Scholarly article on topic 'Regional Networks of Knowledge in Eastern Asia Interrupted Histories'

Regional Networks of Knowledge in Eastern Asia Interrupted Histories Academic research paper on "History and archaeology"

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Academic research paper on topic "Regional Networks of Knowledge in Eastern Asia Interrupted Histories"

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Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 7479-7485

Selected Papers of Beijing Forum 2004

Regional Networks of Knowledge in Eastern Asia Interrupted


Anthony Reid

Professor, Asia Research Institute, NUS, Singapore

Eastern Asia has suffered more than most regions from the mutual incomprehensions that stem from differences of language, civilization, history and memory. It has often seemed in the era of relative peace since 1980 that contacts were being made for the first time, and that the painful construction of ASEAN and its regional dialogue partnerships were processes of new discovery. Of course this is an exaggerated view. There is a story to be told both for Southeast Asia and for the broader region of eastern Asia of attempts to see the collectivity of these regions and to organise networks within them.

This paper will focus primarily on networks of knowledge rather than networks of power. The relations between governments in eastern Asia have been heavy with inequalities, and frequently poisoned by war and domination. That story is moreover well known, albeit in a variety of contested national versions. More interesting for our purposes is the story of networks of scholarship, through academic publications and structures in the twentieth century though more often religious contacts before that.

Perhaps partly through my own bias as a Southeast Asianist, it appears to me that the story of these nongovernment networks of knowledge parallels in some ways the story of ASEAN + three in recent times. So dominant were the power relations and rivalries of Northeast Asia that the more successful informal networks of knowledge often arose in Southeast Asia and spread north and east. In particular, the communications centres around the Straits of Malacca, at its most generous reading extending along the communications corridor from Bangkok/Ayutthaya to Jakarta/Batavia, played a disproportionate role in linking the broader region in cognitive terms.

That said, one cannot escape the impression that both Southeast Asia more narrowly and the whole eastern Asia region have suffered severely from a number of factors that interrupted and inhibited the natural tendency for neighbours to learn from each other. My story is therefore one of beginnings not fulfilled, and exceptional discontinuities. The major factors which handicapped the development were three:

1. Colonial nationalism, and its mirror of anti-colonial nationalism. Both these nationalisms at their best laid claim to a humanistic universalism, but more commonly were marked by parochial attitudes of racism and chauvinism breeding suspicion of the neighbour.

2. The passions and suspicions unleashed by the Pacific War have proved more enduring and destructive even than those of the contemporary war in Europe. The continuing tensions of the Korean Peninsula and the Taiwan Straits have been the longest-lived of these consequences, but Southeast Asia too was dogged by the unresolved aftermath of war until at least 1980.

3. The tyrannies of language were unusually discontinuous in this region. Written Chinese may be regarded as the most enduring lingua franca, but its difficulties made it virtually inaccessible to those not educated in its since childhood. Broader language networks were built successively in Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic, Malay, Portuguese and Dutch, but each was limited at best and eventually eclipsed by the rise of some new network with wider utility. French and especially English proved more effective as Asian linguae francae which also had claims as world

1877-0428 © 2010 Beijing Forum. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.05.113

languages, with English on a steady rise during the past two centuries to its present unrivalled status. For this reason the networks in French and English will occupy most of my attention.

Early conceptualisations of region

All complex regional systems appear more coherent to outsiders than to their permanent inhabitants. There was some general sense of Southeast Asia generated over many centuries by the exceptionally literate societies of China and Japan, which produced reports and surveys of the kingdoms of the "southern seas" (Nanyang, Nampo). Inside Southeast Asia as currently understood, this north-south dichotomy was naturally evident also in Vietnamese writing, heavily based on Chinese understandings. Dai Viet always saw itself as the southern empire in contrast to the mighty presence of the other empire in the north. Even earlier, Indian epic literature was aware of a gold-rich region of strange customs called Suwarnadvipa. As the Indian Ocean became a Muslim lake in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, "lands below the winds" (tanah dibawah angin, in Malay) became the way Southeast Asia was distinguished (from India, the Middle East, and later Europe) in the ports of the region itself, and for Malay, Arab and Persian speakers more widely. This way of conceptualising Southeast Asia was common among maritime peoples from Aceh to Manila and as far north as Siam and Cambodia.

