Scholarly article on topic 'Linguistic Characteristics of Mateiu Caragiale's Prose and Poetry'

Linguistic Characteristics of Mateiu Caragiale's Prose and Poetry Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Mirela Costeleanu

Abstract At every level of the language (phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic), Mateiu Caragiale's prose and poetry display features of the standard norm of the epoch (often dialectal) as well as to the dominant norm of the epoch, the author oscillating permanently between the two of them. To adequately interpret the language peculiarities of the author's works, one needs to distinguish clearly between the epoch norm (the literary norm of a certain period, subsequently turned into archaism) and the dominant norm.

Academic research paper on topic "Linguistic Characteristics of Mateiu Caragiale's Prose and Poetry"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 180 (2015) 531 - 536

The 6th International Conference Edu World 2014 "Education Facing Contemporary World

Issues", 7th - 9th November 2014

Linguistic Characteristics of Mateiu Caragiale's prose and poetry

Mirela Costeleanu*

University of Pitesti, Faculty of Letters, Pitesti, Romania


At every level of the language (phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic), Mateiu Caragiale's prose and poetry display features of the standard norm of the epoch (often dialectal) as well as to the dominant norm of the epoch, the author oscillating permanently between the two of them. To adequately interpret the language peculiarities of the author's works, one needs to distinguish clearly between the epoch norm (the literary norm of a certain period, subsequently turned into archaism) and the dominant norm.

© 2015Publishedby ElsevierLtd.This is anopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of The Association "Education for tomorrow" / [Asociatia "Educatie pentru maine"]. Keywords: phonetic; morphological; lexical level; standard language; archaic language

The present paper intends to point out the harmonious combination of features of the standard norm of the author's epoch and features of the literary norm, the author's permanent oscillation between them visibly incr easing the expressiveness of Mateiu Caragiale's poetic language. 1. The phonetic level of Mateiu Caragiale's poetic language

At the phonetic level, Mateiu Caragiale's poetic language is characterised by the weak presence of regionalisms. Some of them are the preservation of the affricate g in the Moldavian form of some terms: se impáiengina - se impáienjena (38), personagiu - personaj (78), personagii - personaje (103), peisagii - peisaje (68), apanagiul - apanajul (78), avantagiile - avantajele (119), the preservation of the softened consonant r, a feature of old texts and of the Moldavian dialect: ministeriului - ministerului (75). In all other cases, the author adopts the literary norm, using the forms cutreierátorul (54), faurul (57), cuceritorul (6).

Some of the phonetic phenomena typical of Mateiu Caragiale's literary works have a unique appearance throughout the author's literary creation. It's the case of the above-mentioned noun ministeriului. Yet, others are

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 0040728067124 E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of The Association "Education for tomorrow" / [Asociatia "Educatie pentru maine"]. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.155

extremely frequent. The regional form of the pronoun tuturor is used from the beginning of the novel Craii de Curtea-Veche to the end: tutulor (53, 57, 65, 68, 79), tutulora (73).

The consonant z is replaced by s in the forms of the verbs a se zbate and a zburda: se sbat (6), sburda (175). A rare phenomenon is the occurrence of j instead of z: haina si darja (72), pasari de prada darje (114), mai darja si mai intunecata (167).

Among the Moldavian regionalisms, the oscillation between the vowels e and i can be frequently noticed: nestimate - nestemate (13, 33), se chirchilea - se cherchelea (56), nemereala - nimereala (33), nu o impiedeca - nu o impiedica (118), nu-l impiedeca - nu-l impiedica (92), se impiedeca - se impiedica (104), Cismegiu - Cismigiu (64), despret - dispret (113), fermecul - farmecul (61, 68, 83, 94, 108). Some of these regionalisms are doubled by their literary correspondents. It's the case of the regionalism intunerecul, which also occurs with its literary form intunericul (84). The phonetism fermec is also used with its literary form farmec (23).

One can notice the preservation of the archaic final u in the structure of the noun testamentulu (93), a phenomenon which only occurs once. The iotacized forms of some verbs are frequently used: sa ma vanza (91), au sa se arza (102), sa raspunza (106), sa vaza (108), sa te vaz (111), sa-si piarza (108), sa raza (107). Some of their literary correspondents are also used: sa vada (57), sa raspunda (5, 106).

