across different end-use sectors, delivered through policy, without neglecting basic energy service needs for transportation, heating and cooling.

Energy demand for non-commercial transportation is assumed to reduce by 81.3% by 2050 through more efficient public transport (from which about 22% fuel cell busses), use of bikes and more efficient cars (with 20% conventional cars, 32% plug-in hybrid vehicles and 48% zero emission vehicles based on hydrogen).

Improvements occur in aviation and shipping where energy demand slightly increases, and is satisfied through a shift towards biofuels. Regarding buildings, a decrease of 0.5 °C in mean average household temperature is assumed, while there is a gradual increase in the number of insulated homes from 8 million in 2020 to 11.5 million in 2030, 15 million in 2040 and 18 million in 2050. Domestic heating is substantially electrified, with the remainder largely sourced from waste heat from thermal power stations. Energy demand for lighting and appliances remains stable at 2010 levels and demand for heating and cooling is to some extent reduced. Energy demand in industry is assumed to grow, but with high electrification. In the commercial sector there is a steady increase in energy demand. Finally, both the domestic and commercial sectors experience a complete electrification of cooking.

3.2.2. Supply side assumptions

K_Scenario is a scenario in which fossil fuels, particularly gas, remain dominant in the electricity sector. Although this scenario promotes the use of shale gas, the volume available over time will vary depending on a number of currently unknown factors (geology, lead times, economic viability, etc.). CCS is fully commercialised in the power sector and extensively used by 2050 (with an average installation rate of 3 GW/yr between 2030 and 2050), with 50-90 power stations fitted with CCS. Nuclear power operates at low levels as a backup resource. Onshore and offshore wind installations are constructed at a rate of 1 GW/yr and 3 GW/yr respectively between 2010 and 2050. Biomass for electricity grows from 2.4 GW in 2020 to 7.8 GW in 2050. Solar power reaches 20.2 GW in 2040 and 70.4 GW in 2050. The remaining key renewable resources such as wave energy, tidal, geothermal and hydropower increase slowly over the decades. A final key assumption is that 10% of land in the UK becomes dedicated to biocrop cultivation. Additionally, there are 70TWh of electricity and 70TWh of bionergy imports, converted into solid fuels in order to replace coal.

In contrast, Z_Scenario focuses primarily on renewables and nuclear power. The average rate of new CCS installations is 1.5 GW/yr from 2030 to 2050 reaching 25-40 installations by 2050. Nuclear will contribute 111 TWh in 2020, 189TWh in 2030, 291 TWh in 2040 and 420 TWh in 2050. Onshore and offshore wind installations reach 29GW and 100 GW installed capacity by

3 1000 I-

800 600 400 200 0

■ Industry ■ Transport Domestic & Commercial

Fig. 1. Primary energy demand for K_Scenario and Z_Scenario scenarios for 2020-2050.

2050, respectively. Biomass power plants reach 6.6 GW in 2030, and 12.6 GW in 2050.

Solar power penetration is 34.5% higher in 2050 compared to K_Scenario. Additionally, wave and tidal energy development and utilisation are considerably higher than KScenario. Geothermal and hydropower capacities also increase, but at a slower rate. Land use and management assumptions are the same for both scenarios. Z_Scenario does not assume any electricity imports, however biomass imports can increase to 140TWh/yr (if required), in order to satisfy demand in excess of domestic production. This scenario incorporates high levels of geosequestration (31 MtCO2), mainly through the use of 'air-captured' techniques. A significant deployment of energy storage is assumed (3.8 GW in 2020 to 20 GW in 2050), with an increase of international interconnector to provide for excess electricity exports (9 GW in 2020 to 30 GW in 2050).2

3.3. Results

This section presents the results for energy and electricity demand by sector, subsequent supply by energy carrier, and resulting GHG emissions as produced by the DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator. The base year for these results is 2010, except for GHG emissions, which is presented as a proportional change from 1990.

3.3.1. Energy and electricity demand

Primary energy demand remains equal between KScenario and Z_Scenario as input energy demand assumptions, as described above, do not vary. Fig. 1 illustrates primary demand changes over time, and the proportional demand of key end-use sectors. While total demand experiences a reduction of 26% between 2010 and 2050 (mainly due to efficiency improvements), sectoral proportions remain relatively constant. The largest demand sector is 'domestic and commercial', accounting for 41% of total primary demand, split between heating and cooling (28%) and lighting and appliances (13%), as presented in Fig. 2. The second largest demand sector is transportation, demanding 35% of total primary energy, followed by industry with 24%.

2 Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Wind industry.