Among Southeast Asian texts, the Desawarnana (Nagarakertagama) composed in the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit in 1365, gives an interesting sense of region. India is singled out as exemplary "It is only India and Java that are noted for their excellence as fine places because of the number of experts in sacred texts."1 But elsewhere there seems a distinct sense of Southeast Asia in the way almost a hundred islands and polities (as far as the Southeast Asian Peninsula and New Guinea) are held to be "tributary" to Majapahit, while Vietnam (Yawana), Siam, Cambodia, Champa and other mainland Southeast Asian locations are held to be "always friends."n When it comes to listing the places from which religious scholars and traders come on their ships "in countless numbers," we have a broader region comprising three Indian toponyms, Cambodia, China, Annam, Champa and Siam.m Cambodian and Cham inscriptions confirm the interactions and royal marriages between these regions and Java.

Further afield, almost every historical tradition of Southeast Asia has some memory of China, usually focussing on the period of intense interaction in the early fifteenth century. These traditions must often derive ultimately from the intense contacts of the early Ming period, when missions were most frequent between Southeast Asia and the Middle Kingdom, and when several polities (Melaka definitely, Brunei and Ayutthaya probably) got their start by playing the China tribute card adroitly. But the legends preserved are often in the more Southeast Asia-centred form of a "Chinese princess" sent southward to marry the local king, or a shipper bringing some new metalwork technology (Patani).

The earliest surviving surveys of the region as a whole derive from Chinese, Arab or European travellers, who typically spent whole seasons in the ports of the region waiting for the right monsoon, a trading opportunity, or an increase in religious learning. Chinese accounts were no less ethnocentric, describing the success of the Middle Kingdom "in civilizing the barbarians of the south and east."iv The first European survey with comparable regional reach, but greater immediacy as the work of an active trader, was that of Tom Pires, accountant of the Portuguese settlement at Melaka between 1512 and 1515. Like many residents of that Malacca Straits region to follow him, he recognised the region in its commercial links—"Melaka is surrounded and lies in the middle, and the trade and commerce between the different nations for a thousand leagues on every hand must come to Melaka"!1

Batavia in the period 1630-1770 played an even larger role as a focal point for knowledge of Asia, from Persia to Nagasaki, as voluminously attested by the pages of the diary of the Dutch citadel, or the copious letters sent monthly to Holland from The free port of Singapore, established in 1819, soon succeeded Melaka and Batavia as the most central entrepot for trade of the whole region from Madras to Canton. Its writers reflected that sense of region, much as Tom Pires had done. The first regional study to be published in English in the region was that of Singapore journalist J.H. Moor, and was a natural extension of the coverage of the trade-oriented newspapers he had edited.™ John Crawfurd's more ambitious Descriptive Dictionary of (1856), covered all parts of what we today think of as Southeast Asia except Burma and Laos. A kind of ancestor of today's Asian Studies journals was the Singapore Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia of J.R. Logan, which everything east of India in twelve volumes between 1847 and 1862.

The modern term Southeast Asia' to designate a region of study is of course relatively new, but by no means as new as much of the literature asserts in assigning its origins to Mountbatten's Southeast Asia Command' of 1943.

The first Southeast Asian to use the term in the title of a book was probably Nguyen Van Huyen in his 1934 study of common patterns of house-building in the region.™1 Huyen at the time taught Vietnamese at the Ecole des Langues Orientales in Paris, but later became independent Vietnam's first minister of education. His nomenclature follows an older pattern of archaeological scholars, especially those writing in German, which identified the region of dispersion of Dongson bronzes as S dost Asien' as early as 1897.ix Prehistorians were indeed in the foreground, even during the colonial era, in perceiving Southeast Asia as a necessary region of study, even when in French and English they often had other names for it. Coedes' classic work now known in English as The Indianised States of Southeast Asia was first published with the French concept Extreme-Orient (Far East') in its title.x

