# Two Different Classes of Wronskian Conditions to a (3 + 1)-Dimensional Generalized Shallow Water EquationAcademic research paper on "Mathematics" CC BY 0 0
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## Academic research paper on topic "Two Different Classes of Wronskian Conditions to a (3 + 1)-Dimensional Generalized Shallow Water Equation"

﻿International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Mathematical Analysis Volume 2012, Article ID 384906,10 pages doi:10.5402/2012/384906

Research Article

Two Different Classes of Wronskian Conditions to a (3 + 1)-Dimensional Generalized Shallow Water Equation

Yaning Tang and Pengpeng Su

Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, Xi'an 710072, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yaning Tang, tyaning@nwpu.edu.cn Received 4 June 2012; Accepted 19 June 2012 Academic Editors: G. L. Karakostas and T. Ozawa

Copyright © 2012 Y. Tang and P. Su. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Based on the Hirota bilinear method and Wronskian technique, two different classes of sufficient conditions consisting of linear partial differential equations system are presented, which guarantee that the Wronskian determinant is a solution to the corresponding Hirota bilinear equation of a (3 + 1)-dimensional generalized shallow water equation. Our results show that the nonlinear equation possesses rich and diverse exact solutions such as rational solutions, solitons, negatons, and positons.

1. Introduction

Wronskian formulations are a common feature for soliton equations, and it is a powerful tool to construct exact solutions to the soliton equations [1-4]. The resulting technique has been applied to many soliton equations such as the MKdV, NLS, derivative NLS, sine-Gordon, and other equations [5-10]. Within Wronskian formulations, soliton solutions, rational solutions, positons, and negatons are usually expressed as some kind of logarithmic derivatives of Wronskian-type determinants [11-16].

The following (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water equation

uxxxy — 3uxxuy — 3uxuxy + uyt — uxz ~ 0 (1.1)

was investigated in different ways (see, e.g., [17, 18]). In , soliton-typed solutions for (1.1) were constructed by a generalized tanh algorithm with symbolic computation. In ,

the traveling wave solutions of (1.1) expressed by hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions were established by the G/G-expansion method, where G = G(£) satisfies a second order linear ordinary differential equation.

Under a scale transformation x ^ -x, (1.1) is reduced equivalently to

Uxxxy + 3UxxUy + 3UxUxy - Uyt - Uxz = 0, (1.2) and the Cole-Hopf transformation

U = 2(ln f)x (1.3) gives the corresponding Hirota bilinear equation of (1.2) DDy - DyDt - DxDz)f • f

V ' (1.4)

= fxxxy - fyt - fxz)f - fxxxfy - 3fxxyfx + fyft + fxfz + 3fxxfxy = 0,

where Dx,Dy,Dz, and Dt are the Hirota operators .

As we know, in the process of employing Wronskian technique, the main difficulty lies in looking for the linear differential conditions, which the functions in the Wronskian determinant should satisfy. Moreover, the differential conditions for the Wronskian determinant solutions of many soliton equations are not unique [5, 7, 10, 12]. In this paper, we will give two different classes of linear differential conditions for the Nth order Wronskian determinant solutions (simply, Wronskian conditions) of (1.4) based on the special structure of the Hirota bilinear form (1.4). Our results will show that (1.4) has diverse Wronskian determinant solutions under different linear differential conditions and further (1.2) will have diverse exact solutions such as rational solutions, solitons, negatons, and positons.

2. The First Class of Wronskian Conditions

The Nth order Wronskian determinant was introduced firstly by Freeman and Nimmo [1,20]:

W(01,02,...,0n) = IN- 1l =

x(0) i(1) i

01 01 ■■■ \$

020) 021

0(°) 0m 0N 0N

0(N-i) 0N

èj = —0i, 0 < j < N - 1, 1 < i < N. Yi dxj ~J ~ ' - -

Solutions determined by f = |N - 1| to (1.4) are called Wronskian determinant solutions.

