Scholarly article on topic 'Advance Glazing System – Energy Efficiency Approach for Buildings a Review'

Advance Glazing System – Energy Efficiency Approach for Buildings a Review Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Energy Procedia
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Evacuated glazing" / "Low-emittance coating" / "Transparent Insulation Material (TIM)" / "Multilayer evacuated glazing" / U-value}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Snehashis Ghoshal, Subhasis Neogi

Abstract Energy conservation and energy management has become a matter of concern since last few decades. Window and glazing plays an important role in building energy management. In this regard, glazing technology has gone through rapid evolution. Numerous research and development in glazing fabrication techniques have led to a wider range of design options. Visual transmittance of the glazing unit is important as it determines the amount of daylight through the glazing unit. So, the desired criteria of a glazing system from energy savings point of view is that it should possess higher transmittance in visible spectrum and lower transmittance in infrared region. To check the performance and durability of the glazing systems, thorough research works has been carried out under different conditions. In this paper, an overview of different types of glazing units and their performance has been discussed. A comparison regarding thermal properties of different types of glazing units is also carried out.

Academic research paper on topic "Advance Glazing System – Energy Efficiency Approach for Buildings a Review"

(S)

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Energy Procedía 54 (2014) 352 - 358

4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 2013, ICAER 2013

Advance Glazing System - Energy Efficiency Approach for

Buildings a Review

Snehashis Ghoshala, Subhasis Neogia*

a School of Energy Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal, India

Abstract

Energy conservation and energy management has become a matter of concern since last few decades. Window and glazing plays an important role in building energy management. In this regard, glazing technology has gone through rapid evolution. Numerous research and development in glazing fabrication techniques have led to a wider range of design options. Visual transmittance of the glazing unit is important as it determines the amount of daylight through the glazing unit. So, the desired criteria of a glazing system from energy savings point of view is that it should possess higher transmittance in visible spectrum and lower transmittance in infrared region. To check the performance and durability of the glazing systems, thorough research works has been carried out under different conditions. In this paper, an overview of different types of glazing units and their performance has been discussed. A comparison regarding thermal properties of different types of glazing units is also carried out. © 2014SubhasisNeogi.Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Organizing Committee of ICAER 2013

Keywords: Evacuated glazing; Low-emittance coating; Transparent Insulation Material (TIM); Multilayer evacuated glazing; U-value

1. Introduction

In building heat balance applications windows possess most important contribution. From thermal insulation point of view, window is most vulnerable. So glazing plays an important role in this aspect. Solar spectrum ranges from ultraviolet to radio wave. At the earth surface with air mass 1.5, solar radiation ranges within the wavelength range 0.3-2.5 ^m. Visible spectrum at 0.4-0.7^m carries 50% of incident solar energy [1]. Solar irradiance incident on a

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 009133 24572907; . E-mail address: neogi_s@yahoo.com

1876-6102 © 2014 Subhasis Neogi. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Organizing Committee of ICAER 2013 doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.07.278

glass is partly reflected, partly transmitted through the glass and the remaining is absorbed by the glass material. It has been observed that in visible spectrum, transmittance of clear glass is 0.89 whereas in near infra-red region, transmittance becomes 0.84. This is useful in space heating, but this is of no use where cooling demand is necessary. From this discussion, it is clear that an ideal window system should possess the following optical properties for cooling demand applications [1]:

• Effective transmittance is numerically one (i.e. there is not any absorption or reflection) within visual range (0.4-0.7 ^m) for best utilisation of daylight.

• Effective back reflectance is numerically one in infrared range (0.7-50 ^m).

It was always a try to make window insulation prominent. As a result, glazing systems have been modified from single glaze to double glaze and recently developed multilayer evacuated glazing. Heat losses (U) through single glazed units were significantly high (U-value of 5.3 W m_2K"1) [2]. To acknowledge this heat loss, double glazed units were manufactured. Initially, double glazed units were air filled. But due to conductive nature of stagnant air, significant heat loss was observed. Gradually noble gas filled double glazing units have been developed. With this modification, conductive heat loss was reduced, but not eliminated; as any noble gas possesses very small conductivity (0.016 W m_1K_1for argon) [3]. Heat transfer through such glazing units was reduced to U-value 1.1 Wm"2K-1 and was further reduced to 0.8Wm"2K-1 by applying night insulation [4]. Later, evacuated glazing units were fabricated. Evacuated gazing units are similar to double glazing units where the internal air space between two glass panes is evacuated to very low pressure (less than 0.1Pa) [5]. With evacuated glazing units, conductive and convective heat flow was reduced to a negligible value. But problem with such systems was radiative heat transfer which was reduced by applying low emittance coatings. Transparent insulating material (TIM) based glazing systems also showed improved thermal performance [6, 7]. TIM based glazing unit is also similar to double pane glazing units where the internal space between two glass panes is generally filled up by aerogel. Attachment of an electrochromic layer with evacuated glazing units added an extra advantage of controlling solar gain. Multilayer evacuated glazing units also showed better thermal performance.