Institutionalising regional knowlede

The earliest networks of knowledge were often religious, and sustained by centres of pilgrimage and pious learning which radiated their influence to a wide area. Among the earliest such centres in maritime Asia was Srivijaya (centred in modern Palembang), in which the Chinese pilgrim I Qing noted in the seventh century: "there are more than a thousand Buddhist priests whose minds are bent on study and good works... If a Chinese priest wishes to go to the west to understand and read there, he would be wise to spend a year or two in Fo-Shih \[Srivijaya\]."xi Later Theravada Buddhist networks also linked Sri Langka with monastic centres in Burma and Siam, which in turn were centres of learning and pilgrimage for all of mainland Southeast Asia.

Islamic places of learning "below the winds" were equally regional in spirit, though difficult to document. Famous ulama based in places such as Aceh, Palembang, Patani and Banten (W. Java) drew students to their madrasahs from all over Southeast Asia, using Malay and Arabic as effective linguae francae. The three most influential Islamic authors of the seventeenth century were all cosmopolitans, though doing most of their teaching and writing in Banda Aceh. The Wujuddiyah mystic Hamzah Fansuri implied that he was born in Siam of Sumatran parents, and the orthodox Nuruddin Ar-Raniri originated in Gujerat. The most-loved of all, Abdurrauf of Singkel, was born on the west coast of Sumatra around 1615, and studied for many years (c. 1643-1662) in Mecca and Madinah before returning Aceh to become an extremely influential teacher of Shattariyah mysticism for students and adepts throughout the Archipelago. The common experience of pilgrimage, as well as the networks of learning and of the mystical tarekat, as well as Malay as the shared language of learning, ensured that Southeast Asian Muslims of the 18th and 19th century were seen as a collectivity by their Arab hosts in the holy land—the jawah or jawiyyin.

Christian organisations (except the more insular Manila-based ones) tended to reflect the long-term pattern of basing themselves in the communications centre of the Malacca Straits. The Anglo-Chinese College of the LMS in Melaka (1814-1843), was designed to train missionaries "European and native for all the countries beyond the Ganges"xu In contrast the Catholic colleges in Manila, and the venerable Bataviaasch Genootschap (1778-1950) were principally busy with the colonial territory of the Spanish and Dutch respectively. Their networks were undoubtedly limited by the language factor, Dutch and Spanish being less accessible to other Asians and Asianists. Perhaps the most long-lived and truly regional of Christian educational institutions was the Seminary of the Soci t des Missions Etrang res de Paris, first established in Ayutthaya in 1665 "because of its central position." For 300 years it trained priests from all over eastern Asia (except the Dutch and Spanish-ruled areas). Among the 83 students in 1670 there were not only Siamese, but also Vietnamese, Indians, Chinese and Japanese.xm The College General, as it soon became known, had to leave Ayutthaya during the Burmese invasion in 1767, to Chantaburi, then Hondat (Cambodia) and finally Pondicherry in India in 1770, where it died for a time during the revolutionary troubles in Europe. In 1806, however, it was reestablished in Pinang, where it still flourishes. It was always an international community, having trained in the century 1860-1965: 222 priests from China, 146 from Vietnam, 125 from Burma, 105 from Thailand, 93 from Malaya (including Singapore), 13 from Korea, 11 each from Laos, Japan and India, 10 from northern Borneo, 3 from Cambodia and 2 from Indonesia.xiv

Twentieth Century Nationalism and its regionalism

As mentioned above, colonial and anti-colonial nationalisms dominated the twentieth century, and tended to set back the natural emergence of knowledge networks. Nevertheless some anti-colonial nationalists did seek to rediscover their natural neighbours from which colonialism had artificially separated them. colonialism separated

them from the region as a source of identity and inspiration. Thus the Chinese-Filipino physician Jos Rizal was excited by his discovery of a broader "Malay" identity (what we would today call Austronesian) and frequently referred to his identity as "Malay." xv

In the 1920s and 30s the Comintern also encouraged its agents like the Indonesian Tan Malaka and the Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh to construct pan-regional underground networks. For Tan Malaka these dreams continued after he had split from the Comintern, and he envisaged a Southeast Asian federation he called "Aslia", incuding Australia. After the Japanese surrender in 1945 there was another burst of Southeast Asian solidarity on the part of the left in the Indochinese countries, Burma and Thailand.xvi It cannot be said that this produced significant scholarly interaction, however.

