Scholarly article on topic 'Experimental Study of Evacuation from a 4-storey Building'

Experimental Study of Evacuation from a 4-storey Building Academic research paper on "Medical engineering"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Engineering
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Emergency evacuation" / "Route selection" / "Human behaviour" / "Crowd movement"}

Abstract of research paper on Medical engineering, author of scientific article — Tao Chen, Lili Pan, Hui Zhang, Satish Narayanan, Nicholas Soldner

Abstract This paper presents the results obtained from a student evacuation experiment performed in a four-story building at Tsinghua University. Eighty six young Chinese university students took part in the experiment as evacuees. Five evacuation scenarios were conducted to study occupant route selections and crowd movement under different conditions. The effect of occupant familiarity with the building, occupant initial distribution within the building and exit width on route selection, crowd movement at exits and on stairs are discussed. The evacuations were recorded using digital videos and CCTV cameras in the building. Considerable density, speed and flow rate data at exits and in stairwells is obtained, analyzed and compared with data from SFPE Handbooks. The results have useful implications for understanding the psychological characteristics and crowd movement of people in evacuations. This experimental work is also a preliminary effort toward the goal of building a database on human behavior under emergency situations for the Chinese population.

Academic research paper on topic "Experimental Study of Evacuation from a 4-storey Building"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Engineering

ELSEVIER

Procedía Engineering 62 (2013) 538 - 547

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

The 9th Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology

Experimental study of evacuation from a 4-storey building

Tao Chena'*, Lili Pana, Hui Zhanga, Satish Narayanan15, Nicholas Soldnerb

aInstitute ofPublic Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China bUnited Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06118, U.S.A.

Abstract

This paper presents the results obtained from a student evacuation experiment performed in a four-story building at Tsinghua University. Eighty six young Chinese university students took part in the experiment as evacuees. Five evacuation scenarios were conducted to study occupant route selections and crowd movement under different conditions. The effect of occupant familiarity with the building, occupant initial distribution within the building and exit width on route selection, crowd movement at exits and on stairs are discussed. The evacuations were recorded using digital videos and CCTV cameras in the building. Considerable density, speed and flow rate data at exits and in stairwells is obtained, analyzed and compared with data from SFPE Handbooks. The results have useful implications for understanding the psychological characteristics and crowd movement of people in evacuations. This experimental work is also a preliminary effort toward the goal of building a database on human behavior under emergency situations for the Chinese population. © 2013 International Association for Fire Safety Science. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Asian-Oceania Association of Fire Science and Technology

Keywords: Emergency evacuation; Route selection; Human behaviour; Crowd movement

1. Introduction

The emphasis on computer evacuation models is facilitated by the movement throughout the world toward performance-based fire design and the need for a quantified evacuation time during the design of a building [1]. However, lack of data available for model validation and calibration of model parameters is the main bottleneck for model development [2].

Evacuation drill experiments are most useful to obtain data on human behaviour under emergencies for the development and validation of evacuation models. There have been many experimental studies on evacuations in western countries. Pauls [3-6] documented 40 evacuation drills in office buildings ranging between 8 and 29 stories in height in Ottawa between 1970 and 1974, which was later extended by Proulx [7-10]. Evacuation drills provided detailed occupant movement data,

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 6279 6323; fax: +86 10 6279 2863. E-mail address: chentao.a@tsinghua.edu.cn.

Nomenclature

/ flow per unit width of stair (/ms)

N number of people that pass through the study area in a counting interval

w effective width of the stairwell(m)

t counting interval (s)

d occupant density of the study area (/m2)

n number of people in the study area in the counting moment

s projective area of the study area (m2), it is the projective area of five steps in this paper,

v_speed of pedestrian (m/s)_

1877-7058 © 2013 International Association for Fire Safety Science. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Asian-Oceania Association of Fire Science and Technology doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2013.08.098

including data for people with disabilities. Boyce and Shields [11-14] conducted a series of four research experiments that collectively provides a substantial body of knowledge on the egress capabilities of disabled people who frequent public-assembly buildings. They also conducted experimental unannounced evacuation drills in retail stores [15]. There are also some small-scale studies on evacuation such as from a single classroom by Helbing, Nagatani et al. [16, 17].