The objective of this paper is to give an overview of different types of glazing units and to compare their thermal properties.

2. The evacuated glazing

The concept of evacuated glazing was initially proposed by German physicist Zoller in 1913 with a patent granted in 1924 [8]. Heat transfer through such glazing units take place due to radiation. As, radiative heat transfer between two parallel plates are independent of distance, so the spacing between two parallel glass panes can be reduced to provide highly insulating glazing of compact nature. To develop a useful vacuum level, it is desirable that conductive and convective heat transfer should be minimized to a negligible value. This is possible when internal cavity pressure of 0.1 Pa is maintained [5]. Glazing units with such a low internal cavity pressure may get damaged by stress exerted on it by atmospheric pressure. This problem is acknowledged by applying tiny support pillars made of stainless steel, arranged in a square grid pattern placed at equal intervals. It was observed that thermal conductance of pillar array was independent of thermal conductivity of the pillar material [9, 10]. The conductivity of pillar array is dependent on thermal conductivity of glass, thickness of glass and spacing of support pillars [11]. To maintain the internal vacuum of evacuated glazing units, edge sealing is done. It forms an additional path to conductive heat transfer. Generally transition metal or transition metal alloy is used as the sealant. Influence of edge seal on total U-value of glazing is area and dimension dependent. So, effect of edge seal is least significant for large glazing systems but is a matter of consideration for small glazing systems [5]. The radiative heat transfer through evacuated glazing can be reduced by applying low emittance coating on interior surfaces of glass panes. In a study by P. C. Eames, it was reported that for a constant temperature difference of 20K between inside and outside glass pane of a vacuum glazing along with a narrow space of 0.15 mm, radiative heat transfer was reduced to 4/5th [5]. Fig. 1 represents a sketch of double pane evacuated glazing.

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of double pane evacuated glazing [13].

In the past century, vacuum glazing units were manufactured at high temperatures. The sealing technique involved a vacuum chamber with a quartz window and a high power laser [11]. But the level of vacuum was insufficient to minimise conductive or convective losses. It was reported that fabrication of the first effective vacuum glazing required a temperature of 450 °C for edge sealing [11]. It was observed in a work of N.Ng et al that stable glazing performance was obtained with samples sealed at 350°C than those which were baked at lower temperatures [12]. When glazing samples baked at lower temperature was subjected to thermal ageing, significant degradation of vacuum was observed due to release of water vapour unlike the case for samples baked at higher temperature. Similarly, optical ageing tests revealed that performance of samples baked at lower temperature was poor than those baked at higher temperature due to production of oxides of carbon. The problem regarding evacuated glazing units sealed at higher temperature is that it restricts the choice of soft low-emittance coated films to reduce radiative heat transfer. This was overcomed by fabricating evacuated glazing units at lower temperature (less than 160 °C) [11]. Getters, activated at lower temperatures can be used to protect glazing vacuum level from gas evolution [11]. Y.Fang and P.C.Eames conducted a research to evaluate changes in vacuum pressure after thermal cycling [13]. They used a low emittance coating on internal surfaces of glass panes. Heat transfer through the glazing unit was analysed by two dimensional finite element model and three dimensional final volume model. The results were validated experimentally. During the thermal cycling test, air temperature at one side of the sample was maintained at 22 °C, while that on the other side was varied between -35°C to 50°C for 8 hours. After 15 such cycles were performed, it was observed that glass to glass heat conductance at the centre of the glazing area was increased by 10.1% along with increase in vacuum pressure within the evacuated space from 0.1Pa to 0.16 Pa. It was concluded from this experiment that this change occurred due to outgassing at the evacuated space. Before thermal cycling the contribution of lateral conductive heat flow was more than one third of total hat flow whereas after thermal cycling it was reduced to less than one-third of total heat loss. The reason behind this is part of heat flow occurred through the residual gas. From finite element model, performance of different glazing units with different framing arrangements were analysed and it was found that for small and medium sized windows, heat transfer in the edge region must be controlled [14, 15].