The Institutional Foundation of modern Area Studies

The first modern institutional arrangements for bringing the scholars of the region together tended to be inspired from outside. The 1920s and 30s marked the beginning of regional work and organisation-building around the countries of Southeast and Eastern Asia, though occurring in different idioms Chinese, Japanese, French and most influentially English.

Chinese: Chinese mercantile networks were aware of the region's interrelatedness since at least Sung times, and another paper (by another author) would be required to begin to do justice to the flow of information around these networks. Here I mention them only in an attempt to provide some perspective on the rise of now-dominant Anglophone networks. Xiamen, Canton, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Singapore were the major nodes of the Chinese knowledge network, with prominence passing from one to the other in roughly that order. Even in the divisive high colonial era, these networks flourished almost as a necessary balance to the rivalries of and barriers that divided others during that period. The high value placed on education by the overseas Chinese gave rise to Tan Kah Kee's foundation of Xiamen University in 1926, and his appointment of fellow-Singaporean Lim Boon Keng as its President. Even the British sponsored Raffles College, ancestor of the University of Malaya in the 1920s, obtained its largest individual donation from an Indonesian Chinese, the sugar magnate Oei Tiong Ham. The bilingual journal of the Singapore Nanyang Xuehui (South Seas Society) was in 1940 one of the first to take Southeast Asia as its scope. In 1956 the Chinese (especially Hokkien) networks of the region cooperated to launch Nanyang University, which aspired to be a regional university in the Chinese Medium. Much earlier than its English-language opposite number in Singapore it also aspired to teach regional languages, Bahasa Indonesia being among the offerings from the beginning.

Japanese: Similarly I cannot do justice here to the Japanese-language networks of knowledge about the region, which were extremely extensive already in the first half of the twentieth century. Moreover since this essay is primarily concerned to trace the linkages across national boundaries, the Japanese "Asianist" organisations are questionable entrants. Japanese Pan-Asianism has a distinguished lineage since the Meiji period, although sadly distorted in a militarist direction in the 1930s. The Pan-Asia Society established in Tokyo in 1932 included some token Asians, Rash Behari Bose from India and Cuong De from Vietnam, but this organisation and its successors were essentially agents of Japanese nationalism. Nevertheless the exceptional scale of Japanese publication about the Asian region, at a time when Asian Studies was still poorly developed elsewhere, may be glimpsed in the bibliography recently published in English by George Hicks.™

French: Although in many ways French rule severed economic and political links between the Indo-Chinese societies and their neighbours, French scholarship was another story. French orientalists had long dreamed of establishing a school in Asia to match the the French schools in Athens (1846) and Rome (1875). Their initial hopes centred unsuccessfully on India, but the conquest of Vietnam and protectorates over Cambodia and Laos created new possibilities. A Mission Archeologique d'Indochine was established in Saigon in 1898, with the powerful patronage of Governor-General Paul Doumer, and in 1901 was moved to a permanent headquarters in the Indochinese capital of Hanoi, with the new title French School of the Far East' - Ecole Fran aise d'Extr me-Orient (EFEO). The broad ambitions of this body as a regional rather than national research centre were sustained by the fact that its early specialists were all either Indianists (primarily Sanskritists) or Sinologists, who therefore found it congenial to declare that "Indochina is not understandable by itself: it is a confluence of races and civilizations which one cannot understand without going back to their sources."™1

The Ecole celebrated its opening in Hanoi by hosting the first Congrès International des tudes d'Extr me-Orient' there in 1902. Delegations were invited from Europe, but also from the Netherlands Indies, Japan and from Siam, each of which presented salutations and learned papers about their societies. The philologist J. Brandes led the delegation from the Bataviaasch Genootschap, which presented a homage to the Congress in the form of five papers in French about recent research in Java. This began a series of exchanges, with Alfred Foucher and Henri Parmentier between them making three visits to the monuments of Java in the period 1904-1907. xlx