Much progress has been made in the field of evacuation study and performance-based fire design by simulation in China [18-20]. However there have rarely been any experimental studies. Simulation studies on evacuation often rely on foreign data for lack of data of Chinese population. Evacuation behaviours have strong dependence on human characteristics, such as physical feature, cultural backgrounds, habits and emergency training. Evacuation behaviours of Chinese population must have many differences with foreign population. Using foreign data to study evacuation of Chinese crowd will inevitably reduce the accuracy and credibility of computer simulation. Therefore, it is necessary to collect evacuation data of Chinese population.

The aim of this research is to study the evacuation dynamics of young papulation of Chinese, which is a preliminary effort toward the goal of building a database on human behaviour under emergency situations for Chinese.

2. Brief description of the experiment

2.1. Building

The building in which the experiments were conducted, called "west main building" in Tsinghua University, is a four-story office building built in the 1950s. The building has a symmetrical structure with two stairways on each side. Participants distribute on the 4th floor of the building before evacuation. Fig. 1 shows the 4th floor plan of the building. The rooms inside the gate are termed as "inner rooms" while the rooms #l-#6 along the corridor are termed as "outer rooms".

siHirm-ii i Outer rooms

#4 ta m |

IY1 h h M:

Fig. 1. Physical layout of the experiment building.

2.2. Participants

86 students, 8 female and 78 male, aged from 17 to 21, all in good health, from the department of engineering physics of Tsinghua University took part in the experiment. The gender and age distribution of the participants are shown in Fig. 2.

The participants in the experiment are male-dominated university students from the same department, not representative of the general population. This research is intended to study the evacuation dynamics of young Chinese population.

MALE /

90.7% ( -

--FEMALE

Fig. 2. (a) Age distribution and (b) gender distribution of the evacuation experiment participants.

2.3. Scenario

In the experiment, 86 people at the fourth floor were ordered to evacuate out of the building as soon as they heard the alarm. Pre-evacuation is not included in the experiment. Five scenarios were designed and conducted in the experiment. The research objective is to study occupant evacuation behaviors including route selection and crowd movement.

The conditions changed in each scenario are the initial distribution of people, the width of the gate, entry path before each scenario and number of available stairs, shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Experimental conditions

Scenario Initial distribution Gate width Entry way (people in outer rooms) Available stairs

1 2 3 Outer rooms: 35 persons Inner rooms: 51 persons 1.24 m 1.24 m 0.62 m Stair 1 Stair 2 Stair 2 locked

4 5 Inner rooms: 86 persons 1.24 m 0.62 m

In scenarios 1-3, the 86 occupants were distributed in rooms on the fourth floor to simulate a normal situation. The number of people in each room is assigned mainly by room size. In scenarios 4 and 5, all the 86 occupants were distributed collectively in the inner rooms to simulate a dense situation. The detailed distribution of occupants is shown in Fig. 3.

_rLr • s 16 i l" 1 9 IY1 4 9 ||1 r\ r,

1 • 9 VJ U 2 3 U I 8

JK 31 i i m iHÛ m r\ r> —TY1

1 20 1 ^ ^

• T •

Fig. 3. Initial occupant distribution (a) in scenarios 1 -3 and (b) in scenarios 4 and 5.

The difference in conditions between scenarios 1-3 is occupant's familiarity with building and environment. All the occupants were led to the outer rooms upstairs via stairway 1 in scenario 1 and via stairway 2 in scenario 2. People choose their entry routes freely in scenario 3. The comparison of results of scenario 1-3 helps evaluate differences in occupant behavior regarding route selection at different level of familiarity with building. In scenario 3, stairwell 2 on the fourth floor was closed and locked without informing the students before evacuation. This aimed to simulate evacuee reactions to an unavailable exit which often occurs in practical situations involving a fire break-out.

