Scholarly article on topic 'The relationship between pre-service teachers’ self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy'

The relationship between pre-service teachers’ self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Aysun Gürol, Seda Aktı

Abstract The present study seeks to investigate the relationship between pre-service teachers’ self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy beliefs. It also seeks to determine how much pre-service teachers’ self efficacy contributes to the prediction of their sense of internet self-efficacy. The study reported in this paper was conducted to examine the relationship between pre-service teachers’ internet self-efficacy and their self-efficacy in Faculty of Education. To this end, 248 pre-service teachers were selected from Faculty of Education in Firat University, in Turkey. The participants were asked to complete the “pre-service teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” and the “Pre-service Teachers’ Internet Self-Efficacy Questionnaire”. Data analysis and statistical calculations revealed that there is a significant relationship between pre-service teachers’ internet self-efficacy and their self-efficacy. To investigate of Internet Self-Efficacy might have more predictive power in predicting pre-service teacher's self-efficacy, regression analysis was run. The conclusions and implications of the research were discussed with reference to the earlier findings.

Academic research paper on topic "The relationship between pre-service teachers’ self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy"

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Procedía Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 3252-3257

WCES-2010

The relationship between pre-service teachers' self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy

Aysun Gurola *, Seda Aktia

a Faculty of Education, Firat University, Elazig, 23300, Turkiye Received October 27, 2009; revised December 3, 2009; accepted January 14, 2010

Abstract

The present study seeks to investigate the relationship between pre-service teachers' self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy beliefs. It also seeks to determine how much pre-service teachers' self efficacy contributes to the prediction of their sense of internet self-efficacy. The study reported in this paper was conducted to examine the relationship between pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and their self-efficacy in Faculty of Education. To this end, 248 pre-service teachers were selected from Faculty of Education in Firat University, in Turkey. The participants were asked to complete the ''pre-service teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale" and the 'Pre-service Teachers' Internet Self-Efficacy Questionnaire". Data analysis and statistical calculations revealed that there is a significant relationship between pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and their self-efficacy. To investigate of Internet Self-Efficacy might have more predictive power in predicting pre-service teacher's self-efficacy, regression analysis was run. The conclusions and implications of the research were discussed with reference to the earlier findings.

© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Pre-service teacher; self-efficacy; teachers' self-efficacy; pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy

1. Introduction

1.1. Pre-service teachers' self-efficacy

Educational researchers have attempted to measure pre-service teacher efficacy and pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. These attempts have been fraught with theoretical and measurement issues (Bandura, 1993; Deemer & Minke, 1999; Dellinger, 2005; Denzine et al., 2005; Guskey & Passaro, 1994; Henson, 2002; Pajares, 1992; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001; Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Self-efficacy is grounded in the theoretical framework of social cognitive theory emphasizing the evolvement and exercise of human agency that people can exercise some influence over what they do (Bandura, 2006a). Bandura (2006a) maintains that in this conception, people are self-organizing, proactive, selfregulating, and self-reflecting. From this perspective, self-efficacy affects one's goals and behaviours and is influenced by one's actions and conditions in the environment (Schunk & Meece, 2006). Efficacy beliefs determine how environmental opportunities and impediments are

* Aysun Gürol. Tel.: 90 424 2120835; fax: 90 424 236 50 64 E-mail address: agurol@firat.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.497

perceived (Bandura, 2006a) and affect choice of activities, how much effort is expended on an activity, and how long people will persevere when confronting obstacles (Pajares, 1997).

During the last decade, , there has been a growing interest in pre-service teacher self-efficacy (e.g., Soodak & Podell, 1996; Wheatley, 2005) in the literature. A problem with research on teacher self-efficacy is that there is no consensus on how the construct should be conceptualized and how it should be measured. It has been conceptualized and measured differently by different researchers (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007; Tschannen-Moran &Woolfolk Hoy, 2001). In addition to the increased research interest in teacher efficacy and its correlation with teaching/learning behaviours in the classroom (Milner &Woolfolk-Hoy, 2003), much attention has been directed to the efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers. Recent research examined the influence of pedagogical methods courses and field experience courses throughout teacher education programs on pre-service teachers' thoughts and beliefs about their teaching practice (Clift & Brady, 2005).

Teacher self-efficacy refers to the teacher's belief of his or her abilities to bring about valued outcomes of engagement and learning among students, including difficult and unmotivated students (see Bandura, 1977; Tschannen- Moran, Woolfolk Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Specifically, teacher self-efficacy has been related to a variety of student outcomes that include achievement (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Ross, 1992), motivation (Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1989), and students' own sense of efficacy (Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1988), as well as to different teacher classroom behaviors that affect the teacher's effort in teaching, and his or her persistence and resilience in the face of difficulties with students (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Gibson & Dembo, 1984; Meijer & Foster, 1988; Podell & Soodak, 1993; Soodak & Podell, 1993). It is also maintained that teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy are more enthusiastic in teaching (Allinder, 1994; Guskey, 1984), more committed to teaching (Coladarci, 1992; Evans & Tribble, 1986; Trentham, Silvern, & Brogdon, 1985), and more likely to stay in teaching (Glickman & Tamashiro, 1982).

