Scholarly article on topic 'Evaluation of Ethics Perceptions’ Primary School Teachers'

Evaluation of Ethics Perceptions’ Primary School Teachers Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{Education / ethic / philosophy / "philosophy of education" / "views on ethics" / teacher / "primary school"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Mehmet Cafer Şakar

Abstract In this study, ethical opinions of primary classroom teachers are evaluated. The assessments include: the ownership levels of teachers’ on knowledge of ethics and moral concepts, their views on the concept of virtue, to what extend their awareness of being model towards students, their views on teaching values. Qualitative research method used in this research design was used scientific facts. The population and sample of the study are created by primary classroom teachers located in Van province, Turkey. From that area, 15 classroom teachers consist of this study's sample. Semi- structured interview form is used in the research. The obtained data is analyzed with descriptive and content analysis method from the data analysis techniques of the qualitative research. In the line of analysis and findings, teachers’ not having the knowledge of concept of ethics, their expressing the ethics as concept of morality and their not able to express the difference between two concepts, their explaining the features of individuals who are virtuous rather than knowledge of virtue concept, their having consciousness related to being a model teacher but their confusion about the references of what is supposed to be in the terms of being a model, cause of different family types existing in the society, a possibility of conflict between the school and the family in terms of transferring the religious values so the necessity of giving priority to universal virtues in transferring the values, the necessity of school's having a role in value transferring are resulted in the research.

Academic research paper on topic "Evaluation of Ethics Perceptions’ Primary School Teachers"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com -

ScienceDirect PfOCSCl ¡0

Social and Behavioral Sciences

ELSEVIER Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 (2014) 2352 - 2356 -

5th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013

Evaluation of ethics perceptions' primary school teachers

Mehmet Cafer §akar*

Ankara University Faculty Of Languages, History And Geography, Department of Philosophy, 06590, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract

In this study, ethical opinions of primary classroom teachers are evaluated. The assessments include: the ownership levels of teachers' on knowledge of ethics and moral concepts, their views on the concept of virtue, to what extend their awareness of being model towards students, their views on teaching values. Qualitative research method used in this research design was used scientific facts. The population and sample of the study are created by primary classroom teachers located in Van province, Turkey. From that area, 15 classroom teachers consist of this study's sample. Semi- structured interview form is used in the research. The obtained data is analyzed with descriptive and content analysis method from the data analysis techniques of the qualitative research. In the line of analysis and findings , teachers' not having the knowledge of concept of ethics, their expressing the ethics as concept of morality and their not able to express the difference between two concepts, their explaining the features of individuals who are virtuous rather than knowledge of virtue concept, their having consciousness related to being a model teacher but their confusion about the references of what is supposed to be in the terms of being a model, cause of different family types existing in the society , a possibility of conflict between the school and the family in terms of transferring the religious values so the necessity of giving priority to universal virtues in transferring the values, the necessity of school's having a role in value transferring are resulted in the research.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center.

Keywords: Education, ethic, philosophy, philosophy of education, views on ethics, teacher, primary school

1. Introduction

"I should wish to see a world in which education aimed at mental freedom rather than at imprisoning the minds of the young in a rigid armour of dogma calculated to protect them through life against the shafts of impartial evidence. The world needs open hearts and open minds, and it is not through rigid systems'

Bertrand Russell

Any individual it finds life on earth formed and born into a structure with certain values. Till a certain period of his life , intentionally or unintentionally and willingly or unwillingly at last in any way he is shaped in that

* Corresponding name:Mehmet Cafer §AKAR. Tel.: +90 312 310 32 80 /1219 E-mail address: mcsakar@ankara.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.571

structure. When he gets the ability of choosing and freedom, if his feelings and mind still are not converted into a slave, he begins to question that structure.

In addition, due to the nature of human, he is an entity in which there is a desire to act the information rather than just store. However, the reason that the understanding of human and education of our century detects "knowing " only as a having information itself, what we do in our training activities is in the borders of transferring the information to the individual and helping him to retain the information in his mind.

In fact, human beings is constantly in action, and performs the actions by minding them. The concept of today's education is rather far away from getting him into self-realization and giving a meaning to the individual's life. This concept has a form that makes the individual addicted to the material and therefore enslaving more and more day by day and also trains him to be the better part of the machine so-called society and to produce better goods .