The difference in conditions between scenarios 4 and 5 is the gate width. In scenario 4, the gate opens wholly with a width of 1.24 m. In scenario 5, the gate opens halfway with a width of 0.62 m. The comparison of evacuation at different widths is aimed to study the relation between flow rate and exit width.

Each scenario is conducted only once without repetition. The experiment is conducted in good order for the participants' safety. No fire conditions are simulated except the loud alarm. All participants began to evacuate at the same time as soon as the alarm sounded. Pre-movement behaviors which play an important role in actual evacuations are not included in this research.

2.4. Date acquisition

The experiment was recorded by CCTV cameras and digital videos, whose installed position is shown in Fig. 3(a). 2 digital cameras are operated by staff on each floor to record stairwell evacuation. 5 CCTV Cameras are used to record evacuation on the fourth floor. There are five cameras totally.

2.5. Organization

Several groups were established to conduct the experiment. There were four groups: Leader group, in charge of all; Guide group, whose responsibility was to lead students upstairs by the selected route and to the selected position; Video group, responsible for recording the experiment; Signal group, sounding the alarm to initiate evacuation. The sound of air alert was used as the signal to initiate evacuation. The loud alarm remained on during the entire evacuation process to create a tense atmosphere. The experiment started at 9 AM and ended at 11:10 AM on May 26th, 2007. The evacuations were uncontrolled which meant that the evacuees move spontaneously without guidance during the evacuation process. No fire condition was produced or simulated in the experiment.

3. Result and analysis

3.1. Route selection

Route selection has a great impact on the risk for each individual as well as the evacuation efficiency for the whole. To understand the rule of people's route selection under emergency is the foundation for a realistic simulation as well as a scientific evacuation plan. The experimental results of route selection in scenarios 1-3 are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Route selection in scenarios 1-5

scenario 1 scenario 2 scenario 3 scenario 4 scenario 5

SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 SI S2 SI S2

Inner rooms 50 1 50 1 51 0 85 1 80 6

#1 2 0 2 0 0 2

#2 3 0 1 2 0 3

#3 Outer #4 rooms #5 8 9 4 o o o 0 0 0 8 9 4 8 4 3 0 5 1 * * * *

#6 9 0 0 9 9 0

Total 35 0 3 32 11 24

The columns of "SI" and "S2" indicate the number of people evacuated by stairwell land stairwell 2 respectively. In scenario 3, stairwell 2 is closed. The fig denotes the number of people who headed for stairwell 2 at the beginning of evacuation.

Route selection and movement of many individuals is determined using the configuration of crowd movement. The configuration of crowd movement is described using "flow patterns" which display the main occupant flows, shown in Fig.

4 for each scenario.

Stairwell 1 is adjacent to the inner room gate, so nearly all people in the inner rooms evacuate by stairwell 1 in scenarios 1-3. The outer rooms are located in the middle segment of the corridor. People's route selection varied in scenarios 1-3 and we will study these route selections next.

In scenario 1, all of the people in outer rooms ran out of each room for stairwell 1 at the sound of the alarm. A strong flow towards stairwell 1 formed quickly in the corridor. The occupant flow out of the gate and the flow in the corridor resulted in severe congestion at the gate of stairwell 1. Occupants queued in the corridor without attempting another route. This occurred because stairwell 1 is the only stairwell familiar to the occupants from the outer rooms, who were led upstairs by stairwell 1 before scenario 1.

Fig. 4. Flow patterns for each scenario.

#4 #5 Outer rooms

Fig. S. Route selections of people in outer rooms in (a) scenario 2 and (b) scenario 3.

In scenario 2, three persons (two in Room #1 and one in Room #2) ran toward stairwell l(shown in Fig. 5(a)). All other occupants in outer rooms evacuated from stairwell 2. Observing the video, it was found that people in Room #4 entered the corridor the earliest and all ran toward stairwell 2, resulting in a growing flow towards stairwell 2, which had a big impact on occupants leaving Rooms #2, #5, #3 and #6 later. The video clearly illustrated that the first occupants out of these rooms looked around and were forced to join or follow the corridor flow for stairwell 2 that already existed to avoid conflicts. It is interesting to note that occupants in Room #4 chose a gate far away from Room #4 and proceeded to stairwell 2.A reasonable explanation is that they did so to avoid conflicts with evacuees out of inner rooms at stairwell 1 which appeared in scenario 1.