The Thai delegation to this Hanoi Congress was answered by a series of EFEO scholarly delegations to Siam beginning with that of Lunet de Jonqui re and Louis Finot in 1904-1905. The great cultural eminence of Siam, Interior Minister Prince Damrong Rajanubhab, was particularly welcoming of French orientalism, and in 1908 was named a corresponding member of the EFEO. In response to his urging, the young George Coed s was seconded from the EFEO in 1918 to become curator of the Vajira ana Library (predecessor of the Thai National Library). There he worked systematically on the inscriptions and monuments of Siam, publishing a two-volume collection of inscriptions in 1924-1929, and the first catalogue of the national museum in 1928. This work in Siam led him further afield, to see the connections between inscriptions in southern Thailand and Sumatra, and build his remarkable discovery of the Sumatra-based kingdom of Srivijaya.xx

In 1929 Coed s returned to Hanoi as Director of the EFEO, and led it in even more cooperative directions. The Thai connection was continued with a series of surveys and archeological digs. One of Coed s' first missions as EFEO Director was to Batavia, where he represented EFEO at the 150th anniversary celebrations of the Bataviaasch Genootschap. The following year a scientific convention was signed between EFEO and the Oudheidkundig Dienst in Java, which regulated a series of exchanges with Dutch archeologists. Henri Marchal studied the anastylosis' method which had been used to restore Panataran in Java, and used it with brilliant success to rebuild the Banteay Srei in Cambodia.™ The giant Dutch archaeologist P.V. van Stein Callenfels became particularly celebrated in the region for his advanced archeological skills as well as his legendary consumption of beer. He spent extensive periods in Perak, Malaya, to instruct Government ethnologist I.H.N Evans in his excavation techniques during the 1920s, and began a series of visits to Angkor in 1932.xxn

Only when in danger of losing its base in Vietnam and Cambodia in the early 1950s did the EFEO begin its modern trajectory of becoming a truly pan-Asian scholarly organisation. It extended its work to Indonesia in 1952, placing the epigrapher Louis-Charles Damais there. The major base in India, dreamed of by French orientalists in the ninetweenth century, became a reality when EFEO opened a research centre in Pondichery in 1954.xx111 The Eastern Asia-based scholarship always emphasized by EFEO has in modern times been continued with offices in China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India.

English: The 1920s marked a remarkable flowering of "Pacific" scholarly organisations, stimulated by the confidence of new frontiers in California, British Columbia and Australia, and much idealistic optimism about the "Pacific age" of cultural interaction. First into the field was the Pacific Science Association, established at the first Pan-Pacific Science Congress in 1920 to advance science and technology in the Pacific Region. While the Americans took the early lead, the second Congress in 1923 was held in Australia, the third in 1926 in Tokyo, and the fourth in 1929 in Java (Batavia/Jakarta and Bandung).

The third Congress in Tokyo carried a resolution that "the utilization of anthropological knowledge be made a subject of prime importance for discussion at the next Congress." The President of the Tokyo Congress subsequently wrote to Dr B.J.O. Schrieke, Professor of Social Anthropology and Sociology at the Law Faculty in Batavia, asking him to lead a committee which would "call upon those anthropologists and others who are known to have practical ideas relative to the needs of native peoples," to make their proposals. Schrieke took a cautious view that more informed discussion was needed to define the problem, and prevent the subsequent congress descending into "theoretical speculations or the sphere of politics." He therefore mobilised his colleagues in the Indies to produce a "summary of our experience in this matter." The result was the valuable volume The Effect of Western influence on native civilisations in the Malay archipelago, translated into English in Batavia and published there by the Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, newly reorganised (1925) as the central organisation for "the cultural sciences."xxiv