However, today's educational systems are training the individuals and they carries it to a long period to his life. This Century's educational approach is even in the effort of the "life-long learning approach". All this while, considering the increased rate of school enrolment we can think that we are living in a society made up of the educated individuals . But, despite all this, we still live some problems such as living together and environment-related issues. We- Living on the same planet, the beings of the same species - the human beings are afraid of each other and slaughter each other.

We are destroy in the act of destroying our planet and turning it into uninhabitable. In this context, the concept of the education - value should be reconsidered. In this reason any individual who doesn't have any value can not live for anything.. One does not have anything and so there is nothing to lose. Hence our expectations for that individual should be on according to this way. Transferring of the value to the individual and making him discerned it shouldn't be considered as presenting a prescription for him to live.

For Kant; Man is the only being who needs education. For by education we must understand nurture (the tending and feeding of the child), discipline (Zucht), and teaching, together with culture. According to this, man is in succession infant (requiring nursing), child (requiring discipline), and scholar (requiring teaching), (Kant 2006).

The largest aim of the education is growing the ideal humans who are internalizing the virtues, consisisting of ethic values, concretizing them in their actions. So, the goals of the education and idealized characters are related with those ethic concepts which are stated before (Bilhan 19991)

While the ethic is handling the responsibilities of the human, education is considiering those responsibilities and making them in action. That's why, in terms of theory and practise the existance of a relation between education and ethics can be mentioned.

Considering today's education with this dimension, we can see that individuals are educated but they are not in better situation. As Yayla stated: "Because crisis, lived with in the ethical area, lies under the basis of complained corruptions, degenerations, injutice, unrighteousness. In other words, because of moral degenaration and disappearing of worry in ethic , it resulted with existance individuals avoiding the results of their actions, not practising the their own thoughts, uncapable of identifiying their actions and thoughts. This case is based on results of crisis on ethic area, in spesific results of bad education" (Yayla 2004).

In gaining a character, when we take the evolution as a reference, in virtues' being a part of personality, the first periods of an individual are evaluated as the critical durations of the life. Individual gets the first virtues, ethical principles , good and bad one from the family and then from the primary school. The classroom teachers woking at that time have a crucial importance.

Without any doubts, it is hard to determine which of them are valuable in education. But it can be stated that it is inevitable to make any value judgements. In education, values judgements are preferred willingly or unwillingly. the individual can be brought up with an unaccepted subject like being a thief. But it can't be evaluated as an education. Education is conveying or acquiring a subject which is accepted as a valuable thing. Besides, the one resulted at last is naturally valuable( Buyukduvenci 1991).

2. Method

Qualitative research method used in this research design was used scientific facts. The population and sample of the study are created by primary classroom teachers located in Van province. From that area, 15 classroom teachers consist of this study's sample. Semi- structured interview form is used in the research. The obtained data is analyzed with descriptive and content analysis method from the data analysis techniques of the qualitative research.

3. Findings

Findings are analyzed , here are the teachers' views about the concept of ethics: "The compulsory actions, the good one, work ethics, practising the morality, in accordance with society and religion , objectivity, the rules of the society, scientific name of morality, self-esteem, correspandance with society, rules of morality''.

Analyzing the statements, those descriptions are towards the concept of morality rather than ethics. Examining the findings, here are the teachers' views on the concept of morality: related with personal respect, religion , love, culture, society rules, habits, life style and belief, comprising ethics, good man, wisdom , a good Muslim and compulsory behaviours.Morality appears as concept regulating the social life. From this point, after assesing the descriptions, it can be claimed that the teachers have the knowledge of concept of the morality.

It is expressed that teachers must be a model in terms of morality. Necessities of being a model are setting a good example and being in the time of developmental period for students. The expressions on how to be a model are being honest, hardworking, going beyond yourself, having the universal value, brave, ability to empathize, respectful to students' values, reading books, not reflecting his own ideology, virtous, trustworthy and righteous. Here are some statements from interviewers:

"It is not possible to be a teacher just with a certificate. Teachers shoul have special qualifications. A teacher should dedicate himself to his work. He must try to be virtius. Because of his being taken into account as a model, he must pay attention all his actions and position. He should share , have the humanity at the degree of real love and have the fear of the GOD'' . Considering those views, to be a graduate teacher is not the only thing that makes a teacher. Those statements can be interpreted as a teacher should carry teacher personality traits should also be interpreted as teaching skills to carry.