In scenario 3,11 persons evacuated by stairwell 1 while 24 moved toward stairwell 2 at the beginning of the evacuation (Shown in Fig. 5(b)). By observing the video, we found that people in Room #3 and Room #6 moved directly toward stairwell 2 while people in Room #1 and Room #2 proceeded to stairwell 1. The first person out of Room #5 moved to stairwell 1 and encountered counter flow with people exiting Room #4 and moving toward stairwell 2. The result showed that people distributed on two sides of a corridor would evacuate by the nearest stairwell, route selections for occupants in the corridor center is more complicated and depends on the ever-changing situation and personalities.

Reason of route selection by questionnaire after the drill is shown in Table 3. It is found that the percent of entry route decreases and the percent of fast route increases from scenario 1 to 3, with people's familiarity with the building and environment increases.

Table 3. Reason of route selection in scenario 1-3

Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Entry route 23 74.2 9 45.0 5 19.2

Fast route 3 9.7 6 30.0 15 57.7

Follow crowd 5 16.1 5 25.0 6 23.1

Total 33 100.0 20 100.0 26 100.0

From the route selection and movement of people in the corridor, several observations are noted: Route selections of people depend a lot on the amount of information people possess about the building and environment. People will evacuate by the entry route when they are unaware of other available routes (situation in scenario 1). When people are more familiar with the building and environment, they are likely to choose the nearest exit (behaviours of people in outer rooms at two sides of the corridor in scenario 3) or the path with least congestion (behaviours of people in Room #4 in scenario 2). In a narrow corridor, the route selection and movement of people who enter the corridor earliest has a large influence on route selection and movement of people who enter the corridor later (situation in scenario 2).

3.2. Crowd movement at exits

The flow at the gate in scenarios 2-5 is shown in Fig. 6. The experimental data was derived from the video on a one-second schedule. The value of flow rate was averaged over three points to smooth the flow rate.

5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 £ 2.5

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time(s)

Fig. 6. Plot of flow rate against time of the gate in scenarios 2-5.

In scenario 2, the flow rate increases rapidly with time and saturates at about t= 5 s. It then maintains a constant value of above 3 persons/s until about ¿=17 s. After ¿=17 s, the flow rate decreases rapidly with increasing time. After about 21 s, all students had exited the gate.

In scenario 3, there was a problem with the alarm so that it was not loud enough for people in inner rooms. As a result, the evacuation from inner rooms was delayed by about 3 seconds while occupants in outer rooms were not affected and started evacuation as soon as the alarm sounded. The first person exited the gate at about t=5 s. The flow rate increases rapidly with time and saturates at about t=8 s. It then maintains a constant value above 2 persons/s until about /=18 s. A clear decrease of flow rate appeared at the exit at about /=19 s due to congestion at the gate of stair 1 with the flow of people turned back from the locked stairwell 2. A low constant value lasts until about /=26 s. A small increase of flow rate appears at /=27 s and maintained that value until /=33 s. After /=33 s, the flow rate decreases rapidly with increasing time. After about 36 s, all students had exited from the gate.

In scenario 4, the flow rate was higher at the beginning (about 4 persons/s) when people in the crowd were running to exit the building and lower after /=15 s (about 3 persons/s) when most occupants were walking. After observing the video, the queuing of people was evident, leading to the decreased flow rate of the exit.

In scenario 5, the flow rate increases rapidly with time and reaches its peak value of about 3 persons/s at about t=6 s. A sharp decrease of the flow rate appeared at about /=7 s representing the formation of severe congestion at the gate. The congestion formed at about /=10 s. It then maintained a constant value of about 1.8 persons/s until about /=48 s. After that, the flow rate decreases rapidly with increasing time. After about 50 s, all occupants had left the room.

Table 4 shows the mean value of flow rate and unit flow rate, i.e. flow rate per meter width of the gate in scenarios 2-5.

