Scholarly article on topic 'The Examination of the Relationship Among Organizational Support, Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Hotel Employees'

The Examination of the Relationship Among Organizational Support, Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Hotel Employees Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Perceived Organizational Support" / "Job Satisfaction" / "Affective Commitmnet" / "Hotel Employees"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Necdet Bilgin, Halil Demirer

Abstract In this study, the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment and job satisfaction of hotel employees are reseached. Data analyzed were gathered from 271 employees of 7 hotel organizations. In the conclusion of analyses there found significant and positive relationship among variables.

Academic research paper on topic "The Examination of the Relationship Among Organizational Support, Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Hotel Employees"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 (2012) 470 - 473

ARTSEDU 2012

The examination of the relationship among organizational support, affective commitment and job satisfaction of hotel employees

Necdet Bilgina*,Halil Demirerb

aSchool of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mustafa Kemal Universty, iskenderun, Hatay,31200,Turkey _bSchool of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mustafa Kemal Universty, iskenderun, Hatay,31200,Turkey_

Abstract

In this study, the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment and job satisfaction of hotel employees are reseached. Data analyzed were gathered from 271 employees of 7 hotel organizations. In the conclusion of analyses there found significant and positive relationship among variables.

© 20122 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Ay§e Çakir ilhan Keywords:Perceived Organizational Support, , Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitmnet, Hotel Employees;

1. Introduction

POS has been researched in hotel organizations in this study. The relationships among POS and affective commitment and job satisfaction have been examined. Employees' behaviors are an important factor in obtaining customer satisfaction since hotels are labor intensive organizations. It is likely that job satisfaction and affective commitments of hotel employees would have reflections on their overall performance in the organization. Positive reflections would produce customer pleasure in the hotel. A pleased customer would foster loyalty to the hotel and thus would help to gain competitive advantage. In this research, the relationship between POS as the antecedent of the affective commitment of employee towards the organization and job satisfaction has been examined.

2. POS, Effective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

POS, social change has its change has its roots in organizational support theory in organizational behavior literature. Persons get into relationships and maintain it in order to maximize their personal interest regarding social Exchange theory (Blau, 1964). Organizational support rewards and meets the socio-emotional needs of the employees who spend efforts for the good of organization up to organizational support theory. This depends on the reciprocity principle of social exchange (Gouldner, 1960). Depending upon the reciprocity principle, the organization would pay more, enlarge the social rights and give value and respect to employees as they increase their efforts fort he good of organization (ShananocadEisenberger, 2006). Thus, social Exchange theory links the motivation of employees and the achievement of organizational goals (Aselage and Eisenberger, 2003). Organization support perception emerged as a result of organization support theory (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). Eisenberg and

NecdetBilgin, Tel:+90-326-6184930 E-mail address: necdetbilgin@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Ay§e Qakir ilhan doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.191

others defined the function of organizational support as "form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being."(1986:501). High tendency of POS among employees help them develop work attitude and bahavior (Howes, et al.,2000). Organizational support perception leads employee to feel obligated to make contributions to the organization (Eder and Eisenberger, 2008). Keeping fairness in the organization, managerial support, organizational rewards, work conditions, valuing employees, promotion at work, job safety and autonomy are the antecedents that effects POS. Organizational support perception may bring about organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance, occupational commitment (Rhoades and Eisenberg, 2002).

Organizational commitment has been examined as three components by Meyer and Allen (1991). Affective commitment as one of three refers to the employee who feels committed to the organizational and defines himself with the organization. Employee stays in the organization by his or her will. Normative commitment as the second component implies that employee stays in the organization since his or her responsibilities to the organization. Person stays in the organization due to that he or she is under some kind of obligation to the organization. The third and last is continuance commitment which implies that employees think that they need the organization. They keep stay in the organization because it would be costly for him or her to leave the organization. POS and affective commitment are positively and strongly related. This relation is reciprocal. POS makes individuals feel responsible for the welfare of the organization. This responsibility is in the form of exchange between organization and employee and may increase the affective commitment of the individual. POS help develop affective commitment as it meets the emotional support and socio-emotional needs of the individual. Thus, individual feels a strong affiliation to the organization as his or her emotional needs are met and defines him or herself with the organization (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002: 701). Empirical research shows that there is positive relationship between POS and affective commitment (Panaccio and Vandenberghe, 2009; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002; Eisenberger et al., 2001; Meyer and Smith, 2000).