The 1930s were much less favourable to international collaboration of this type in eastern Asia, but another "Pacific" organisation, the Institute of Pacific Relations, managed to play a prominent role throughout the war years. This remarkable body owed its inspiration to the Christian-inspired internationalism of the YMCA, through a resolution at the 1919 YMCA conference in Hawaii to explore a "common basis of understanding for the Pacific

peoples." The YMCA's visionary Frank Atherton gradually developed this theme from his base in Hawaii, eventually putting together a prominent committee under Stanford University President Ray Wilbur, and persuading the YMCA to withdraw its sponsorship to allow for a more inclusive approach. An initial conference in Hawaii in 1925 was called with the purpose of establishing a permanent Institute of Pacific Relations, as individuals "deeply interested in the Pacific area." Its visionary program was aimed at assisting the development of the countries concerned; urging the improvement of legal and administrative procedure where present methods tend to hinder international harmony and good feeling; and directly to promoting international friendship by personal association and by the study of economic, educational, social, political, moral and religious conditions with a view to their improvement.™

The 1925 conference showed its liberality by accepting "national" delegations from still-colonised Korea and the Philippines, as well as from China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the U.S. and Canada (though this nomenclature did not survive the nationalistic 1930s). The Institute secretariat was duly established in Honolulu, with local or national branches in Seoul, Manila, Japan and China, and a "Netherlands" branch for Indonesia. Subsequent conferences were held in Honolulu (1927), Kyoto (1929), and Shanghai/Hangchow (1931), before retreating to North American venues as the depression, militarism and the Sino-Japanese conflict made things too difficult in eastern Asia.

The IPR from its 1925 inception was concerned to stimulate research and publication by raising funds for specific projects. The then huge amount of US$115,000 was raised in 1926 alone, largely from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. New Zealand economist J. B. Condliffe was appointed Research Secretary in 1926, and initiated a Bulletin which quickly developed into the quarterly i (1928- ). Most of the Institute's early projects concentrated on poverty alleviation, trade liberalisation and peace in East Asia, sponsoring such landmark studies as Richard Tawney, Land and Labour in China (London, 1932). J. Lossing Buck, Land Utilization in China (Shanghai, 1937), Herbert Norman, Japan's Emergence as a Modern State (New York, 1940), and Owen Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontiers of China (London, 1940).xxvi

It may have been the existence of national committees of the IPR that saved it during the 1930s and 40s when competing nationalisms undermined its original idealistic goals. The U.S. national committee, centred among the foundations and academies of the east coast, won a battle in the early 1930s by shifting the permanent headquarters of the organisation from Honolulu to New York (1933), to be soon followed by Pacific Affairs. As war loomed, the IPR began broadening its focus to include more work on Southeast Asia, though now sponsored directly by New York rather than by local committees. Already in the late 1930s the IPR recognised "South-East Asia" as an important region of comparative and collective study, and sponsored important work on it by Rangoon University political economist J.S. Furnivall, and by US-based scholars such as Lennox Mills, Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff.xxvii As the war ended there was another energetic burst of commissioned volumes, which included such pathbreaking work on Southeast Asia as George McT. Kahin's Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia (1952), Victor Purcell's The Chinese in South-east Asia (1951), and Bruno Lasker's Southeast Asia (1948). The chronicler of the IPR has claimed not only that this organisation laid the basis for Asian Studies in the English-speaking world (which would be hard to deny), but that "Perhaps no other organization will ever match its contribution to the development of an academic field."xxviii

In the post-war world it was largely the University of Malaya, established in Singapore in 1949, which renewed for English-speaking scholarship a sense of Southeast or Eastern Asian identity and organisation, which Rangoon University had to some extent initiated in the 1920s. The first generation of professors included geographer E.H.G. Dobby, whose pioneering Southeast Asia (1950) demonstrated the environmental personality of the region and historian Brian Harrison, who beat D.G.E. Hall into print with South-east Asia: a short history (1954). As it grew in strength the University spawned a number of regional journals and organisations, including the Journal of Tropical Geography (1953), the Journal of Southeast Asian History (1961, switching to JSEAS in 1970), and the Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science (1972). A 1961 conference of Southeast Asian historians organized by Singapore's Professor Ken Tregonning in January 1961, was the impetus which gave rise to the International Association of Historians of Asia, which has held sixteen subsequent conferences in the region.