Table 4. Mean values of flow rate and unit flow rate at the gate in scenarios 2-5

scenario Gate width (m) No. of evacuees Evacuation time (s) Mean flow rate (1/s) Unit flow rate (l/(m- s))

2 1.24 51 19 2.684 2.165

3 0.62 51 31 1.645 2.653

4 1.24 86 31 2.774 2.237

5 0.62 86 50 1.720 2.774

ft A: i Ä

TT °\M

-Scenario 2 -Scenario 3 -Scenario 4 -Scenario 5

\/\A ° °

\ A /"' A A "" T/"w\""\A/"

rr . \ .\ \ ■ \

The mean flow rate is about 2.7 p/s when the width is 1.24 m and about 1.7 p/s when the width is 0.62 m. It is noticeable that the mean flow rate is not proportional to exit width. The unit flow rate is smaller when the exit is wider under the same conditions.

Our interpretation of the experimental findings is as follows. Density is a key parameter that influences the unit flow rate at exits. It has two contrary effects on the unit flow rate. On one hand, the bigger density is, the more fully occupied the width of exit is, which increases the unit flow ("increase effect"). On the other hand, the bigger density is, the stronger the physical interactions between individuals are, which decrease the unit flow rate ("decrease effect").

In our experiment, the students are disciplined and the evacuation proceeds in good order. So the physical interactions between individuals are much weaker than those in real fire evacuations. As a result, the density's "decrease effect" on unit flow rate is small and the "increase effect" dominated. The video shows that the crowd moved out of the wide exits smoothly without congestion in scenario 4 while severe jam formed at the narrow exits in scenario 5. The density at the exit in scenario 5 is much larger than that in scenario 4. As a result, the unit flow rate in scenario 5 is larger than that in scenario 4 for the same crowd and building structure.

3.3. Basic movement characteristics on stairs

Flow, density and speed are three basic interrelated parameters describing crowd movement. The stair which links the fourth and third floors on Stairwell 1 is chosen as the studied area. The drill is recorded by digital video. The data of flow and density on stairwells are obtained by analyzing the video. The counting interval is 1 seconds.

Fig. 7. Sketch of (a) studied area and (b) effective width in stairwell 1.

Figure 7(a) shows the studied area in stairwell 1, which consists of five steps. Here >S77=0.14 m is the step height, SL=0.3 m is the step length, and >SW=1.63 m means the step width. According to SFPE handbook, Fig. 7(b) describes the relationship between SW and effective width w in the stairwell. The two sides of the stairwell 1 are handrail and wall respectively, so w equals 1.39 m.

The unit flow denoted by f, i.e. the flow per unit width of stair, and density denoted by d are calculated as follows:

f = N/(wxt)

d = n/s

The speed of pedestrian is calculated by flow and density, regarding the flow on the stair is continuous:

v = f/d

Flow, density and speed on the studied area for each scenario are shown in Fig. 8. Flow and density is plotted in the figure on the left with the figure of speed on the right. The value of flow rate, density and speed was averaged over three points to smooth the flow rate and density.

................. 5 3'5J

—Density 3.0-

-■- Flow

pfvj 2.5-f 2.0-

(\ V V, } * I I w ■ 1.0-

J \ 1 0.5- ..4

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

30 35 40 45

- Density -Flow

n \ ° V

r -2 S.

- Density -Flow

n'\ / \ /

S 10 16

35 40 46 50

3 1.0-

- Density -Flow

30 35 40 45

."'■A

35 40 45

0 5 10 15

30 35 40 45 50 55 60 $5 Time(s)

0 5 10 15

40 45 50 55 60

Fig. 8. Density, flow rate, speed on stairs in (a) scenario 1, (b) scenario 2, (c) scenario 3, (d) scenario 4 and(e) scenario 5.

In scenarios 1 and 4, shown in Fig. 8(a) and Fig. 8(d), the movement of individuals was restricted by the surrounding people due to the high density. As a result, the differences in movement between individuals are not shown adequately which resulted in a continuous and smooth flow.