1.2. Pre-service teachers'internet self-efficacy

Social cognitive theory provided a solid theoretical foundation for concept of the Internet self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is an individual's belief in his/her ability to successfully perform tasks of a particular domain (Bandura, 1993) and this belief influences his/her choice of activities, how much effort he/she will expend, and how long he/she will sustain effort in dealing with stressful situations (Bandura, 1993; Schunk, 1989; Zimmerman, 1995). The stronger the students' beliefs in their efficacy, the more occupational options they consider possible, the greater the interests they show in them, the better they prepare themselves educationally for different career pursuits, and the greater their persistence and success in their academic coursework (Lent, Brown & Hackett, 1994). Internet self-efficacy has been defined as individuals' perceptions about their own abilities toward using the Internet (Tsai & Tsai, 2003). Based on the unique features of the Internet, Tsai (2004) attempted to develop an instrument for assessing students' Internet self-efficacy under two dimensions of online exploration and online communication.

This study seeks to investigate the relationship between pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and their self-efficacy beliefs. It also seeks to determine how much pre-service teachers' internet self to the prediction of their sense of efficacy.

To this end, the following two research questions were posed and investigated in this study:

1. Is there any relationship between pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and their sense of self-efficacy?

2. Is there any relationship between the different subscales of pre-service teachers'internet self-efficacy and self-efficacy?

2. Method

2.1.Participants

The participants of this study were 248 pre-service teachers (132 males, 116 females) teaching at Education Faculty in Firat University, Elazig (Turkey) in the 2008-2009 academic year. There are five sections of specialisation in the departmant: Turkish, Humanities, Mathematics, Science and Class Teaching. The total size of the group is 250. A total of 248 sets of questionnaires were distributed to pre-service teachers who indicated interest in participation. These pre-service teachers were requested to complete the questionnaires anonymously.

2.2. Instruments

Pre-service Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale: Reviewing the existing measures on pre-service teacher's self-efficacy (such as, the Web Efficacy Scale developed by Ashton et al. (1982), including seven items; the teacher efficacy scale by Gibson and Dembo (1984), including 30 items on a 6 point Likert scale; and Bandura's teacher efficacy scale, 1997, comprising 30 items on a 9 point scale), the researchers decided to utilize the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale designed by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy, due to its comprehensiveness, integrity, and ease of administration. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale, also called Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (OSTES), encompasses two versions: long form (including 24 items) and short form (including 12 items). In the current study the long form was applied which includes three subscales: (1) efficacy in student engagement (ESE), (2) efficacy in instructional strategies (EIS), and (3) efficacy in classroom management (ECM). Each subscale loads equally on eight items, and every item is measured on a 7 point scale anchored with the notations: ''nothing, very little, some influence, quite a bit, a great deal." This scale seeks to capture the multi-faceted nature of pre-service teachers' efficacy beliefs in a concise manner, without becoming too specific or too general. The total reliability and the reliability of each individual factor - reported by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy (2001) - are depicted in Table 1. In this study, the total reliability of the questionnaire was calculated 0.88 by using Cronbach's alpha.

Table 1. Reability reports of Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (OSTES)

Mean SD Alpha

OSTES 7.1 0.94 0.94

Efficacy in student engagement (ESE) 7.3 1.1 0.87

Efficacy in instructional strategies (EIS) 7.3 1.1 0.91

Efficacy in classroom management (ECM) 6.7 1.1 0. 90

The Internet Self-Efficacy:. The internet self-efficacy instrument pre-dated the rise and importance of Internet related skills. In a recent study, Torkzadeh and Van Dyke (2001) developed a 17-item instrument for measuring the individual's self-perception and self-competency in interacting with the Internet. They based their measurement development on Bandura's conceptualization of self-efficacy and other studies of social and cognitive psychology. Later, they used this 17-item instrument in a study of training and Internet self- efficacy and reported a reliability of 0.96. We used 15 items of the instrument developed by Torkzadeh and Van Dyke for measuring Internet self-efficacy. Two items in the original instrument were deemed redundant and therefore excluded. Internet self-efficacy instruments used a seven point Likert-type scale where 1 = strongly disagree and 7 = strongly agree.

2.3. Data analysis

To ensure the normality of the distribution, descriptive statistics was employed. To determine the role of pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy in their self-efficacy, a Pearson product-moment correlation was applied to the data. To find out which components of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy might have more predictive power in predicting pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy, a regression analysis was conducted.