The ordinal numeral is used with the form intaiele (100, 112), the preposition sub is also used with the form subt (3). The hardening of consonants through the phenomenon of syntactic phonetics is rarely resorted to: l-a candelii lumina (10), s-ascunde (17, 22), s-atinge (25), s-aduna (84), s-arata (97).

Mateiu Caragiale adopts the Moldavian norm, writing sa ramaie (73, 91, 120), sa nu vie (77), sa-mi spuie (89, 96, 121), sa vie (102), sa ne spuie (105), sa tiu (106), avea sa-mi vie (110), sa ma tiu (115). The first of the above-mentioned verbs also occurs with its literary form sa ramana (43). The verb a cauta is used with the forms cata (6, 13), catand (37), but also with its literary form cautase (98), while the verb a incerca occurs with the form cerca (36), aprilejui with the form prilejise (69).

The noun oaspete is used with its archaic form oaspe throughout the author's work: oaspe (56, 68, 69, 81), oaspelui (65). It is also used with its literary form oaspetele (52). The author's prose and poetry abounds in archaic forms: boer (55, 57, 68), boeri (16), boereste (70), boerit (112), boeresti (171), mosafiri (52, 107), sofrageria (78), tifrul (80), de almintreli (76), nu ma domiresc (78), vitiul (69, 112), dantul (175), nu se sinchisea (69, 106), viers (32), jicnindu-l (55), prietesug (41), simtimant (33), coloare (34, 63), aevea (43, 125), trasurile (instead of trasaturile) (36, 37, 54, 117), the use of the preposition intru in the phrases nu suparam intru nimic (56), intru asteptarea zorilor (64).

The conjunction daca is used with its literary form (54, 60, 68, 76), but it also occurs with the archaic form daca (88, 99, 100, 102).

The relative pronoun care occurs with its literary form as well as with its archaic form, but the former outnumbers the latter: care (51, 54, 55), in care (5, 54, 56, 57), cu care (58, 91, 102, 103), de care (60, 85, 91, 101), despre care (71). The archaic forms are used in prose: cari (12, 101, 106, 123), de la cari (106, 107, 117), la cari (117), pe cari (116, 123). One can easily notice the naturalness with which the author alternates the two forms, sometimes inside the same paragraph: Sunt vise ce parca le-am trait candva si undeva, precum sunt lucruri vietuite despre cari ne intrebam daca n-au fost vis. La asta ma gandeam deunazi seara cand ravasind printre hartiile mele ca sa vad ce se mai poate gasi de ars — hartiile incurca — am dat peste o scrisoare care mi-a desteptat amintirea unei intamplari ciudate. (31)

Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives occur in most cases with their literary forms: acea (51, 52, 54, 60, 64), acelei (60, 65), aceea (55, 57, 72, 76), acel (5, 67, 69). 2. The morphological level of Mateiu Caragiale's poetic language 2.1. Nouns

A close analysis of the morphological level of Mateiu Caragiale's literary work shows that the noun is usually used in accordance with the literary norm. A special place is occupied by verbal nouns: aratarea (25, 26), vestirea (42), defaimarea (57), pescuirea (43), leganarea (52), iscodirea (57), starnirea (86), crutare (55).

As far as the use of noun-forming suffixes is concerned, one can notice the reduced number of nouns formed by means of diminutive suffixes: cuconita (32), cetatuie (57), ulicioara (60), mosioara (71), masuta (107). Sometimes the diminutive suffix attaches a pejorative meaning to the noun: giumbusluc (55).

A very productive suffix is -is : Si, desteptand frunzisul, a diminetii boare (26), costise (66). Although not very productive, some of the suffixes receive special poetic values, emphasising the irony of the situation.

Proper nouns are highly frequent in the author's prose, being meant to underline one of its main

characteristics - exotism. Here are some examples of proper nouns used in Remember: Van-Brouwer (33), Van-der-Hoogh (33), Delft (33), Java (33), Antile (34), Tiergarten (34), Ceylan (34), Charlottenburg (40), Spreea (40), Marcellus (41), Whitehall (42), Killegrew (42).