2010-Data The Black The Grey The Blue The Green Pathway Pathway Pathway Pathway 2020 2030 2040 2050

700 600 500 . 400 ' 300 200 100 0

2010 Data The Black The Grey The Blue The Green Pathway Pathway Pathway Pathway 2020 2030 2040 2050

■ Heating and Cooling ■ Lighting & appliances

Fig. 2. Primary energy demand division in the domestic and commercial sectors for K_Scenario and Z_Scenario scenarios for 2020-2050.

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

■ Heating & Cooling ■ Lighting & Appliances

Fig. 4. Electricity demand division in the domestic and commercial sectors for K-Scenario and Z-Scenario for 2020-2050.

g 400 l-

300 200

Fig. 3.

■ Industry «Transport ■ Domestic & Commercial Total electricity demand for KScenario and Z_Scenario for 2020-2050.

3% 7% 1

1% 10%

5% 15%

7% 18%%

26%% 1%

6% 7% 19% 14% 18% 14%

2010 Data


20% 17%

36% 38%


The Black Step 2020



The Grey Step 2030


31% 21% 24% 16% 18%


The Blue Step 2040



The Green Step 2050

■ oil ■ gas ■ coal ■ nuclear ■ solar wind ■ bioenergy ■ pumped heat wave Tidal

Fig. 5. Primary energy supply for K_Scenario and Z_Scenario for 2020-2050 and steps comparison.

On the other hand, electricity demand is diversified between the two scenarios. The first key difference is due to heating and cooling demand as the increase in solar thermal for water heating in Z_Scenario reduces electricity requirements by 13 TWh between 2010 and 2050. The second, more significant assumption is geose-questration deployment (a supply side assumption, but impacts electricity demand). In K.Scenario, trajectory2 (1 MtCO2) sequestration is chosen. However, trajectory 3 (31 MtCO2) is applied in Z.Scenario, and requires much higher levels of electricity to power additional geosequestration installations. Consequently, there is a large impact in electricity demand between levels 2 and 3 equal with 99 TWh. Therefore, the electricity demand increase tempers the magnitude of the initial impact from geosequestration techniques.

According to Fig. 3, electricity demand is projected to increase by 77% and 54% for K.Scenario and Z.Scenario respectively, between 2010 and 2050. Electricity demand for industry accounts for 35% and 45% (K_Scenario and Z.Scenario, respectively) of total electricity demand in 2050. Buildings The commercial and domestic sectors require almost 52% of the total (20.75% for heating and cooling and 31.25% for lighting & appliances) for ^Scenario, and 43% (16% heating & cooling and 27% lighting & appliances) for Z_Scenario (Fig. 4).

The electrification of transportation along with the promotion of hydrogen fuel cells starts primarily in 2030 and increases until 2050 in both scenarios, satisfying 11% and 13% (in K_Scenario and Z_Scenario, respectively), of total electricity demand.

3.3.2. Energy and electricity supply

UK energy supply is projected to increase by 11% and 4.5% between 2010 and 2050 for Z.Scenario and K.Scenario, respectively, with supply exceeding demand in Z.Scenario, leading to electricity exports. As illustrated in Fig. 5, the main divergence between the scenarios is observed after 2030 (the Grey Step). K_Scenario is based mainly on gas with Carbon Capture and Storage (32-38% from 2030 to 2050) whilst the use of coal is eliminated by 2030, with the majority of coal-fired plants retired by 2025, as required by the Large Combustion Plant Directive. Nuclear energy has a backup role and accounts for 7% of total primary energy supply in 2050, whilst biomass contributes considerably in the carrier mix from 2020, reaching 14% and 15% in 2030 and 2050, respectively. Wind energy accounts for high proportions of primary energy supply from 2030 and reaching 11% of total supply in 2050.

Z_Scenario proposes a transition to a renewables-based energy system, although nuclear power is projected to play a much larger

lata The Black Step 2020 I Unabated Thermal Gen ■ Offshore Wind I solar

I Electricity Imports

The Blue Step 2040 Onshore Wind nuclear CCS

wave & Tidal

The Green Step 2050

Fig. 6. Electricity supply 2020-2050.

comparison among the scenarios and steps for

role than K.Scenario - accounting for 15.6% of the total energy supply by 2050. Wind and bioenergy are the two main renewable energy sources deployed in both scenarios, although in Z_Scenario investments in wind installations are significantly higher (18% of primary supply by 2050). Finally, the outputs of the DECC Pathways Calculator consider in both scenarios to satisfy heating and cooling demand in the domestic and commercial sectors. Its contribution is apparent mostly after 2040, reaching approximately 8% by 2050 in both scenarios.

As illustrated in Fig. 6, there is a gradual increase in electricity supply in both scenarios, due to the high electrification of the industrial, domestic and commercial sectors, along with some modest electrification in the transportation sector. Z.Scenario projects the highest increase (particularly by 2050, at almost 3.5 times 2010 levels), and around 21 TWh higher than K_Scenario by 2050.