In scenario 2, shown in Fig. 8(b), there is a trough on the flow rate-time curve and density-time curve at /=16 s. By observing the video, it is found that the trough results from four slowly moving persons moving together out of the gate and downstairs. Their slowness restricted the movement of people behind and maintained a distance from people in front, resulting in a low density and flow rate. The video also revealed that the two occupants trailing those four occupants overtook them on the stair area studied.

In scenario 3, shown in Fig. 8(c), the flow rate curve can be divided into three segments: before t=20 s, from ¿=20 s to t=30 s, after t=30 s. The flow rate of the second segment is larger than the flow rate of the other two segments which represented the process of mixing on stairwell 1 between people out of inner rooms and people from outer rooms who turned back from the locked stairwell 2.

In scenario 5, shown in Fig. 8(e), constraints from people nearby are much smaller due to a much lower density. As a result, differences in movement emerge, resulting in a fluctuating flow.

It is found that the flow rate-time curve and the density-time curve are similar in shape in each scenario. They have similar extremes and trends. This indicates that the change of flow rate with time is determined by the density and the speed change little in each scenario.

The relationships between density, speed and flow rate are essential to understand crowd movement during evacuation. The effective width of the stairwell is 1.58 m. The relationship between unit flow rate and density is shown in Fig. 9 (a).

The result shows that flow is nearly proportional to density in the specific range of density in the experiment. The result of a linear fit of the experimental data is shown in Equation 4. The correlation coefficient is 0.898.

/ = 0.39 + 1.08«? (4)

SFPE Handbook described the relation between unit flow and density. It is found that the unit flow begins to decrease at the density around 2 p/m2. For the density mainly less than 2 p/m2 in our experiment, the descending segment did not occur. Formula 2 is an empirical formula in this particular range. The relationship between speed and density is shown in Fig. 9(b).

The result shows that speed is inversely-proportional to density approximately, given the specific range of density in the experiment. The result of a linear fit of the experimental data is shown in Equation 5. The correlation coefficient is -0.745 .

v = 2.58-0.73d (5)

Fig. 9. Relationship between (a) flow rate and density on stairs (b) speed and density on stairs.

There are marked differences between the experiment results here and those in SFPE Handbook (Fig. 9). The unit flow rate and occupant speed in the experiment are much bigger than that calculated by SFPE Handbook under the same density. The fact that the evacuees are male-dominated young students around 20 years old should play a big part.

4. Conclusions

In this paper, an evacuation experiment from a 4-storey building is designed and conducted. Several conclusions can be drawn from this study:

Firstly, the route selections of a crowd under different conditions are studied. It confirms that route selections of people depend a lot on the amount of information people possess about the building and environment. People will evacuate by the

entry route in an unfamiliar buildings. When people are more familiar with the building, they are likely to choose the nearest exit or the path with least people or congestion.

Secondly, the relationship between flow rate at exits and the width of exits is investigated. In a well-organized evacuation drill, it is found that the mean flow rate is not proportioned to exit width, i.e. the unit flow rate at exits is not a constant value, which is different from the knowledge used in fire safety design. The unit flow rate is bigger at a higher density for the same crowd and building structure. This finding is of great value to evacuation dynamics studies as well as fire safety design.

Thirdly, the relationships between density, speed and flow of crowd movement down stairs was studied. The results show that the flow is nearly proportional to density and the speed is inversely-proportional to density approximately in the specific range of density (0.6-1.3 p/m2). There are marked differences between the relations of the three quantities derived from this experiment and those in SFPE Handbook. The unit flow rate and occupant speed in the experiment are much higher than that calculated by equation in SFPE under the same density. One important reason is the evacuees are maledominated young students at the age around 20 who are requested to leave the building as soon as possible. In this study, only five data points corresponding to the five scenarios in a limited range of density are obtained. More data is needed to draw conclusions for a broader range of density. Furthermore, the differences with SFPE Handbook suggest that further experimental research for movement characteristics of people is needed.

