Scholarly article on topic 'Gender different between Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable with Resilience among Male and Female'

Gender different between Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable with Resilience among Male and Female Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Bahram Jowkar, Leaila Noorafshan

Abstract This study was examined Gender different between Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable with Resilience among Male and Female. Seven-hundred- high school students (353 girls & 347 boys) were participants of the study. New Personal Fable Scale and New Imaginary Audience Scale and Adult Resilience Scale were used as measures of the study. Results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed (Female& male) that: A) Imaginary Audience was significant positive predictor of the social competence and Family coherenceand. b) the omnipotence was positive predictor of all subscales of RSA c): the Uniqueness for(Female) was negative predictor of Personal competence,Family coherence and Personal structure subscales; the Uniqueness for (Male) was significant positive predictor of the social competence was negative predictor of Personal structure d) Invulnerability(Female) was significant negative predictor Personal structure and family coherence but(Male) was negative predictor of Personal structure, (Female& male) significant positive predictor was Social support.

Academic research paper on topic "Gender different between Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable with Resilience among Male and Female"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29 (2011) 422 - 425 —

International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2011)

Gender different between Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable with Resilience among Male and Female

Bahram Jowkara*, Leaila Noorafshanb,

aDepartment of Educational psychology,University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran bTeacher Training,Center of, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

This study was examined Gender different between Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable with Resilience among Male and Female. Seven-hundred- high school students (353 girls & 347 boys) were participants of the study. New Personal Fable Scale and New Imaginary Audience Scale and Adult Resilience Scale were used as measures of the study. Results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed (Female& male) that: A) Imaginary Audience was significant positive predictor of the social competence and Family coherenceand. b) the omnipotence was positive predictor of all subscales of RSA c) : the Uniqueness for( Female) was negative predictor of Personal competence ,Family coherence and Personal structure subscales; the Uniqueness for (Male) was significant positive predictor of the social competence was negative predictor of Personal structure d) Invulnerability( Female) was significant negative predictor Personal structure and family coherence but(Male) was negative predictor of Personal structure , (Female& male ) significant positive predictor was Social support.

©2011PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.Selectionand/orpeer-review underresponsibilityof Dr Zafer Bekirogullari.

Keywords: Resilience, Personal fable, Imaginary audience, Male and Female.

Introduction

The imaginary audience refers to a belief that other people are as concerned with one's behavior as one self; and second, the personal fable involves a pervasive unrealistic belief of one's uniqueness, omnipotence, and invulnerability to harm. Elkind (1967).Where as research examining the role of the imaginary audience on health behavior has produced inconsistent findings (Dolcini et al., 1989; Green, Johnson, & Kaplan, 1992; Rolison & Scherman , 2003), However as noted a resent theoretical and conceptual review of the imaginary audience and personal fable their characterization of adolescent social .Resilience has been defined as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances (Howard & Johnson, 2000).There has, however, been substantial focus on resilience in terms of broader life events (e.g. resilience to disadvantaged backgrounds, poor parenting, family break-up, mental illness, drug addiction etc.) in Australia (Fuller, 2000; National Crime Prevention, 1999; Shochet & Osgarby, 1999) and overseas (Davis & Paster, 2000; Gilligan, 1999; Lindstroem, 2001; Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000; Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000; Masten, 2001; Slap, 2001). According to current models of resilience, the factors affecting resilience can be organized as external and internal factors. External factors are extrinsic and generated from outside of a person, Internal factors are

* Corresponding author. Tel: +98-711-6134688; mobil.09177078312 E-mail address: Bjowkar@rose.shirazu.ac.ir

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr Zafer Bekirogullari. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.258

generated from within an individual and include Biological and psychological factors. The present study focused on - Internal Self characteristics as an important Internal (Egocentrism Adolescence & Gender different ) factor.

2. Methods

Participants of this study were Seven-hundred- high school students (353 girls & 347 boys) that selected by multi-stages cluster random sampling; from different high school of Iran.

1.1. Measures

2.1.1. New Personal Fable Scale

The NPFS is a 46 item scale and comprises tree subscales: (Omnipotence, Personal Uniqueness, and Invulnerability) the reliability of the measure examined by internal consistency Chronbach alpha method. Alpha coefficient for Omnipotence = 0.74, for Personal Uniqueness = 0.64, and for Invulnerability = 0.60. Validity of the measures investigated by factor analysis method. Result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of measure for use in Iran.

2.1.2. New Imaginary Audience Scale

The NIA is a 40 item scale. The reliability of the measure examined by internal consistency Chronbach alpha method. Alpha coefficient = 0.88.Validity of the measures investigated by factor analysis method. Result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of measure for use in Iran.

2.1.3. Adult Resilience Scale (ARS)

The ARS is a 46 item scale and comprises five subscales (Personal competence, social competence , Family coherence, Social support, Personal structure) . The reliability of the measure examined by internal consistency Chronbach alpha method. Alpha coefficient: Personal competence=0.82 social competence= 0.80.Family coherence= 0.81 Social support = 0.81 Personal structure = 0.73 Validity of the measures investigated by factor analysis method. Result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of measure for use in Iran.