Electricity generation trends in the scenarios follows the same patterns as wider energy supply. Thermal generation that derives from combined heat and power (CHP) is estimated to decline to very low levels by 2030 in both scenarios, due to the rise in the use of waste heat from power stations.3 K_Scenario is based mostly (51% for 2050) on gas use (natural, shale gas or biogas) along with the use of CCS for power generation. CCS is deployed largely after 2030 (grey step), with full deployment achieved 2040 (blue step). The remainder of electricity demand is satisfied by offshore wind reaching 168 TWh by 2030 and 237TWh by 2040, which is maintained until 2050. An additional, notable difference between K_Scenario and Z_Scenario is that the first relies on electricity imports, while, in the case of the latter the UK becomes a net exporter of electricity. ^Scenario's electricity supply depends on a variety of resources including nuclear and gas with CCS, as illustrated in Fig. 6. Wind accounts for 34% of total electricity generation with solar, wave and tidal energy also contributing significantly after 2040 (blue step), accounting for 15% of total electricity generation in 2050.

3.3.3. GHG emissions

Results for GHG emissions from each scenario focus on 2020, 2030 and 2050. Certainly Z_Scenario projects the most low-carbon

600 500

Fig. 7.

2010 Data The Black Step The Grey Step The Green Step

2020 „ 2030 2050

Z Scenario HK Scenario — UK targets Carbon emissions for Z_Scenario and K_Scenario for 2020-2050.

pathway, although by 2020 the reduction equals 38% below 1990 levels, failing to reach the UK target of a 42% reduction (CCC, 2011). This is because the most efficient low-carbon technologies are not yet well-entrenched, with investments in R&D not yet achieved in earnest. Z_Scenario attains compliance with the Fourth Carbon Budget targets of a 60% reduction by 2030 (projecting a 67% decline), and it achieves the legally-binding 80% emissions reduction target demand by 2050 (from 1990 levels) by 2045 with 2050 emissions 84% below 1990 levels (Fig. 7). This success may be largely attributed to the high deployment of geosequestration techniques along with extensive biocrop production and consumption (trajectory 3), that replace conventional fuels in transportation and gives 'bioenergy credits' to the UK through bioenergy exports.4

The K_Scenario scenario also makes efforts towards decarbon-isation with extensive use of carbon capture and incorporation of average levels of geosequestration (trajectory 2), and significant biocrop cultivation. This scenario is projected to reduce emissions by 35% by 2020,65% by 2030 and 77% by 2050, thus just missing the 2050 legally binding target, and achieving only the 2030 milestone.

The main GHG emission source in both scenarios is, rather predictably, fossil fuel combustion across the economy. After 2030 the rate of emission reduction is projected to slow in both scenarios, reflecting the continued increase in energy demand.

3.3.4. Energy security and imports

An objective of these scenarios is to propose and analyse these two alternative scenarios that in light of energy security and reliability of supply. The DECC model imposes a 'stress test', simulating combinations of the five coldest and windless days in the UK. Consistent with this analysis, both scenarios succeed in balancing increasing energy supply to match demand over time. In cases of electricity surplus (prominent in Z_Scenario), the excess supply is exported to Ireland and France, in particular. Energy demand is met through supply diversification and increased energy storage in Z_Scenario and by a combination of fossil fuels (with CCS) and high levels of electricity imports in K_Scenario.

3 Trajectory C in the DECC calculator.

4 The DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator exposes a major sensitivity, the bioenergy constraint that affects GHG emissions significantly. A key factor that should be taken into account in the assumptions selection of this constraint is the food requirements that are forecasted to increase as population in the UK is projected to grow (McDougall, 2010; Statistics, 2013) by 20% in 2050 compared to 2013 levels MCDOUGALL, R. 2010. The UK's population problem. Optimum Population Trust, STATISTICS, N. 2013. Total UK population [Online]. Available uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Population Accessed 22/07.013.

Table 3

Selected studies from the literature review to be compared with ENP 2050 project scenarios.

Name of study

Author and year

Projection years

Electricity network scenarios for 2050 UK energy and CO2 emissions

The balance of power. Reducing CO2 emissions from the UK power sector

A bright future Friends of the Earth's electricity sector model for 2030

LENS project

Tyndall scenarios

Closing the energy gap

2050 pathways analysis

UK future energy scenarios

Elders et al., 2006 DTI, 2006 ILEX, 2006

Friends of the Earth, 2006 Ault et al., 2008

Mander et al., 2008, Anderson et al., 2008 WWF, 2008 HM Government, 2010 National Grid Scenarios, 2012

The UK energy system in 2050: comparing low-carbon, resilient scenarios (UKERC Scenarios) UKERC, 2013

2050 2010-2020

2010, 2016, 2020, 2025


2020 and 2030 2010-2050 2013-2030 2035 and 2040

In K_Scenario, 77% of oil and 91% of gas (along with all uranium for nuclear), is imported by 2050, producing high import dependency and producing potential energy security issues. 1n total 6% of electricity and 67% of all primary energy is imported by 2050 in K_Scenario.

