Scholarly article on topic 'Optical Sensor for Indian Siddha Diagnosis System'

Optical Sensor for Indian Siddha Diagnosis System Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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{PPG / "Pulse diagnosis" / Siddha / "Lab view"}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — N. Deepa, A. Balaji Ganesh

Abstract Traditional Indian medicine has been using the pulse as a form of disease diagnosis. The roots of this pulse diagnosis lie in the three radial pulses which are known as vata, pitta, and kapha. In this project, a photoplethysmographic sensor is presented for pulse diagnosis. PPG sensor is used to monitor the blood flow rate. The sensor is placed at identified radial points corresponding vatta, pitta, kapha. The output of the sensor is analyzed using Lab VIEW software.PPG values are taken at wrist for subjects in different age groups. The acquired PPG signal is compared with the values taken by the Siddha Practitioner and classified the subjects as of vata, pitta, and kapha type.

Academic research paper on topic "Optical Sensor for Indian Siddha Diagnosis System"

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Procedía Engineering 38 (2012) 1126 - 1131

International conference on modeling, optimization and computing

Optical sensor for Indian Siddha Diagnosis System

N.Deepa*, A.Balaji Ganesh

Department of Embedded System Technologies, TIFAC-CORE, Velammal engineering college,Chennai-600066,India

Abstract

Traditional Indian medicine has been using the pulse as a form of disease diagnosis. The roots of this pulse diagnosis lie in the three radial pulses which are known as vata, pitta, and kapha. In this project, a photoplethysmographic sensor is presented for pulse diagnosis. PPG sensor is used to monitor the blood flow rate. The sensor is placed at identified radial points corresponding vatta, pitta, kapha. The output of the sensor is analyzed using Lab VIEW software.PPG values are taken at wrist for subjects in different age groups. The acquired PPG signal is compared with the values taken by the Siddha Practitioner and classified the subjects as of vata, pitta, and kapha type.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education. Keywords: PPG, pulse diagnosis, Siddha, lab view

1. Introduction

Siddha is one of the oldest medical systems in India in which pulse is used to diagnose the diseases. It was developed and practiced widely not only in India, but also in other parts of the world like China, Egypt, and Greece. It is a non invasive pulse diagnosis method. Physicians mostly use the pulse to determine the heart rate. But Siddha feel the patterns of vibration that represent the status of the body, mind and soul at a specific time. There are three doshas which govern the function of entire human body. They are vata, pitta, and kapha, called as Tridosha. Siddha practitioners locate three different pulses in single artery on each wrist, corresponding to each of the three doshas. The index finger senses the vata pulse; the middle finger, the pitta pulse; and the ring finger, the kapha pulse. The adept practitioner can also locate other pulses that are combinations of the main three as well as subdivisions of those pulses.

* Corresponding author. Tel.:9003637906. E-mail address: deepamathes@gmail.com.

1877-7058 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi: 10. 1016/j .proeng .2012.06.142

Altogether, the skilled pulse taker can detect as many as 32 different pulse qualities. The convenient, painless and non invasive pulse diagnosis method extracts the imbalances of Tridosha. The experienced physician can read, through the pulses, the strength and vitality of each internal organ and even is reputed to be able to diagnose diseases like asthma and diabetes. Each dosha having different tactile vibratory qualities in the radial artery. It is the presence and location of these vibratory qualities that alert the physician to the nature of the imbalance that is responsible for the patient's condition.

Pulse Diagnosis is a tool for identifying diseases in Indian Siddha. The three principal pulses are felt in the wrist region along the radial artery. The place for feeling the pulse is on the lateral aspect of the right forearm, 2cm up from the wrist. The index, middle, and ring fingers are used to feel the three pulses in their respective order. Pressure of varying levels is applied with each finger on artery in order.