3. Results

Table 2 summarizes the descriptive results of the two instruments - pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and self-efficacy questionnaires -used in this study.

Table 2. Descriptive statistics of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and their internet self-efficacy.

Pre-service Teachers; N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

Self-Efficacy 248 2,79 7,00 5,4479 0,81916

Internet Self-Efficacy 248 1,00 7,00 4,6144 1,08908

To investigate the correlation between pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and their self-efficacy, a Pearson product-moment correlation was applied. The results of correlation revealed that there is a significant

correlation between pre- teachers' internet self-efficacy and their scores in self-efficacy (r = 0.215, p < 0.01) (see Table 3).

Table 3. The results of correlation between pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy. Total internet self-efficacy

Total pre-service teachers' self-efficacy 0,215*

* Shows the existence of the significant relationship at the level of 0.01.

It was also found that there is a statistically significant relationship between pre-service teachers' internet self-efficacy and the 3 subscales which compose the total pre-service teachers' self-efficacy. The relevant results are as follows: internet self-efficacy and (1) efficacy in student engagement (ESE) (r = 0.236, p < 0.01), (2) efficacy in instructional strategies (EIS) (r = 0.163, p < 0.01), (3) efficacy in classroom management (ECM) (r = 0.204, p < 0.01), (see Table 4).

Table 4. The results of correlation between components of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and their internet self-efficacy.

Total internet self-efficacy

Efficacy in student engagement (ESE) 0,236*

Efficacy in instructional strategies (EIS) 0,163*

Efficacy in classroom management (ECM)_0,204*_

* Shows the existence of the significant relationship at the level of 0.01.

To investigate which components of internet self-efficacy might have more predictive power in predicting pre-service teacher's self-efficacy and how other components contribute to this model, a regression analysis was conducted. As illustrated in Table 5, three subscales of pre- pre-service teachers' self-efficacy - efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, efficacy in classroom management - were found to be good predictors of the dependent variable (pre-service teachers'internet self-efficacy).

Table 5. The results of regression analysis for pre-service teachers' self efficacy and their internet self-efficacy.

Model Unstandardized Standardized

Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta B Std. Error

1 (Constant) 3,172 ,653 4,857 ,000

Efficacy in student engagement ,240 ,172 ,205 1,399 ,163

Efficacy in instructional strategies ,028 ,083 ,022 ,334 ,739

Efficacy in classroom management ,164 ,171 ,133 ,955 ,341

a Dependent Variable: Internet self-efficacy

Table 6 shows the model summary statistics. The results indicate that the model containing all of the components of the internet self-efficacy test can predict 43% of the dependent variable, i.e., pre-service teachers' self-efficacy. The R value is 0.208 showing the multiple correlation coefficients between pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and the components of the internet self-efficacy test. Its square value is 0.43.

Table 6. R2 table for internet self-efficacy as the predictor of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy. Model R R2 Adjusted R2 Std. Error of the Estimate

1 ,208a ,043 ,026 1,09481

a Predictors: Efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, efficacy in classroom management

4. Discussion

As stated earlier, the present study intends to investigate whether there is any relationship between pre-service teachers' for internet self-efficacy and their sense of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in Education Faculty. The results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and

their internet self-efficacy. The size of this correlation indicates that generally high levels of internet self-efficacy are related to high levels of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy.

Regarding the second research question, the findings revealed that among the 3 components of pre-service teachers' self-efficacy, efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies and efficacy in classroom management have the highest positive correlation with pre-service teacher's internet self-efficacy.

On the other hand, the scale seeks to discern pre-service teachers' efficacy beliefs concerning student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. This study enriches the literature regarding pre-service teachers' self efficacy and pre-service teacher's internet self-efficacy by exploring the existence and extent of the relationship between these two affective aspects in pre-service teachers contexts.

5. Conclusions

In conclusion, in the lights of the research results, enhancing pre-service teachers' self efficacy tends to have a positive influence on their sense of pre-service teacher's internet self-efficacy. This in turn may lead to effective teaching and accordingly to successful student achievement since a strong sense of pre-service teacher efficacy has been found to be associated with teachers' pedagogical success (Ghanizadeh and Moafian, in press) and student characteristics such as motivation, achievement, and efficacy (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Previous studies have also pointed to the role of teacher efficacy in shaping students' attitudes toward school and subject matter. Accoridng to, Tschannen- Moran et al (1998) the higher the teaching efficacy of a teacher, the greater the students' interest in school and learning materials. Our study should be replicated to find out whether similar results can be obtained elsewhere. In terms of the relationship between pre-service teachers' self efficacy and pre-service teacher's internet self-efficacy in terms of their gender, the research should be conducted with sufficient numbers of participants of each gender. Since this study was conducted only in Education Faculty in Firat University, further research needs to be carried out at high schools to compare the results.

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