In Z.Scenario, 75% of oil and coal, 81% of gas, 25% of bioen-ergy (along with all uranium) is imported. However, these primary energy imports account for 54% of total supply, with no electricity import requirements due to the prevalence of domestic renewable

electricity installations. It is evident that oil imports are high in both scenarios, as oil continues to be the predominant energy source for transportation.

3.4. Comparison with previous studies

Drawn from the literature review discussed in Section 2, selected studies (presented in Table 3) were compared with the inputs, assumptions and results of the ENP2050 scenarios

Fig. 8. Electricity demand comparison among several studies identified in the literature review and ENP2050 scenarios K-Scenario and Z-Scenario.

2020 2030

ENP 2050 Project Z Scenario ▲ DTI, 2006 Central (1) ILEX, 2006 BAU: 456 + ILEX, 2006 PS2: 386

— FOE study, 2006 "Slow Scenarios" HM Government report, 2010 Beta HM Government report, 2010 Delta HM Government report, 2010 Zeta LENS project, 2008 ESCO

LENS project, 2008 MG

TheTyndall Decarbonised Scenarios, 2008 Red TheTyndall Decarbonised Scenarios, 2008 Turquoise + TheTyndall Decarbonised Scenarios, 2008 Pink

- UKERC Scenarios, 2013 CFH

ENP 2050 Project K Scenario DTI, 2006 Central (2) ILEX, 2006 PS1: 406

- FOE study, 2006 "Good Scenarios" HM Government report, 2010 Alpha HM Government report, 2010 Gamma

X HM Government report, 2010 Epsilon + LENS project, 2008 Big T&D LENS project, 2008 DSO LENS project, 2008 MN XTheTyndall Decarbonised Scenarios, 2008 Blue • TheTyndall Decarbonised Scenarios, 2008 Purple

- UKERC Scenarios, 2013 REF UKERC Scenarios, 2013 CLC

Fig. 9. Electricity supply comparison among several studies identified in the literature review and ENP 2050 scenarios (K-Scenario and Z-Scenario).

(Z_Scenario and K.Scenario). Whilst some of these studies examine the full UK energy system, many focus on the electricity sector only.

Fig. 8 presents electricity demand projections for 2020,2030 and 2050. For 2020 the WWF study projects both the highest (395 TWh) and lowest (290TWh) projections for energy demand from their scenarios. For 2030, National Grid with 'Accelerated Growth' and WWF's 'high' scenarios propose the equal-highest projections at 380TWh. For both 2020 and 2030, ^Scenario and K_Scenario project moderate estimations for electricity demand against studies presented. However in 2050, K_Scenario forecasts the highest electricity demand (688TWh), whilst National Grid projects the lowest demand under their 'slow development' scenario, at only 330 TWh, under assumptions of low levels of economic growth.

Both K_Scenario and Z.Scenario move towards high electrification in all sectors, but particularly in the domestic sector. This leads to high electricity demand projections for these two scenarios by 2050, and higher than the majority of the other studies examined. As illustrated in Fig. 9, in 2020, 2030 and 2040, the HM Government

study (Zeta scenario) produced the highest projections of electricity generation at 590, 720 and 870 TWh respectively. On the other hand, FOE (2006) has the lowest projections for 2020 and 2030 with just 359 TWh. In 2050, apart from the Tyndall study's 'Purple' scenario, which forecasts rapidly increasing energy demand, Both scenarios project higher levels of electricity supply as they incorporate a high level ofrenewables, less thermal generation and increased transport electrification.

The majority of the reviewed studies provide results for CO2 emissions rather than GHG emissions. This inhibits the direct comparison of Z_Scenario and K_Scenario with these studies along this metric; however, the HM Government (2010) and the National Grid (2012) studies both used the DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator in order to estimate GHG emission developments. According to Fig. 10 (and as previously illustrated), neither KScenario nor Z_Scenario manage to achieve the targeted 42% reduction in emissions by 2020, whilst two scenarios in the National Grid study (Accelerated Growth and Slow Progression), achieve 49% and 53% respectively. These two scenarios use different assumptions; the

O CTl CTl iH

(J D T3

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

UK TARGETS X National Grid, 2012 Slow Progression + HM Government report, 2010 Alpha ♦ HM Government report, 2010 Delta