3. Results

The results revealed significant correlations between Personal Fable subscales, Imaginary Audience and resilience subscales

(Table 1).

Table 1. Correlation matrix of academic resilience and family communication patterns

Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1. Omnipotence 1

2. Personal Uniqueness 0/28 ** 1

3. Invulnerability 0/25 ** 0/21 ** 1

4. Imaginary Audience 0/06 ** 0/09 ** 0/15 ** 1

5. Personal competence 0/51** 0/23** 0/12 0/10 1

6. social competence 0/29** 0/12** 0/07 0/21 0/44 1

7. Family coherence 0/24 ** -0/03** -0/02 0/07 0/39** 0/32** 1

8. Social support 0/33 ** 0/02 ** -0/02** 0/12 ** 0/48 ** 0/45 ** 0/56 ** 1

*P < 0/05 **P < 0/ 01

Simultaneous multiple regression of resilience subscales on Personal Fable subscales, and Imaginary Audience (Female Table 2 &Male Table 2.1)

Table 2. Multiple regression of subscales resilience on the Variables Personal Fable subscales, Imaginary Audience on Female

^_SIg_R_R_f

Criterion Variable Prediction Variables B

Personal competence _Omnipotence_ 0/46 0/56 0/001 0/57

Invulnerability 0/08 0/04 NS 0/33

Personal uniqueness -0/08 -0/06 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/02 0/06 NS

Omnipotence 0/24 0/33 0/001

social competence Invulnerability -0/3 -0/02 NS 0/34 0/14 14/79

Personal uniqueness -0/12 -0/09 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/06 0/19 0/001

Omnipotence 0/31 0/36 0/001

Family coherence Invulnerability -0/07 -0/04 NS 0/41 0/17 18/09

Personal uniqueness 0/16 -0/10 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/08 0/21 0/001

Omnipotence 0/20 0/35 0/001

Social support Invulnerability 0/16 0/13 0/01 0/51 0/14 14/02

Personal uniqueness 0/48 0/48 0/001

Imaginary Audience 0/01 0/05 NS

Omnipotence 0/16 0/39 0/001

Personal structure Invulnerability -0/04 -0/05 NS 0/38 0/15 15/61

Personal uniqueness -0/11 -0/14 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/01 0/06 NS

Table 2.1 Multiple regression of subscales resilience on the Variables Personal Fable subscales and Imaginary Audience on Male

Criterion Variable Prediction Variables B ß Sig R R2 f

Omnipotence 0/37 0/39 0/001

Personal competence Invulnerability 0/23 0/13 0/01 0/47 0/22 21/02

Personal uniqueness 0/07 0/05 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/02 0/07 NS

Omnipotence 0/10 0/18 0/001

social competence Invulnerability 0/17 0/11 NS 0/37 0/12 10/21

Personal uniqueness 0/05 0/04 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/06 0/20 0/001

Omnipotence 0/18 0/17 0/001

Family coherence Invulnerability 0/18 0/09 NS 0/33 0/11 9/20

Personal uniqueness 0/07 0/04 NS

Imaginary Audience 0/07 0/20 0/001

Omnipotence 0/13 0/21 0/001

Social support Invulnerability 0/10 0/08 NS 0/14 14/21

Personal uniqueness 0/50 0/51 NS 0/65

Imaginary Audience 0/07 0/03 NS

Omnipotence 0/12 0/24 0/001

Personal structure Invulnerability -0/07 -0/08 NS 0/06 14/82

Personal uniqueness -0/01 -0/01 NS 0/24

Imaginary Audience 0/01 0/08 NS

4. Discuss p <0/001 p<0/01

Generally .males are more vulnerable to all risk factors, including prenatal and birth injuries family discord, specific educationa :hological stressors(Benard,1991)than females .Males also are at greater

risk factor .me eneci oi gender on resilience seems to vary (fonagyet at . 1994 ;werner,1990).This study was examined Gender different .Results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed that: Female Imaginary Audience was significant positive predictor of the social competence and Family coherence , the Uniqueness was negative predictor of Personal competence, Family coherence and Personal structure subscales; the Invulnerability was significant negative predictor personal structure and family coherence and significant positive predictor was Social support. Male Imaginary Audience was significant positive predictor of the social competence and Family coherence and the Uniqueness was significant positive predictor of the social competence was significant negative predictor of personal structure and Invulnerability was significant negative predictor of personal structure, and significant positive predictor was Social support .The omnipotence was positive predictor of all subscales of RSA There is not a significant gender difference. The findings seem to increase resilience in female field features should dominate the relationship Influence others and the organization and planning, confidence, self-efficacy ,self-love,

hope, extroversion, and resilience provided. Resilience male and their support for the use of social resources (which is characteristic of social resilience and also follow the order and structure (which is characteristic of the individual) seems necessary . The findings Gender different also showed that some aspects of self during adolescence is commonly thought to be protective factors in adolescence may play a role Because of the resiliency and quality of the protective function that has an Custodians is essential to the development of education and growing awareness of the consequences of each stage have These sources of support or protection to be provided for each course.

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