Under the influence of the symbolist poets, Mateiu Caragiale writes the following nouns with capital letters in his poetry: Cerul (5), Trecutul (10), Somnul (22), Truda (22). In his prose, the following nouns catch the reader's attention for the same reason: Trecut (41), Trecutul (42), Frumosului (64), Frumos (68), Puteri (79).

To express the plural form of feminine nouns, the author alternates literary desinences with archaic desinences. Thus, the author uses the forms boalele (55, 112), aleele (36, 64), aripele (114, 171). Yet, nouns which respect the literary norm are dominant: lacrimi (64), lumini (66).

Deviations from the standard language are seen in the plural form of the following nouns: uliti (58, 64), capodoperile (33), timpii (33), curcubeuri (31). The first two nouns are also used with their literary plural form: ulite (123), ulitelor (171), capodopere (66).

Literary desinences are also dominant when it comes to the expression of the grammatical category of case. Yet, in the genitive-dative case, the literary desinence -i is frequently doubled by the archaic desinence -e: taina märirii (3), trufia inimii (4), negura-amintirii (5), frumusetea muzicei vechi (31), reivirea boalei (31), rasfatul verei (167), albeata sidefie a pielei (117). Some of the nouns occur with their archaic desinence as well as with their literary desinence: datorita jucariei firei (67), suceala firii lor patimase (71), deosebitele inclinari ale firii mele (86). In the author's prose, the construction of the accusative case by means of the old preposition intru is very interesting: Mai zabovea apoipe uliti intru asteptarea zorilor (64), dascalindu-ma intru cele inalte (85).

2. 2.Adjectives

The presence of verbal adjectives offer a distinguished aspect to the author's poetry, which seems to remind of Eminescu's poems, the abundance of verbal adjectives being seen as a basic characteristic of the poet's first period of creation: cäzände turle (4), sangerande zari (12), murindele vapai (14).

Diminutive suffixes used to form adjectives are far from being abundant. Thus, in Remember, the writer resorts to diminutive suffixes on rare occasions: ....incat nimeni n-ar fi voit sa creada ca despre tanarul cu care paream atat de legat, tocmai eu, saracut de mine, eram al care stia mai putin (41), Era asa de albastra acea seara dulceaga si lina (40). The situation is similar in the novel Craii de Curtea-Veche: In leganarea lui molateca, palpaia

nostalgica si sumbra.....(25), Ah, zise Pirgu lui Pasadia, facandu-si privirea galesa si glasul dulceag (52), putintica

la trup si uscativa (84), pastorala sa dulceaga (101). In the author's poetry, the frequency of diminutive suffixes is as reduced as it is in prose.

Among the productive suffixes, -os/-oasa, -tor/-toare, -et/-eatä attract the reader's attention: Si ne-mpacati in juru-i cu sulitele-ntinse/I-arata catre zare pletosii luptatori (6), Miezoasa si cuprinzatoare (54), singumtatea devine apasatoare (64), Inaintea ochilor mei, aevea, se desfasura fermecatoare tramba de vedenii (65), Strajuiau pe inaltimi ruine semete (66), bautor asa maret (54). The adjective semet is frequently used in prose as well as in poetry: Si-ai ars cetati, ai fost maret, stapane (4), De-atunci cad in ruina marete curti pustii (8).

Another productive suffix is -ic/-ica: Daca-al tau nume il sapase runa/Cea tainica pentr-a-ti slavi avantul (4), Peregrini cucernici mergeam sa ne inchinam frumosului (66).

The negative prefix -ne is very productive, its use having very suggestive effects: Si-ai castigat izbanzi nenumarate (4), L-a sters neimpacata-apoi uitarea (4), Ca-nalt msari, cumplit, neindurat (4), Cu toata mzbunarea e tot nemultumit (10), Printre ei bagasem de seama ca se afla nelipsit un tarnr, care, acolo mai ales, ar fi atras privirile oricui... (32).

The degrees of comparison of adjectives are used in accordance with the literary norm. The comparative degree is well represented: Nimic mai monoton totusi ca felul de a ne petrece timpul (65), Si purcedam mereu, in cautare de zari mai adanci, de paduri mai batrane, de gradini mai inflorite, de ruine mai semete (67). The relative superlative is often resorted to: coltul cel mai frumos al pietei (31). The absolute superlative distinguishes itself through the highest frequency and the widest variety of the means of expression. The superlative built with the aid of exclamatory morphosyntactic constructions is particularly expressive: Ce frumos cap avea totusi....! (53), Cu ce strigatoare nedreptate ii fusesera intampinate lucmrile (53).