ENP 2050 Project Z Scenario National Grid, 2012 Gone Green HM Government report, 2010 Beta HM Government report, 2010 Epsilon

ENP 2050 Project K Scenario National Grid, 2012 Accelerated Growth HM Government report, 2010 Gamma HM Government report, 2010 Zeta

Fig. 10. Emissions reductions comparison between various studies.

first assumes rapid economic development, coupled with significant early investment in renewables and CCS, while the second assumes slow growth. These opposing pathways however both suggest considerable and rapid reductions in emissions, while K_Scenario and ZScenario project moderate reductions with more mainstream assumptions in energy demand growth drivers (GDP, fuel prices, etc.). For 2030, Z_Scenario, K_Scenario and the Accelerated Growth scenario by National Grid broadly coincide at the 60% reduction target (National Grid did not include results for 2040 and 2050). ZScenario is the only pathway to exceed the 2050 emission reduction target (80% bellow 1990), as illustrated in Fig. 10.

4. Conclusions and policy implications

The ENP2050 Project aims to present two scenarios for the decarbonisation of the UK's energy system by 2050, modelled with the use of the DECC 2050 Pathways Calculator. The two scenarios developed in this paper - KScenario and Z_Scenario - have many commonalities, particularly related to demand assumptions. Taking into account the feedback from the workshop along with the attempt to satisfy the Energy Trilemma (environmental sustaina-bility, energy security and affordability), these scenarios require and project significant transformations to the energy system. The ZScenario develops a mixture of all available renewable resources deployed in significant quantities, along with the extensive development of energy storage, in order to maintain a security of supply in the long-term. It is apparent that ZScenario, apart from producing the largest reduction in emissions (both absolutely and cumulatively), projects a more secure energy supply, with lower levels of import volumes and dependency. It demands high levels of capital investment, with R&D to develop enabling technologies such as the smart grid and grid management strategies. In contrast, K_Scenario requires relatively low levels of investment in new technologies, aside from CCS - an essential tool for decarbonisation in this scenario. K_Scenario forecasts a less radical system transformation, with emphasis on short-term reliability and security

through utmost exploitation of CCS, although with moderate use of renewables and nuclear.

The main divergence between the scenarios occurs after 2030. Comparing the two scenarios with other similar studies we identified that the major deviations between Z_Scenario and K_Scenario and previously developed scenarios are the most significant close to 2050. Particularly interesting is the higher levels of abatement achieved under K.Scenario and Z.Scenario, compared to many previously developed studies.

It may be concluded that while these two distinct pathways achieve substantial carbon reductions, the two remaining aspects of the Energy Trilemma - affordability and security of supply - vary significantly between each scenario over time to 2050. It is likely that a trajectory, encouraged by policy in order to satisfy each of the three aspects more fully, is both a more feasible and potentially more desirable scenario. The primacy of each of the aspects of the trilemma is likely to vary over time in response to exogenous developments. For example, whilst energy affordability was arguably the highest concern on the political agenda in light of energy price changes in 2013, security of supply has recently been the subject of most attention in the wake of geopolitical events in Eastern Europe. This acts to influence both short- and long-term policy, meaning that flexibility in operation of the policies implemented to achieve the scenarios trajectories, including the possibility for policy learning to absorb and respond to contextual technological social and political uncertainty and changes, is crucial to maintain efficacy, feasibility and a reasonable cost burden and distribution.

Lessons may be learned from the results of these scenarios. Regardless of the primacy of a given type of energy resource or resources, a wide mix of both renewables and fossil fuels is required - particularly so if nuclear is excluded as an option. Significant R&D is required regardless of the pathway chosen to allow development of technologies (particularly CCS, 'smart grid' technology and energy storage), to reduce long-term cost and function of the evolving energy mix, particularly in the electricity

sector. The policy mix must therefore encourage a wide mix of energy sources, without precluding options. It must be flexible to enable adaptation to rapidly evolving technological and resource development, but remain predictable in the long term to encourage the flow of private finance into R&D efforts, possibly supported by government funding to provide further incentive.


The authors wish to thank for the funding support to BHP Billi-ton Sustainable Communities/UCL Grand Challenges as part of the Sustainable Resources for Sustainable Cities Catalyst Grants 2013. Also would like to thank you to all participants to the workshop for their input and for their constructive comments.

Appendix A.

K_ and Z_Scenarios - demand side assumptions

Assumption Trajectory3 Value/technology

2020 2030 2040 2050

Domestic transport (3) 312.8 TWh 144.4 TWh 115.1 TWh 71.9 TWh (increase of 900 km/p.a.