In this section, we present the first class of linear differential conditions for the Wronskian determinant solutions of (1.4).

Theorem 2.1. Let a set of functions fai = fa (x,y,z,t), 1 < i < N satisfy the following linear differential conditions:

Фьхх = X кф-j, (2.3)

фгу = nfarx,

Фи = -фцтх), (2.4)

фг/2 = 4пфггххх + пфгг(тх) ,

where the coefficient matrix A = (Xij)\<irj<N is an arbitrary real constant matrix (see [10,12]), n is an arbitrary nonzero constant, m is an arbitrary positive integer, and ф^(mx) denotes the mth order derivative of with respect to x. Then the Wronskian determinant f = \N - 1| defined by (2.1) solves (1.4).

The proof of Theorem 2.1 needs the following two useful known Lemmas.

Lemma 2.2. Set aj, j = 1,2,..., N tobe an N-dimensional column vector, and bj, j = 1,2,..., N to be a real nonzero constant. Then one has

^bi\ai,a2,...,äN | = X |ai,a2,...,baj,...,aN |, (2.5)

i=i j=i

where baj = (b\a\j, b2 a2j,bNaNj )T.

Lemma 2.3 (see ). Under the condition (2.3) and Lemma 2.2, the following equalities hold:

|n—1АЛ 2>й|лг-1 i

i=1 \i=1

= ( xa„|n-i|

i=1 2 (2.6) = (-|n-3,n - i,n| + |n-2,n +

= |N - 1|(JN - 5,N - 3,N - 2, N - 1,N| - |N - 4,N - 2,N - 1,N + 1| + 2|NT—3,N,N + 1| - |N~-3,N - 1,N + 2| + |ÎV~-2,N + 3|).

Proof of Theorem 2.1. Under the properties of the Wronskian determinant and the conditions (2.3) and (2.4), we can compute various derivatives of the Wronskian determinant f = \N - 1| with respect to the variables x, y, z, t as follows:

fx = |n- 2,n|, fxx = |N- 3,N - 1,n| + |N- 2,N + l|, fxxx = |n—4 ,N - 2,N - 1,n| + 2|aT-3 N - 1,N + l| + |lV~-2,N + 2|, fy = n|N~-2,N|, fxy = n( |N~-3,N - 1,N| + |N-2,N + 1|), fXXy = n(|N~-4,N - 2, N - 1,N| + 2|N-3,N - 1,N + 1| + |N~-2,N + 2^, fXXXy = n(|N-5,N - 3, N - 2,N - 1,N| + 3|N~-4,N - 2,N - 1,N + 1| +2|N~-3,N,N + 1| + 3|N~-3,N - 1,N + 21 + |at-2,n + 3|),

dmf dm|N-1| d dm|N-1| d dm|N-1|

ft dxm dxm , fyt dy dxm n dx dxm

fz = 4n(|SP4,N - 2, N - 1,N| - |N^3,N - 1,N + ^ + |N^2,N + 2

am|N^1|

fxz = 4n(|N~-5,N - 3,N - 2, N - 1,N| - |aT-3,N,N + 1| + |N~-2,N + 3|)

am|N^1|

dx dxn

Therefore, we can now compute that

fxxxy - fyt - fxz f

= 3n(-|Nr-5,N - 3, N - 2,N - 1,N| + |N~-4,N - 2,N - 1,N + 1|

+2|iV-3,N,N + 1| + |N-3,N - 1,N + 21 - |N"--2,N + 3|)|N-11

- fxxxfy - 3fxxy fx + fyft + fxfz

= -12n|N-3,N - 1,N + 1||n-2,n|,

3fxxfxy

= 3n( |N-3,N - 1,n| + |N-2,N + 1|)2

= 3n( —1 NT-—3,N — 1,n| + |n~—2,N + 2 + 12n|N —3,N — 1/N||Nr-2/N + 1|.