Affective commitment and job satisfaction are common variables in the examination of employee behaviors. Affective commitment differs from normative and continuance commitment and it has been researched more than the other two. Affective commitment is a kind of sentimental commitment and results in satisfaction and a strong commitment to the organization. Job satisfaction is another important employee attitude. It refers to the judgment of the employee about his or her job as a result of his or her evaluations about the time spent at work (Sieger et al. 2011: 81). Meyer and others stated that there is a relationship between affective commitment and job satisfaction in their study of meta-analysis (Meyer et al., 2002).

In their meta-analysis of organizational support Rhoades and Eisenberger (2002) found that job satisfaction is one of the consequences of POS. Riggle and others (2009) on the other hand found that there is a strong relationship between POS and job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 1. There is positive relationship between POS and affective commitment. Hypothesis 2. There is a positive relationship between affective commitment and job satisfaction. Hypothesis 3. There is a positive relationship between POS and job satisfaction

3. Methodology

In this research, quantitative analyses of data obtained on organizational support, affective commitment and job satisfaction by using questionnaires is adopted as overall methodology. Correlation and regression analyses are applied to data to reveal relationships among variables.

3.1 Data and Scales

Data gathered from 271 employees from 7 hotel companies in Antalya and Denizli in Turkey by using questionnaires. Affective commitment scale is adapted originally from the scale of Meyer and Allen(1997). Job satisfaction scale is adapted from Minnesota Satisfaction Scale originally used by Weiss and others (1967). Perceived organizational support is measured by the scale originally used by Eisenberg and others (1986).

3.2.Analyses

Correlation and regression analyses are applied to data. The correlation analysis with the average values of variables, standart deviation and alpha coefficiencies is illustrated in Table 1. Since the test of alpha coefficiencies of variables resulted over 0,70, it can be said that the scale is reliable (Nunnally, 1978). There found correlations in the analysis.

Table 1. Correlation, Standart Deviation, Average, Reliability (Alpha)Coefficiencies

Variables 0rt. S.D. Alfa 1 2 3

1 Perceived organizational support 3,4503 ,81199 ,910 1

2 Affective commitment 3,2982 ,75534 ,861 ,586** 1

3 Job satisfaction 3,5195 ,68427 ,920 ,524** 444** 1

** 0.01 significant two way

Table 2 shows the results of regression analysis on job satisfaction and affective commitment. There found positive and significant relationships between job satisfaction and POS. Thus, hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 are supported.

_Table 2. Regression analyses, dependent variables are affective commitment and job satisfaction_

Model 1: Affective Model 2: Job Model 3 Job

commitment satisfaction satisfaction

Independent Variables ß t (p) ß t (p) ß t (p)

Perceived organizational support ,586 11,855(,000)** ,444 8,102(,000)** ,208 3,294(,001)**

Affective commitment - - - - ,403 6,294(,000)**

F 140,551** 65,636** 58,146**

R2 ,341 ,197 ,303

Adjusted R2 ,343 ,194 ,298

** 0.01 significant

4. Conclusion

In this study, the relationships among the perceived organizational support, affective commitment and job satisfaction of hotel employees has been examined. Results are in parallel with the existing literature. It has been found that POS has positive effects on affective commitment and job satisfaction. Moreover, affective commitment has positive effects on employees' job satisfaction as well.

Fostering organizational support to the employees by hotel managers would increase the job satisfaction and affective commitment them in return. Within this framework, applications such as organizational rewarding,

ameliorating the work conditions, increasing work autonomy and giving value to the employees should take place in hotel organizations.

References

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