(energy required) by 2050/shift towards bikes and

public transportation)

Shift to zero emission (3) 20% conventional cars, 32% plug-in hybrid vehicles, 48% of zero emission vehicles (hydrogen), 22% fuel cell

transport busses by 2050b

Choice of fuel cells or (3) 20% of vehicles fully electric, 80% of vehicles with hydrogen fuel cells


Domestic fright (2) 114.3 TWh 101.0 TWh 105.7 TWh 110.6 TWh (66% reduction in

(energy required) freight by road and 11% in the

proportion of train. Goods moved

in 2050 increased by 33%)

International aviation (3) 153 TWh 161 TWh 169 TWh 164TWh (130% increase in

(aviation fuel use) international passengers using UK

airports compared to 2010 and 31%

increase in fuels)

International shipping (3) 51 TWh 55 TWh 59 TWh 63 TWh (16% increase in emissions

(marine bunkers-fuel from shipping by 2050)

Average temperature (3) Mean temperature decreases by 0.5 °C compared to 2007 in 2050

of homes

Home insulation (3) 8 millions of homes adequate 11.5 millions of 15 millions of 18 millions of homes adequate

insulated with 4.3 millions of homes homes insulated with 14 millions of

homes having triple glazing adequate adequate homes having triple glazing

insulated with insulated with

7.5 millions of 11 millions of

homes having homes having

triple glazing triple glazing

Home heating (C) Technologies used: 58% air source heat pump, 30% ground source heat pump, 1% Geothermal, 11% district

electrification heating from power source

Home heating that is Demand for heating & cooling

not electric (C) (C) 375 TWh 365.2 TWh 365.4 TWh 371.1 TWh

Home lighting and (2) 81.8 TWh 82.6 TWh 87.9 TWh 93.5 TWh (demand per household

appliances-demand decreases by 34%/10% increase in

demand for commercial lighting &


Electrification of home (B) Complete electrification of home cooking


Growth in industry (B) UK industry grows in parallel with present trends

Energy intensity in (3) 384TWh 344TWh (CCS 320.9 TWh 300.3 TWh (40% progress in energy

industry is deployed efficiency/25% decrease in

rapidly after emissions intensity/66% of energy

2025 in demands is for electricity)


Commercial Demand (3) 114.3 TWh 118.3 TWh 125.3 TWh 134.2 TWh (space heating demand

for heating and remains at the current level/hot

cooling water demand increases by 25%,

cooling stable)

Commercial heating (C) Technologies used: 58% air source

electrification heat pump, 30% ground source

Commercial heating (C) heat pump, 1% geothermal, 11%

that is not electric district heating from power source

Commercial lighting (2) 77 TWh 80.8 TWh 85.3 TWh 90 TWh (15% raise in energy

and appliances demand for lighting and appliances

and 5% decrease for cooking)

Electrification of (B) Complete electrification

commercial cooking

a Trajectories are divided in to 4 levels 1-4. This default range of options including decimal numbers that constitute linear interpolations shows an increase in the

values or technological efficiency from 1 to 4. Values from A to D symbolise choices related to quality or a combination of quality and quantity. b Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Oil industry.

K_ Scenario - supply side assumptions

Assumption Trajectory Value/technology

2020 2030 2040 2050

Nuclear power stations (1.2) 0.24 GW/yr new 0.24 GW/yr new 0.24 GW/yr new 168TWha

power stations power stations power stations

91 TWh 91 TWh 117 TWh

CCS power stations (4) 2 GW/yr new 3G W/yr new 3G W/yr new 50-90 CCS Power stations by

power stations power stations power stations 2050b

CCS power station fuel (D) -30% coal, 70% gas CCS power stations CCS power stations CCS power stations use 100%

mix (natural, shale or use 100% gas use 100% gas gas (natural, shale or biogas)

biogas) (natural, shale or (natural, shale or

biogas) biogas)

Offshore wind (2) 3 GW/yr new 3 GW/yr new 3 GW/yr new 60 GW (new turbines have

power stations power stations power stations replaced older ones)

80 TWh 261 TWh 379TWh 394TWh

Onshore Wind (2) 1 GW/yr new 1 GW/yr new 1 GW/yr new 20 GW (new turbines have

power stations power stations power stations replaced older ones)

52TWh 168 TWh 237 TWh 237 TWh

Wave (2) 0.1 GW 0.4 GW 3.6 GW 9.6 GW

300 km of Pelamis wave farms

in the Atlantic-19TWh/yr

Tidal stream (2) 0GW 0.1 GW 0.7 GW 1.9 GW

6 TWh/yr from electricity


Tidal range (2) 0.7 GW 1.7GW 1.7 GW 1.7GW

3 TWh/yr

Biomass power (2) 2.4 GW 4.2GW 6.0 GW 7.8 GW


Solar panels for (2) 0.9 GW 5.8 GW 20.2 GW 70.4GW

electricity 60 TWh/yr

Solar panels for hot (2) 0.3 m2 per 0.5 m2 per 0.8 m2 per 1.0 m2 per household (30% of

water household household household suitable UK buildings get 30%

of their requirements for hot

water from solar panels)