3. Glazing systems with TIM

TIM or transparent insulating material based glazing systems combine the contrasting requirements of high thermal insulation and high visible spectrum transmittance through glazing units. Aerogel is a promising material among TIMs

for use in windows from energy-efficiency point of view. Annual energy consumption can be reduced using silica aerogel (approximate thermal conductivity 0.021 W m-1K-1). Aerogel is a highly porous material with density ranging between 50-200 kg m-3. Monolithic aerogel based glazing systems are not popular for mass production. Granular aerogels possess excellent thermal and optical property [6]. In their research on aerogel based glazing systems, C.Buratti and E.Moretti used aerogel in interspace of a double glazed system and compared it with a double glazed system with air cavity in between the panes [6]. It was observed from the experiment that transmission coefficient of monolithic aerogel was higher than that of granular aerogel. By increasing the thickness of aerogel pane, it was possible to obtain a U-value less than 0.5 W m-2K-1 without diminishing solar factor or reducing daylight transmittance. It was reported that U-value of glazing units with monolithic aerogel was a little higher than 0.6 W m-2K-1whereas for granular aerogel it was 1.69 W m-2K-1. Visible transmittance was reduced by about 60% with granular aerogel and by 25% with monolithic aerogel [7]. Fig. 2 shows monolithic and granular aerogel samples used in the experiments. Fig. 3. (a) and Fig. 3. (b) shows monolithic and granular aerogel based glazing units respectively.

Fig. 2. Monolithic and granular aerogel[7].

Fig. 3. (a). Monolithic; (b) granular aerogel glazing units [7].

4. Electrochromic evacuated glazing

Attachment of an electrochromic layer with a conventional evacuated glazing in a single unit provides an efficient glazing unit [16]. Such a glazing system can be switched between transparent and opaque state by applying dc polarity. Suitable polarity changes the electron density of the electrochromic layer, thus changing the optical state of the system. So, solar gain can be controlled with electrochromic glazing units. Electrochromic films have many potential applications in automotive industry or in buildings that provide shading and privacy applications. Advantage of electrochromic evacuated glazing is that it combines low heat loss properties of evacuated glazing with variable transmittance of an electrochromic glazing. These combined properties enable optimal thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption caused by auxiliary devices for heating or cooling in certain climates. Under standard winter conditions [17], Fang and Eames conducted a study on thermal performance of electrochromic evacuated glazing [18]. Thermal behaviour of electrochromic vacuum layer as a function of absorption of EC layer and intensity of incident insolation was investigated through this experiment. It was observed that EC layer absorbs approximately 10% of incident solar energy in bleached state and 60-80% in opaque state. Thermal performance of electrochromic evacuated glazing was investigated under two situations: firstly when EC layer was facing outdoor environment and secondly when EC layer was facing indoor environment. In both situations, insolation was varied between 0-1200 W m-2. It was observed that the temperature difference between inside and outside pane was dangerously high which might result in failure of glazing when electrochromic layer was facing indoor environment. So it was recommended that the electrochromic layer must face the outdoor environment under all aspects. Fig. 4 in the following represents an electrochromic evacuated glazing system.

5. Multilayer evacuated glazing

Multilayer evacuated glazing unit i.e. triple evacuated glazing is the latest invention in glazing fabrication. Triple evacuated glazing possesses a good potential thermal performance. It is the modified version of double pane evacuated glazing. It consists of three glass panes with two evacuated gaps in between. It was reported that thermal transmittance of the triple evacuated glazing was significantly low (validated by analytical as well as mathematical model) [19]. It was also reported that the second cavity of the triple evacuated glazing unit was beneficial because the resulting surface-to-surface thermal resistance was twice as that of double pane evacuated glazing. Total thermal resistance of a single unit was measured by dividing the resistance of middle glass sheet in two equal parts. The central-of-glazing thermal transmittance was calculated as the inverse of summation of thermal resistances of external, internal and outer

Glass panes

No! lo scale

Fig. 4. Schematic representation of electrochromic evacuated glazing [18].

glass panes. Impact of pillars on triple evacuated glazing unit was carried out with two types of pillar arrangements: square aligned and staggered. But staggered arrangement causes increased load and subsequent bending stress in the middle pane. Also, the improvement in thermal properties with staggered pillar arrangement was negligible. So, alignment with square array was focused. The main drawback of such a system was increased cost and weight. Another study regarding triple evacuated glazing reported thermal conductance of 0.24 W m-2K-1 was achieved with low emittance coatings of emittance 0.03 [20]. From this study, it was also noted that overall thermal conductance of the glazing systems without a frame was increased with the increase in indium edge seal. Shorter lateral conduction path of edge seal with larger width is the reason behind this. From this study, it was reported that with increase in rebate depth in a solid wooden frame, heat transmission of the triple evacuated glazed unit was reduced by 32.6%. Fig. 5 in the following represents the side view of a triple evacuated glazing system.