Fig. 1 Pulse diagnosis by Siddha Practitioner

Fig. 1 shows the method of identifying vata, pitta, kapha pulses at the radial artery. Application of pressure is repeated as many times as needed for diagnosing the disease. Based on the dominant pulse among the three and the direction in which pulse motion is felt, a trained practitioner identifies over 350 different disease conditions. The study of the relationship between pulse patterns is the key to identification of the ailment. Healthy human subjects have the three pulse amplitudes in the ratio of 4:2:1 respectively. However, this ratio is believed to follow seasonal variations and changes with parameters such as time of delay, temperature and humidity of the skin. The right arm of male subjects and left arm of female subjects is used to read pulse. Pulse diagnosis is a quick, inexpensive, and non-invasive diagnostic tool. When performed by a trained professional, it can be an effective way of determining the health condition of a patient.

In this paper, we describe a system that identifies the pulse a PPG sensor.PPG signals are acquired by NI DAQ and analysed by Lab VIEW program. The mean value of the PPG signals is measured using lab view with respect to vata, pitta, and kapha identified by Siddha practitioner, for different age group subjects.

Lab VIEW is a platform and development environment for visual programming language from National Instruments. It helps to create flexible and scalable design, control and test applications. With help of lab view, we can interface real world signals, analyse and display the results.

The rest of the paper is as follows: Section II gives the proposed system design and data acquisition from sensors. Section III gives the collection of mean values from photoplethysmographic with respect to vata, pitta, and kapha values taken by Siddha practitioner.

2. PPG Measurement

2.1. Sensor Design

Photoplethysmograph (PPG)is a non invasive method to detect the pulse by light source and detector.PPG signal indicates the blood volume changes. The changes in the blood volume can be detected in the peripheral parts of the body such as fingertip or earlobe using this technique. Based on the variations in light intensity passing through or reflected from skin, we can identify the flow rate of blood. The variation in detected output is generated by pulsation of arterial blood during cardiac cycle. There are two modes in PPG signal detection: transmission mode and reflection mode. In transmission mode, finger is placed in between LED and photodiode. In reflection mode, LED and photodiode are placed on one side the fingertip. Fig. 1 shows the sensor arrangement in the transmission mode and reflectance mode in fingertip.

led photodiode

FD.GIR

photodiode

transmission modi

kiflichon mode

Fig .2 Sensor arrangements in transmission mode and reflection mode

PPG sensor on finger tip includes infrared LED (HSDL 4420-875nm) and photodiode (HSDL 5400). Infrared LED is used to transmit the light. Photodiode is used to detect the variation in the light intensity due to blood volume changes.

Fig. 3 PPG sensor design in transmission and reflection modes

The signal collected by sensor is weak. It includes AC, which contains pulse wave, DC and some noises. To remove DC, we designed 1.5Hz high pass filter. The frequency range of the signal 1.5 to 60Hz. To avoid high frequency noises, we used another 40Hz low pass filter.

2.2. Data Acquisition

The processed AC PPG signal is sampled by a National Instrument's DAQ card and the data are collected by a Lab view Virtual Instrument (VI). Lab view contains a comprehensive set of VIs and functions for acquiring, analysing, displaying and storing data. Each VI consists of two window, Front Panel and Block diagram. Front panel is used for user interface of the virtual instrument. The code is built

using graphical representations of functions to control the front panel objects. The block diagram contains this source code. This VI is designed with the following features and functionalities:

1) Setting up the data acquisition parameters: These parameters include the sampling rate, sampling mode, physical channel and the range of the input signal. These parameters can be easily changed from the front panel.

2) Sampling: The DAQ card samples the signal at a rate of 200 kHz; This allows us to use arithmetic mean to filter out high frequency noises.

3) Waveform display: The front panel of the VI displays the PPG waveform and its historical record with a chart.

4) Data collection and Storage control: In front panel, the acquired data are recorded and saved in spreadsheet file. This feature helps us to analyse the acquired data

The following figure (Fig. 4) shows the experimental setup to collect the PPG values with respect to vata, pitta, and kapha. This setup contains three parts. There are PPG circuit, DAQ card and computer with Lab view.