Geothermal electricity (1.5) 50 MW 400 MW 500 MW 500 MW

5.25 TWh/yr

Hydro electric power (1.5) 1.7GW 1.75GW 1.8 GW 1.85GW

stations 5.25 TWh/yr

Small scale wind (2) 0.6 GW 0.6 GW 0.6 GW 0.6 GW (325.000 turbines or

1.3 TWh/yr)

Electricity imports (3) 6.0TWh/yr 23 TWh/yr 47 TWh/yr 70TWh/yr and 10% share ofthe

international desert projectc

Land dedicated to (3) 10% of land used forbiocrops cultivation


Livestock and their (2) Same as present (2010)


Volume of waste and (C) 45.8 TWh primary 50 TWh primary 54.3 TWh primary 59 TWh primary energy from

recycling energy from waste energy from waste energy from waste waste (81% increase in

recycling rate)

Marine algae (2) 1.00 km2 area of 10 km2 area of sea 100 km2 area of sea 562.5 km2 area of sea farmed

sea farmed farmed farmed 4TWh/yr

Type of fuels from (B) All biomass is converted in solid fuel in order to replace gradually coal


Bioenergy imports (2) 24TWh 39.3 TWh 55 TWh 70 TWh

Geosequestration (2) - Carbon 0.6 MtC02/yr 1 MtC02/yr


machines remove:


Storage demand (2) 3.8 GW of storage, 3.8 GW of Storage, 3.8 GW of storage, 4 GW of storage, 30 GWh of

shifting & 30 GWh of storage 30 GWh of storage 10 GWh of storage storage capacity and 10GW of

interconnections capacity and 6 GW capacity and 9 GW capacity and 10GW interconnection for electricity

of interconnection of interconnectors of interconnectors exports

for electricity for electricity for electricity

exports exports exports

a Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Nuclear industry. b Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Gas industry.

c 100 GW of concentrating solar power plants throughout Northern Africa proposed by the Desertec Foundation. This project will be interconnected with EU in order to meet European and global energy demand (Source:

Z_Scenario - supply side assumptions

Assumption Trajectory Value/technology

2020 2030 2040 2050

Nuclear power stations (1.5) 111 TWh 189 TWh 291 TWh 420 TWh

CCS power stations (2) 0.5 GW/yr new 1.5 GW/yr new 1.5 GW/yr new 25-40 CCS power stations

power stations power stations power stations

CCS power station fuel (D) -30% coal, 70% gas CCS power stations CCS power stations CCS power stations use 100%

mix (natural, shale or use 100% gas use 100% gas gas (natural, shale or biogas)

biogas) (natural, shale or (natural, shale or

biogas) biogas)

Offshore wind (3) 4.2 GW/yr new 5 GW/yr new 5 GW/yr new 100 GW

power stations power stations power stations 394 TWh

80 TWh 261 TWh 379TWh

Onshore wind (3) 1.6 GW/yr new 1.6 GW/yr new 1.6 GW/yr new 29 GW (new turbines have

power stations power stations power stations replaced older ones)

51 TWh 84 TWh 84 TWh 84 TWh

Wave (3) 0.1 GW 1.1 GW 7.0 GW 19.3GW600kmofPelamis

wave farms in the

Atlantic-38 TWh/yr

Tidal stream (3) 0.1 GW 0.5 GW 3.5 GW 9.5 GW 30 TWh/yr

Tidal range (3) 0.8 GW 4.3 GW 13 GW 13GW

26 TWh/yr

Biomass power (3) 3.6 GW 6.6 GW 9.6 GW 12.6 GW


Solar panels for (3) 2.5 GW 16.1 GW 39.1 GW 94.7 GW 80 TWh/yr in 2050a


Solar panels for hot (3) 0.9 m2 per 1.6 m2 per 2.3 m2 per 3.0 m2 per household (all the

water household household household suitable UK buildings get 30%

of their requirements for hot

water from solar panels)

Geothermal electricity (2) 100 MW 800 MW 1 GW 1 GW

7 TWh/yr

Hydro electric power (2) 1.8 GW 1.9 GW 2.0 GW 2.1 GW 7 TWh/yr


Small scale wind (3) 1.7 GW 1.7GW 1.7 GW 1.7 GW (825,000 installed in

every building generating

3.5 TWh/yr)

Electricity imports (1) No electricity imports

Land dedicated to (3) 10% of land used forbiocrops cultivation


Livestock and their (2) Same as present (2010)