Using Lemma 2.3, we can further obtain that

DXDv - DvDt - DxDz

= 12n(|N~-3,N,N + 11 |KT—11 - in-"3,N - 1,N + 1||n"-2/n|

11 1 I 11 1 (2.9)

+|nn3,n lnhn^zn + 1|x

This last equality is just the Plucker relation for determinants:

\B,A1,A2\\B,A3,A4\ - \B,A1,A3\\B,A2,A4\ + \B,A1,A4\\B,A2,A3\ = 0, (2.10)

where B denotes an N x (N - 2) matrix, and Air 1 < i < 4 are four N-dimensional column vectors. Therefore, we have shown that f = \N - 1\ solve (1.4) under the conditions (2.3) and (2.4). Further, the corresponding solution to (1.2) is

u = 2(ln f )x, f = |n—1 |. (2.11)

Remarks 1. The condition (2.4) is a generalized linear differential condition which includes many different special cases.

For example, when m = 1, the condition (2.4) is reduced to

faiy = nfaixX, fai,t = -fai,x, fai,z = 4nfai,xxx + nfaixX. (2.12)

When m = 2, the condition (2.4) is reduced to

faiy = nfaix, fai,t = -fai,xx, fai,z = 4nfai,xxx + nfaixx. (2.13)

When m = 3, the condition (2.4) is reduced to

faiy = nfairx, fait = -fai,xxx, fai,z = 5nfai,xxx. (2.14)

Using the linear differential conditions (2.3) and (2.4) as well as the transformation (1.3), we can compute many exact solutions of (1.2) such as rational solutions, solitons, negatons, and positons.

As an example, in the special case of m = 2 and n = 1, the conditions (2.3) and (2.4)

hxx = X Xjfy, i = 1"-"N, (2.15)

= , (2.16)

\$i,z = 4\$i,xxx + \$i,xx-

If we let the coefficient matrix A = (Xij)1<ijj<N of condition (2.15) has the following form (see [10-12,16] for details),

ih1 x 0

\0 Xnn/

, (Xii = Xjj , i = j), (2.17)

using the same method as that in , we can obtain N-soliton solutions of (1.2).

For example, when X11 > 0,Xii = 0, i = 2,..., N, we can compute two exact 1-soliton solutions for (1.2),

Mi = 2dx ln^cosh^4l!(2z + Xnz + VXny + VHTx - Xut + y^ = ^VX1itan^4Xi(2z + X11z + yXiiy + VXiix - X11t + yi), m2 = 2dx ln^sinh ^X^z + X11 z + vXiy + vX7x - X11t + y^ = 2vX7coth(4Xii2z + X11z + vXiy + vXix - X11t + y^,

with y1 being a constant.

3. The Second Class of Wronskian Condition

(2.18)

(2.19)

In this section, we show another linear differential condition to the Wronskian determinant solutions of (1.4).

Theorem 3.1. Let a group of functions fai = fai(x,y,z,t), 1 < i < N satisfy the following linear differential condition:

fai,y = kfai,xx,

fai,t = -2fai,xxx, (3.1)

fai,z = 3kfai ,xxxx,

where k is an arbitrary nonzero constant. Then the Wronskian determinant f = \N — 1| defined by (2.1) solves (1.4).

Proof. Under the properties of the Wronskian determinant and the condition (3.1), various derivatives of the Wronskian determinant f = \N — 1\ with respect to the variables x, y, z, t are obtained as follows:

fx = |N-2,N|, fxx = |N-3,N - 1,N| + |N-2,N + 1|,

fxxx = |n~-4,n - 2,N - 1,n| + 2|n-3,n - 1,N + 1| + |N"—2,N + 2^ fy = ^-|n-3,n - 1,n| + |n—2,n + 1|), fxy = k(-|N~—4,N - 2,N - 1,N| + |n--2 ,N + 2|), fxxy = k(-|N"—5,N - 3,N - 2,N - 1,N| - | AT—4, N - 2,N - 1,N + 1| + |n-3,N - 1,N + 2| + | AT—2,N + 3^, fxxxy = k(—| AT—6,N - 4,N - 3, N - 2,N - 1,n| - |ST—4,N - 2,N,N + 1| - 2|N"-—5, N - 3,N - 2,N - 1, N + 1| + |at——3,N,N + 2| +2|at—3,N - 1,N + 3| + |n—2,N + 4^, ft = -2(|n—4,N - 2, N - 1,N| - |at—3,N - 1,N + 1| + |at—2,N + 2^, fyt = - 2k (-|N~—6,N - 4,N - 3, N - 2,N - 1,n| - |at—4,N - 2,N,N + 1| + |aT—5,N - 3,N - 2, N - 1,N + 1| + |ST—3,N,N + 2| -|A/r—3,N - 1, N + 3| + |AT—2,N + 4^, fz = 3k (-|at—5,N - 3,N - 2,N - 1,N| + |at—4,N - 2,N - 1,N + 1| -|at—3,N - 1,N + 2| + |N~—2,N + 3^,

fxz = 3k (-|n-6,N - 4,N - 3,N - 2,N - 1,n| + |n-4,N - 2,N,N + i| -|n-3 ,N,N + 21 + |N-2,N + 4|).

Therefore, we can now compute that

fxxxy - fyt - fxz)f = 6k (-|n-4 ,N - 2,N,N + i| + |n-3 ,N,N + 2|)|N-11, -3fxxyfx + fxfz = 6fc(|N-4,N - 2,N- i,N + i| - |ST-3,N- i,N + 2|)|n-2,n|, -fxxxfy + fyft + 3fxxfxy = 6fc (-1NT-4, N - 2,N - i,N11NT-2, N + 11

+ |NT-3,N - i, n| | NT-2,N + 2^,

then, substituting the above results into (1.4), we can further obtain that

DXDy - DyDt - DxDzj where

A1 = - |N-4,N - 2,N,N + i||N~-l| + |NT-4,N - 2,N - i,N + i| |Nr-2,n|

- | NT-4,N - 2,N - i,N||N/r-2,N + i|

= |N-4,N - 2,N - 3,N - i11N-4,N - 2,N,N + i|

- |n-4,N - 2,N - 3,N||Nr-4,N - 2,N - i,N + i| + |n-4,N - 2,N - 3, N + i||N-4,N - 2,N - i,N|,

A2 = |N-3,N,N + 2||N-11 - |n-3,N - i,N + 2||n-2,n| + |n-3,N - 1,n||n-2,N + 2| = |n-3,N,N + 2| |n-3, N - 2,N - i|

- |n-3,N - 2,n||at-3,N - i,N + 2| + |n-3,N - 2,N + 2||n-3,N - 1,N|.

)f • f = 6k(Ai + A2), (3.4)

From (3.5), it is easy to see that the above expression (3.4) is nothing but zero because they both satisfy the Plucker relation (2.10). Therefore, we have shown that f = |N - 1| also solve (1.4) under the condition (3.1).

The condition (3.1) has an exponential-type function solution:

fa = £ dijenij, nij = kx + kljy + 3kl\jz - 2l3tjt, i = 1,2,...,N, (3.6)

where dij and lij are free parameters and p is an arbitrary natural number.

In particular, we can have the following Wronskian solutions of (1.2):

u = 2(ln f )x, f = W (fa1,fa2.....faN ), (3.7)

fa = glix+kl2y+3kl4z-2l3t + ewix+kw2y+3kwfz-2w3t ^ = 1 n (3 8)

with li and wi being free parameters. □

4. Conclusions and Remarks

In summary, we have established two different kinds of linear differential conditions for the Wronskian determinant solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water equation (1.1) or equivalently (1.2). Especially, the first Wronskian conditions are generalized linear differential conditions which include many different special cases. Our results show that the nonlinear equation (1.1) carry rich and diverse Wronskian determinant solutions.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation of China (under Grant nos. 11172233, 11102156, and 11002110) and Northwestern Polytechnical University Foundation for Fundamental Research (no. GBKY1034).

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