Fig. 4 Experimental setup

2. Results

2.1. Lab view VI Front Panel

The front panel is the interactive user interface for the VI. It is named a front panel because it stimulates the front of a physical instrument. The front panel include knobs, push buttons, graphs and various other controls (which are user inputs) and indicators (which are program outputs).

Fig. 5 Lab view VI Front panel for PPG signal analysis

3.2. Labview VI Block Diagram

The Block Diagram accompanies the program for the front panel. Front panel objects appear as terminals on the block diagram and the components wired together. The block diagram contains the graphical source code composed of nodes, terminals, and wires. The block diagram is the actual executable program as shown in Fig. 5 for PPG signal analysis.

Fig. 5 shows the source code. It contains a DAQ assist block which is used to acquire PPG signal from the circuit, Mean block calculates the mean value of the PPG signals, Write measurement file block which write mean values in spreadsheet files, waveform display block displays the PPG waveform, and a numerical indicator which indicates the mean value of the PPG signals.

Fig. 6 Lab view VI Block Diagram for PPG analysis

3.3. Tabulation of PPG values with respect to vata, pitta, and kapha

Table 1. PPG mean values with respect to tridosha

Subjects M/F Age Tridosha Mean Value

Subject1 F 5 Vata 0.35

Subject2 M 15 Vata 0.46

Subject3 F 18 Vata, Pitta 0.48

Subject4 M 25 Vata 0.56

Subject5 F 28 Vata 0.37

Subject6 M 32 Vata 0.57

Subject7 F 35 Pitta 0.68

Subject8 M 38 Vata 0.55

Subject9 F 40 Pitta 0.79

Subject10 M 42 Pitta 0.75

Subject11 F 45 Pitta 0.99

Subject12 M 48 Pitta, Vata 0.69

Subject13 F 52 Pitta 0.77

Subject14 M 55 Pitta, Kapha 1.02

Subject15 F 58 Pitta 0.82

Subject16 M 61 Vata, Pitta 0.74

Subject17 F 62 Vata 0.65

Subject18 M 64 Pitta 0.74

Subject19 F 64 Kapha 0.68

Subject20 M 72 Kapha 0.60

The tabulation shows vata, pitta, kapha values taken by Siddha practitioner simultaneously NI DAQ acquired the PPG signal and the mean values of the PPG signal are displayed and stored in spreadsheet file for different age group subjects.

The mean values of the PPG signal that varies with respect to vata, pitta, and kapha pulses. Normally for the age group below 33years vata will be dominant, for age group between 33 to 66 years pitta will be dominant, for age group above 66 years kapha will be dominant. According to these three pulses, the mean value of the PPG signal varies. We can classify the subjects by taking mean values for more number of subjects.

References

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[2] Asada, H.H. Shaltis, P. Reisner, A. Sokwoo Rhee Hutchinson, R.C. "Mobile monitoring with wearablephotoplethysmographic biosensors" Dept. of Mech. Eng., MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA;

[3] Michael Tamayo, Andrew Westover, Ying Sun, PhD, "Microcontroller Based Pulse Oximeter for Undergraduate Capstone Design" Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881,IEEE,2010

[4] Y. Mendelson*, Member, IEEE, R. J. Duckworth, Member, IEEE, and G. Comtois, Student Member, IEEE, "A Wearable Reflectance Pulse Oximeter for Remote Physiological Monitoring" Proceedings of the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference New York City, USA, Aug 30-Sept 3, 2006.

[5] SH Song, JS Cho, HS Oh, JS Lee, IY Kim, "Estimation of Blood Pressure Using Photoplethysmography on the Wrist" Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea, ISSN 0276-6574, Computers in Cardiology 2009;36:741-744.

[6] Warsuzarina Mat Jubadi, Siti Faridatul Aisyah Mohd Sahak, "Heartbeat Monitoring Alert via SMS" IEEE Symposium on

Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA 2009), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 4-6, 2009.