Volume of waste and (C) 45.8 TWh primary 50 TWh primary 54.3 TWh primary 59 TWh primary energy from

recycling energy from waste energy from waste energy from waste waste (81% increase in

recycling rate)

Marine algae (3) 1.00 km2 area of 50 km2 area of sea 250 km2 area of sea 1.125 km2 area of sea farmed

sea farmed farmed farmed 9 TWh/yr

Type of fuels from (B) All biomass is converted in solid fuel in order to replace gradually coal


Bioenergy imports (3) 45 TWh 77 TWh 108.3 TWh 140 TWh/yr in 2050b

Geosequestration (3) - Carbon 20.6 MtC02 /yr 31 MtCO2/yr


machines remove


Storage demand (4) 3.8 GW of storage, 10GW of storage, 15 GW of storage, 20 GW of storage, 400 GWh of

shifting & 30 GWh of storage 150 GWh of storage 350 GWh of storage storage capacity and 30 GW of

interconnections capacity and 9 GW capacity and capacity and interconnectors for electricity

of interconnectors 25 GW of 30GWof exportsc

for electricity interconnectors for interconnectors for

exports electricity exports electricity exports

a Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Other renewables industry.

b Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Oil industry (more biofuels used in aviation through this option). c Influenced by policy instrument option from 'ENP2050' Workshop-Wind industry.

Appendix B.

World study


Projection time

Inter-governmental institutions Global Energy Assessment, by IIASA (2012) Energy Technology Perspectives, by IEA (2014) World Energy Outlook by IEA (2013)


New Lens Scenarios, by

Shell(2013) BP Energy Outlook by

BP(2014) The Outlook For Energy: a view to 2040, by ExxonMobil (2013) Energy perspectives, by Statoil, 2012 downloads/0/2012_2030_energy _outlook_booklet.pdf

BP_World_Energy_0utlook_booklet_2035.pdf Energy%20Perspectives%202012.pdf

Global Renewable Energy Market Outlook, by Bloomberg New Energy Finance 2013

Non-governmental organisations Energy [Rjevolution by Greenpeace and EREC(2010) 2050 Global Energy Scenarios, by WEC (2013) klimaat%20en%20energie/energy-revolution-scenario.pdf

Supply, efficiency, mix

6DS, 2DS, 4DS

450 scenario




New policies


Mountains, oceans

Base case (2







territory, new

normal, barrier


Reference, energy revolution Jazz, Symphony

2060 2035 2040

European study


Projection time

Inter-governmental institutions EU Energy, Transport and GHG Emissions Trends to 2050 by European

Commission (2013) Re-think 2050, by the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC)2010 Energy Roadmap 2050 by the European Commission (2011)

Scenario Outlook and Adequacy Forecast by ENTSOE (2013)


The role of electricity, energy modelling and scenarios, by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of NTUA 2007 trends_to_2050_update_2013.pdf ReThinking2050-full-version_final.pdf roadmap_2050_en.pdf



EU reference scenario

New energy policy scenario

Reference scenario Current policy initiatives High energy efficiency Diversified supply technologies High renewable energy sources (RES).

Delayed CCS, low nuclear Scenario A Scenario B

Baseline scenario Efficiency & RES scenario The supply scenario The role of electricity scenario

Low Emission Energy Scenarios for the European Union by Marc Barrett Bartlett School of Graduate Studies University College London for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

Consultancy companies

Renewable Energy: a 2030 Scenario for the EU, by Ecofys 2012

Non-governmental organisations

EU Energy Policy to 2050 Achieving 80-95% emissions reductions, by EWEA, 2011

Energy [Rjevolution by Greenpeace and EREC(2013) %20EnergyEU/EnergyEU.htm

A central scenario & five variant scenarios publications/reports/EWEA_EU_Energy .Policy _to_2050.pdf dokumente/Studien/klima.EU.EnergyRevolution.2010.pdf-

EU 27 energy scenario

Baseline scenario

Basic energy [rjevolution pathway

Advanced energy [rjevolution pathway


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Barrett, M. (2007). Low emission energy scenarios for the European Union. UCL.

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BP. (2014). BP energy outlook 2035. London.

Capros, P., Mantzos, D. L., Kouvaritakis, D. N., & Panos, D. V. (2007). The role of electricity-energy modelling and scenarios. Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of NTUA.

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European Commission. (2013). EU energy, transport and GHG emissions trends to2050. Reference scenario 2013.

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EXX0NM0BIL (2013). The outlook for energy: A view to 2040.

Fouquet, R., Hawdon, D., Pearson, P., Robinson, C., & Stevens, P. (1993). The SEEC United Kingdom energy demand forecast (1993-2000). University of Surrey, Department of Economics.

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