The idea of superlative is rendered by means of the adjective nenumarate: Si-ai castigat izbanzi nenumarate (4). The adverbial phrase nesfarsit de expresses a quality in its highest degree: Nostalgica gandirea in voie-mi pribegeste/Si nesfarsit de trista, se pierde, se topeste (24). The same idea is expressed in prose by the combination of the adverb adanc and an adjective: miscat adanc (59), tulburat adanc (98), by the adjective nespus in an adverbial phrase: privirea lor, nespus de dulce (63), by the adjective imbatator in an adjectival phrase:

imbatator de dulce (168), but also by the adjectives atotputernica: atotputernica sotie a unuipresedinte de consiliu (100) and preaosebita: preaosebita stima (113).

The same idea of superlative is emphasised by the presence of a consecutive clause: Si-atat de-apasatoare tacerea-mpurpurata/Ca simt cum plange-n mine ceva nedeslusit (24). This procedure is frequently used in prose as well: Cu doi ani inainte vazusem in sala frantuzeasca a muzeului o cuconita care copia dupa Maria Mancini si avea o asa izbitoare asemanare cu modelul, incat ai fi crezut ca, privindu-se in oglinda, isi zugraveste, impodobindu-l, propriul ei chip (32), patimasa mireasma ce raspandea el in juru-i, atat de imbatatoare ca treaz te facea sa visezi (34).

2.3. Articles, numerals and pronouns

The use of articles, numerals and pronouns in Mateiu Caragiale's works is in accordance with the standard language, the author restricting himself to the literary forms.

2.4. Verbs

Although the use of verbs generally corresponds to the literary norm, there are situations in which the author prefers the archaic forms of certain verbs: Un falnic zeu ce cata sa se avante-n nori (6), Dar cine-i cata-n fata se pierde sagetat (13), Sa tie tara-ntreaga sub gheara-i rastignita (20), Ce patima ascunsa sau ce dezamagire/ Se-oglinda peste veacuri in zambetu-i amar? (20), Ce-mi pasa daca sufer, cand sufer in tacere? (22), Cat de curand ea vie, aduca-mi alinarea (22), se pornisera iar sa coaca si sa sangere (167).

2.4.1. Voice

The active voice, as the voice in which the communicative focus is directed towards the agent-subject, is dominant in the author's prose as well as in his poetry. Social poems contain almost exclusively verbs in the active voice. In the poem Clio two out of the fifteen verbs are in the reflexive voice, all the others being in the active voice: a inganat, sta, aprinde, priviti, se-nfiripa, zac, par, umbrind, -neaca, mergi, te-asaza, asculta, desteapta, ingana, sa tresalte. As far as the passive voice is concerned, it is almost absent from poetry and very rare in prose: Am cunoscut o buna parte din aceia care sunt socotiti ca faime ale tarii....(53), Cu ce strigatoare nedreptate ii fusesera intampinate lucrarile (53).

2.4.2. Mood

The indicative and the conjunctive are the most frequently used moods in the author's prose and poetry. The former dominates the epic and the descriptive passages: Strajuiau pe inaltimi ruine semete in falduri de iedera, zaceau cotropite de veninoasa verdeata surpaturi de cetati. Palate parasite atipeau in paragina gradinilor, unde zeitati de piatra, in vesmant de muschi, privesc zambind cum vantul toamnei spulbera troiene ruginii de frunze, gradinile cu fantani unde apele nu mai joaca. (66). The subjunctive is used to express a a concession: o vesnicie sa ne fi intalnit, tot mai lesne i-ar fi scapat lui o marturisire decat mie o intrebare (35), supposition: Era si foarte tanar: sa tot fi avut douazeci de ani (33), condition: Sa-mi fi ingaduit mijloacele de trai a schimba fata imprejurarilor, cu anii ar fi fost cu putinta sa nu vad raza zilei (38), or doubt: Sa fi avut un scop staruinta incapatanata cu care isiperdeluia scurtul lui trecut si viata de toate zilele se putea prea bine (35).