' Stuart Robson (trans.), Desawarnana (Nagarakrtagama), by Mpu Prapanca (Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995), p.85.

" Desawarnana, p.34.

iii Ibid., p.85.

iv Ma Huan, Ying-yai Sheng-lan: The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, trans. J.G. Mills (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1970), pp.69 and

v The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires, ed. Armando Cortesäo, London: Hakluyt Society, 1944, p.286.6 Dagh-Register gehouden in 't Casteel Batavia 1642-1682, 31 vols. Batavia and The Hague, Bataviaasch Genootschap, 1887-1931. Coolhaas, W.Ph. (ed.) [continued by J. van Goor and J.E.Schooneveld-Oosterling ] , Generale Missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie. 11 vols, The Hague, Nijhoff, 1960-1997.

vi J.H. Moor, Notices of the Indian Archipelago and Adjacent Countries, Singapore: 1837.

vii John Crawfurd, Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1856.

viii Nguyen Van Huyen, Introduction à l'étude de l'habitation sur pilotis dans l'Asie du sud-est, Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1934.

ix A.B. Meyer and W. Foy, 'Bronze-Pauken aus Südost Asien'. Konigliches Ethnographisches Musum zu DresdenXI Dresden, 1897; F. Heger, Alte Metalltrommeln aus Südost Asien, Leipzig, 1902.

x George Coedès, Histoire ancienne des états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient, Hanoi, 1944.

xi Cited Mary Somers Heidhues, Southeast Asia: A Concise History, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000, p.28.

xii Brian Harrison, 'The Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, 1818-1843,' in Southeast Asian History and Historiography: Essays Presented to D.G.E. Hall, ed. C.D. Cowan and L.W. Wolters, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976, pp.246-261. Anthony Reid, 'A Saucer Model of Southeast Asian Identity,' Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 27, No. 1 (1999), pp.12-13.

xiii General College: Third Centenary, 1665-1965, Penang, 1965, p.19.

xiv Ibid. p.28.

xv The Rizal-Blumentritt Correspondence, Vol.II, Manila: José Rizal Centennial Commission, 1961, pp.12, 349-350, 500-502.

xvi Christopher Goscha, Thailand and the Southeast Asian Networks of the Vietnamese Revolution, 1885-1949, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1999, pp.136-164; Reid, 'A Saucer Model,' pp.17-18.

xvii A Bibliography of Japanese Works on the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, 1914-1945, ed. George Hicks, Singapore 1992.

xviii Auguste Barth, 1902, cited Catherine Clémentin-Ojha and Pierre-Yves Manguin, Un siècle pour l'Asie: l'École française d'Extrême-Orient, 1898-2000,Paris: Les Editions du Pacifique, 2001, p.22.

xix Clémentin-Ojha and Manguin, Un siècle pour l'Asie, pp.50-51.

xx Clémentin-Ojha and Manguin, Un siècle pour l'Asie, pp.54-56.

xxi Ibid., pp.50-52.

xxii Victor Purcell, Memoirs of a Malayan Official, London: Cassell, 1965, pp.275-84.

xxiii Clémentin-Ojha and Manguin, Un siècle pour l'Asie, pp.47-73.

xxiv B. Schrieke (ed.), The Effect of Western Influence on native civilisations in the Malay archipelago, Batavia: Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, 1929, pp.v-vii.

xxv Cited in Paul F. Hooper, 'The Institute of Pacific Relations and the Origins of Asian and Pacific Studies', Pacific Affairs 61, I (1988), p.100.

xxvi Ibid. pp.99-108. In total the IPR sponsored some 1600 books and pamphlets in the period 1925-1952.

xxvii J.S. Furnivall, Progress and Welfare in South-East Asia, New York: IPR, 1940; J.S. Furnivall, Educational Progress in South-East Asia, New York: IPR, 1943; Emerson, Mills and Thompson, Government and Nationalism in South-East Asia, New York, IPR, 1942.

xxviii Hooper, 'The Institute of Pacific Relations' (1988), pp.98-99.