Acknowledgements

The authors appreciate the project 70973062 supported by NSFC and the National Basic Research Program of China 2012CB719705 support by MOST. We would like to thank the 86 volunteers as evacuees in the experiment. Their serious attitude and sufficient passion underlie the success of the experiment. The authors would like to thank United Technologies Research Center for financial support for this research and extend their gratitude to Dr. Pei-Yuan Peng (UTRC, China) for insightful discussions, feedback and guidance.

References

[1] Bryan J. L., 1999. Human Behavior in Fire: The Development and Maturity of a Scholarly Study Area, Fire and Materials 23(6), p. 249.

[2] Gwynne S, Galea E. R., Owen M., Lawrence P. J., Filippidis L., 1999. A Review of the Methodologies Used in Evacuation Modeling, Fire and Materials 23(6), p. 383.

[3] Pauls J., 1984. Building Use and Safety: an Overview with Emphasis on Current Research Applications to Codes and Standards. San Antonio, TX, USA, p. 555.

[4] Pauls J., 1984. Movement of People in Buildings and Design Solutions for Means of Egress, Fire Technology 20, p. 27.

[5] Pauls J., 1987. Calculating Evacuation Times for Tall Buildings, Fire Safety Journal 12, p. 213.

[6] Pauls J., 1999. Personal Perspective on Research, Consulting and Codes/standards Development in Fire-related Human Behaviour, 1969-1999, with an Emphasis on Space and Time Factors, Fire and Materials 23(6), p. 265.

[7] Proulx G., 1995. Evacuation Time and Movement in Apartment Buildings, Fire Safety Journal 24(3), p. 229.

[8] Proulx G., 1999. Occupant Response during a Residential High-rise Fire, Fire and Materials 23(6), p. 317

[9] Proulx G., 2002. Movement of People, in "SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering". DiNenno PJ Eds.: Society of Fire Protection Engineers and National Fire Protection Association.

[10] Proulx G., Reid I. M. A., 2006. Occupant Behavior and Evacuation during the Chicago Cook County Administration Building Fire, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering 16, p. 283.

[11] Boyce K. E., Shields T. J., Silcock, G. W. H., 1999. Toward the Characterization of Building Occupancies for Fire Safety Engineering: Capabilities of Disabled People Moving Horizontally and on an Incline, Fire Technology 35, p. 51.

[12] Boyce K. E., Shields T. J., Silcock, G. W. H., 1999. Toward the Characterization of Building Occupancies for Fire Safety Engineering: Capability of Disabled People to Negotiate Doors, Fire Technology 35, p. 68.

[13] Boyce K. E., Shields T. J., Silcock, G. W. H., 1999. Toward the Characterization of Building Occupancies for Fire Safety Engineering: Capability of People with Disabilities to Read and Locate Exit Signs, Fire Technology 35, p. 79.

[14] Boyce K. E., Shields T. J., Silcock, G. W. H., 1999. Toward the Characterization of Building Occupancies for Fire Safety Engineering: Prevalence, Type, and Mobility of Disabled People, Fire Technology 35, p. 35.

[15] Shields T. J., Boyce K. E„ 2000. A Study of Evacuation from Large Retail Stores, Fire Safety Journal 35, p. 25.

[16] Helbing D., Isobe M., Nagatani T., Takimoto K., 2003. Lattice Gas Simulation of Experimentally Studied Evacuation Dynamics, Physical Review E 67(6): p. 067101.

[17] Isobe M., Helbing D., Nagatani T., 2004. Experiment, Theory, and Simulation of the Evacuation of a Room without Visibility, Physical Review E 69(6), p. 066132.

[18] Chu G. Q., Chen T., Sun Z. H., Sun J. H., 2007. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Evacuees in Building Fires, Building and Environment 42(3), p 1283.

[19] Zhang Q. S., Liu M., Wu C. H., Zhao G. M., 2007. A Stranded-crowd Model (SCM) for Performance-based Design of Stadium Egress, Building and Environment 42(7), p. 2630.

[20] Zhao D. L., Li J., Zhu Y., Zou L., 2008. The Application of a Two-dimensional Cellular Automata Random Model to the Performance-based Design of Building Exit, Building and Environment 43(4), p. 518.