In the third person, the conjunction-morpheme sa is frequently omitted, which leads to „a bigger semantic focus, thanks to the reduction of the signifier's surface (Irimia, 1979): Cat de curand ea vie, aduca-mi alinarea (24). The imperative mood is rarely used in poetry to express a demand or advice: Dormi dulce somn netulburat/In flori si in dantele,/ Dormi ca ti-au palit mainile/In grelele inele (21), Nu te opri, nu plange si daca-ti stau morminte/In drum, treci peste ele, innabuse-al tau dor/Si-n neagra noapte pleaca cu fruntea sus-nainte (18).

2.4.3. Tense

In prose, one can notice the random character of the suffixes -esc and -ez in the present tense: Lor le datoresc inspiratii mult nobile si grave (32). The absence of the inflexional suffix from the structure of some verbs in the present tense can be seen in Mateiu Caragiale's poetry: Cand se oglinda-n ape murindele vapai? (14), Crunt inima-mi zvacneste si sangera ranita (8) as well as in his prose: Mireasma florilor de oleandru se asternea amara deasupra lacurilor triste ce oglindea albe turle intre funebri chiparosi (66), ma consola (59).

The verbs from whose structure the prefix is missing are of a special expressiveness: adierea molateca a unui vant cerca in zadar sa risipeasca pacla ce inchegase vazduhul (36), Cum asteptarea, cu toate neajunsurile, pare mai grea la inceput, am luat-o pe cheu in sus, fara a ma departa prea mult de locul de intalnire (38). One can notice the author's preference for the inverted forms of compound tenses: Asa un veac trait-a, voios si intelept (11), Pleca-voi inainte, in noapte, sunt dator (22), Gasi-vom inauntru cu ce ne ospata (22), Apoi la vatra calda, pandi-vom blanda clipa (22), Si-nfiorati de vise, dormi-vom amandoi (22), In boiul ce pe lume avut-am altadata (23), De-atunci trecut-au veacuri si tot n-am fost iertat (23), Afara de trufie nimic n-avut-am sfant (26).

2.5. Adverbs

Mateiu Caragiale often resorts to parallel forms of some adverbs, which proves that the author kept a permanent contact both with the informal language and with the language of old texts. His preference for one of the two variants is dictated by the expressive harmony of the verse: ades - adesea: Si-ades faceai ingrozitor sa urle (4), Si-adesea amintindu-mi de visul spulberat (8), Adesea, far' sa-si dea seama/Isi mangaie hangerul (15).

The absolute superlative is frequently expressed with the help of the morphemes atat and prea: Aflai ca nici eu nu eram pentru dansul un strain; ne intalneam atat de des (64), Uitam de Europa, din ea tot ce admirasem ne parea acum atat de pipernicit si de sters (67). In other cases, the absolute superlative is rendered with the aid of adverbial constructions: mireasma calda ce se mspandea, ametitor de patimasa, la fiecare din miscarile ei (58), oamenii se purtasera cu dansul cum nu se putea mai bine (98). 3. The lexical level

A close analysis of the author's literary creation from the perspective of vocabulary usage shows its impressive diversity and complexity, revealing the writer's ability to juggle with colloquial expressions, archaisms, neologisms, slang words and phrases in order to obtain remarkable stylistic effects. Though vehemently criticising the author's depiction of an abominable social decay, E. Lovinescu highly praises his unparalleled talent as well as the quality of his lyrical, picturesque style, the decadent phosphorescence of the world in the mixture of poetic images, archaic words, dignified and attentively sought phrases (Lovinescu, 1937). T. Vianu describes the writer's novel as a genuine masterpiece of the Romanian language (Vianu, 1973). A. Oprea, in his turn, eulogises the sublime combinations of words which are used so masterfully in order to hide many content and form gaps (Oprea, 1974).

The author's prose abounds in colloquial words and expressions: marama (84), matasariu (65), indrusaim (84), becisnic (109), cartire (113), cioclovina (75), ferches (53), galceava (74), nascare (108), a pierde rabojul timpului (107).

The sector of regionalisms is also well represented: fedeles (55), prispa (63), balcaz (75), dardora (96), dihonie (97), iatac (83), estimp (58, 71, 85), mehenghi (59), meteahna (70), a surchidi (76), teleleica (76), navarlii (105).