Fig. 5. Schematic representation of triple evacuated glazing [19].

A list of comparison of thermal performance of different types of glazing units are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of thermal performance of different types of glazing systems.

Type of Glazing system

Description

U-Value (W m-2K-1)

Single Glazing Double Glazing Double glazing Double glazing

Double glazing

Double glazing

Double glazing

Electrochromic evacuated glazing

One glass sheet

Two glass sheets with air filled cavity

Two glass sheets with argon filled cavity

Two glass sheets with argon filled cavity and having night insulation

Two glass sheets with evacuated space in between

Two glass sheets with monolithic aerogel in between

Two glass sheets with granular aerogel in between

Two glass pane forming evacuated glazing with a third pane having EC layer

5.79-6.3 2.78-3.24 2.61-2.95 1.5-1.99

Slightly less than 1

Triple evacuated glazing Three glass panes with two evacuated 0.26

space in between

6. Conclusion

Through research and development works on glazing units over last few decades lead to different glazing fabrication techniques with different thermal as well as optical properties. In this paper, an overview of different types of glazing systems and their thermal performance has been analyzed. Electrochromic evacuated glazing has been proved advantageous in reduction of energy consumption and controlling solar gain. Role of monolithic and granular aerogel based glazing units has been discussed. Thermal properties of triple evacuated glazing with two evacuated cavities and aligned pillar arrangement have been discussed. Thermal performance of different glazing units in terms of U-value is compared in a tabular manner.

References

[1] Chow T.T, Li C, Lin Z. Innovative solar windows for cooling-demand climate. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 2010; 94:212-220.

[2] Smith N, Isaacs N. A cost benefit analysis of secondary glazing as a retrofit alternative for New Zealand households. The Built & Human Environmental Review 2009; 2(1):69-80.

[3] ASRAE Handbook Fundamentals 1993.

[4] Liu M, Wittchen KB, Heiselberg PV, Winther FV. Development of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing façade with night insulation and validated by full-scale façade element. Energy and Buildings 2013;58:163-171.

[5] Eames PC. Vacuum Glazing: Current performance and future prospects. Vacuum 2008;82:717-722.

[6] Buratti C, Moretti E. Experimental performance evaluation of aerogel glazing systems. Applied Energy 2012;98:430-437.

[7] Buratti C, Moretti E. Glazing systems with silica aerogel for energy savings in buildings. Applied Energy 2012:98:396-403.

[8] Zoller F. German Patent 1924:387655.

[9] Collins R.E, Robinson SJ. Evacuated Glazing. Solar Energy 1991;47:27-38.

[10] Collins RE, Simoko TM. Current status of the science and technology of vacuum glazing. Solar Energy 1998;62(3):189-213.

[11] Griffiths PW, Leo MD, Cartwright P, Eames PC, Yianoulis P, Leftheriotis G, Norton B. Fabrication of evacuated glazing at low temperature. Solar Energy 1998;63(4):243-249.

[12] Ng N, Collins RE, So L. Thermal and optical evolution of gas in vacuum glazing. Material Science and Engineering B 2005;119:258-264.

[13] Fang Y, Hyde T, Eames PC, Hewitt N. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the vacuum pressure in a vacuum glazing after extreme thermal cycling. Solar Energy 2009;83:1723-1730.

[14] Fang Y, Eames PC. The effect of glass coating emittance and frame rebate on heat transfer through vacuum and electrocromic vacuum glazed windows. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 2006;90:2683-2695.

[15] Fang Y, Eames PC, Hyde TJ, Norton B. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing. Solar Energy 2005:79:245-261.

[16] Fang Y, Eames PC, Norton B, Hyde T, Huang Y, Hewitt N. The thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with selected low emittance coatings. Thin Solid Films 2008;516:1074-1081.

[17] ASTM C976. Standard test method for thermal performance of building assemblies by means of a calibrated hot box. Annual book of ASTM Standard 1995;50:339-55.

[18] Fang Y, Hyde TJ, Hewitt N. The Thermal performance of an electrocromic vacuum glazing. Energy Conversion and Management 2010; 47:36023610.

[19] Manz H, Brunner S, Wullschleger L. Triple vacuum glazing: Heat transfer and basic mechanical design constraints. Solar Energy 2006;80: 1632-1642.

[20] Fang Y, Hyde TJ, Hewitt N. Predicted thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing. Solar Energy 2010;84:2132-2139.