The archaisms used correspond to the reality described: arman (135), birt (52, 69), borat (78), caftan (88), calpuzan (79), canavat (73), chivuta (60), ibovnic (74), hatar (62), herb (113), obida (85), suliman (35), zapis (115). Semantic archaisms are also very frequent: a dura, with the meaning of a construi: Il intrebai daca nu in nestatornicia domniilor si in teama de navaliri trebuie cautata pricina ca nu s-a durat si la noi maret si trainic ca in Apus? (58), beciuri adanci boltite peste cari, la inceputul veacului trecut, se durasem altele mai sarace (172), Pe-o culme, langa-un iezer, dureaza-o manastire (9), a sluji with the meaning of a servi: Baiatul care ne slujise ne spuse ca nu fusese mai nimic (58), the verb being also used with its literary meaning: totdeauna slujise de pilda vie de cumpatare (45).

As far as neologisms are concerned, one can easily notice that the writer avoids them as much as possible. Thus, he uses sorginte instead of origine, surghiun instead of exil, pilda instead of exemplu, vmjmas instead of inamic. Neologisms are not numerous in descriptive passages, characterised by a very high degree of lyricism: Era o noapte de catifea si de plumb, in care adierea molateca a unui vant cerca in zadar sa risipeasca pacla ce inchegase vazduhul. Zarile scaparau de fulgere scurte, padurea si gradinile posace taceau ca amortite de o vraja rea: mirosea a taina, a pacat, a mtacire. Inaintam cu greu prin intunericul ce vatuia aleile singuratice, trebuind uneori sa ma opresc covarsit de slabiciune (36).

Words and phrases of an accentuated informal character are also seen as highly expressive: huiduma (75), a intra mesa (61), a se sinchisi (69, 76), paceaum (115), sindrofie (85), a tarbaci (77), a face zambre (106).

Although Mateiu Caragiale imposes himself as an original writer, he often makes use of words preferred by his predecessors. Thus, he shows preference for a lot of terms which pervade Eminescu's poems: adanc, adumbrit, alb, albastru, de argint, de aur, amar, bland. The adjective amar occurs in Eminescu's Mortua est: Un vis ce-si inmoaie aripa-n amar. Yet, the adjective is much more frequent in Octavian Goga's poems: Purtandpovestea

mea amara (Cantece), Nu visul lui nemangaiat,/Amarul altora l-a frant (Eu stiu un basm.....), Iar din amarul plans

al vesniciei (In muzeu), Mi-a dat durerea lumii mostenire/Amarul ei sa-l ocrotesc pe strune (O raza).

The author makes wide use of the noun taina both in prose and in poetry, a noun frequently used by Eminescu as well: Sta-mbalsamata taina maririi stmmosesti (3), De taina-mbalsamata si florile uitarii (14), Cu ochi a caror taina tu n-ai stiutpatrunde (17), Iar cand, sfioasa umbra, prin ceata rece-a serii/Purtandu-ti trista taina, de ganduri chinuit (18). The author uses the corresponding adjective and adverb with such a high frequency that one

can say without exaggeration that he is obsessed with them: Si-n tainuita cula, tintindpriviri viclene (16), Daca-al tau nume il sapase runa/Cea tainica pentru-a-ti slavi avantul (4), Si tainic pe mormantu-i batranii ulmi soptesc (11), Cu usa zavorata in dosnica chilie/In care raza zilei se cerne tainic, lin (12).

The author's preference for these words is also striking in his prose: Seara da insufletire umbrelor, in oglinzi, tainic, treceau fiori (31), si nu cred sa se afle pe lume viers omenesc sau cantare mestesugita care sa ma miste mai viu ca tainicul freamat ce-l desteapta in frunzisul lor vantul serii (32), cei ce s-au impartasit cu evlavie intru taina trecutului (32).

Genuinely worshipping words, Mateiu Caragiale is the creator of a literary work of impressive verbal richness, which inevitably lays its mark on the evolution of the Romanian poetic language.

The present paper was meant as a thorough analysis of the author's stylistic availability shown in the richness and diversity of his lexical level, in the naturalness with which the author combines elements of the literary norm and elements of his epoch norm, thus obtaining remarkable stylistic effects.


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