Another interviewer declared these statements; '' In my opinion, all of them should be virtuous. That should be in the process of the education. If that person is supposed to be a teacher, he should be educated a virtuous way secondary school. Everybody sees the teacher a model. Entering other teacher's class , you see that the students behave like that teacher. Both students and me behave without realizing it. That means a teacher should be trained from the very beginning. He should act without discriminating based on religion, race, language and any bias and see himself as an educater of every child.'' These statements may mean that a candidate teacher should be determined formerly and training must be on this way , because the student sees him as a complete model , teacher should be more careful about his behaviours and shouldn't discriminate between students.

"He must be model because a child gives importance to the teachers rather than the family. A student sees the teacher as a certain and accurate person. He is adapting the teachers' model behaviours without checking them right or wrong.'' Taking the expressipons of the interviewers in to consideration, it can be asserted that the teachers is the primary and faultles model . That's why he must be careful about his own behaviours.

"Yes. This is the role of the teacher. Being a model. The moral values from the past to present, the principles of the national education and national values should be transferred. Religion is very complex issue, there are people from different sects and may be from different religions ''. He may assert that the main aim of the teachership is to teach the values and national values , because of the sectarian differences teaching religious values may lead to troubles.

Another interviewer expresses like this: "Of course. There is another thing to say. There is a boundary about it. The morality , which one? The society's morality? The morality I adopted? That kind ofproblem exists. Nonetheless , in mentioning it, it is about a good morality. Everything that a society has a person to face is not a part of a good morality or everykind of rules the religion puts forward may not be right for this reason. The things, exposed in the time being and individuals' choices , form the ones' moral. In fact, it can thought like this; I have got an idea of morality and philosophy. And everything can't be in exact right or wrong side. That's to say, the man may take good sides of the things and constiutes a philosophy. That's why, the teacher shouldn't build up a repudiation wall. If it is a belief, he should go beyond it more equally and more distantly. From this point, far from ideological education, he should form the students in virtuos aspect of humanity. '' Evaluating the interviewer's points, the teacher should be a model. But the reference to be a model can't be morality of society, morality connected to a belief or person's own morality. If the teacher will be a model, he must cling to the universal values and be flexiable at this point. It can be stated that there are some points to be in the primary position. They are teachers' agreeing with the students family, being careful on not contradicting , students' seeing the teacher as a model rather than family, students' being in critical period in terms of development.

Examining the findings, teachers are seeing themselves as a conveyer of the value. They are expressing the values, which are to be taught, as belonging to the belief, tradition, national values, universal values, honesty, confidence, timeless values, the principles of national education and values of the society. The other emphasised point is educational curriculum's being insufficinent on the basis of values and the individual's being free to choose the value.

Another point worth to emphasize is that teachers shouldn't reflect their own political ideas to the students while transferring the values, if not so it may lead to confusion.; " political and religious ideas shouldn't be transferred. My opinion may be good, I love God and would teach it. The one disagreeing me would teach his own ideas.The objective of the programme should be given. We are totally teaching the values.

'At any place of the world any one is your brother. It must be universal. I'm teaching. In the curriculum, most of the values are wrong and not enough. These values want us to be narrow minded. But we have to teach. We won't get the students into any shape. We will mention about all of the values. The student will build up his own personality. '' the points ,the interviewers emphasized, are necessity of teaching universal values, giving the idea on being world citizen, but at this time, the curriculum is an obstacle and insufficient. In choosing the universal values, the students have to be free individually.

4. Conclusion

Is it necessary for a classroom teacher to describe the ethic or have the knowledge of this concept? Uncapable of describing and explaining this concept may not be the sign of a teacher profile which shows not worrying about the ethics.But it is not ignored that, as having knowledge of the concept, we may examine the subject better. It is obvious that teacher is conveying the value consciously or unconsciously. That's why, teachers should examine. To examine, they should have the idea about the subject. Because our minds are playing their own roles by using the words.

Evaluating the findings, teacher must try to live virtuously and examine himself ethically. So it is concluded that he must be a model. Also , here are some points facing us: '' Students are in the critical period in terms of development, giving importance to the teacher rather than family, accepting teachers' behaviours without questioning. It can be asserted that teachers worry about being a model. Another result from this subject is ; teachers are confused about what the reference is to be model. This situation brings different difficulties about demanded results in education.

It is concluded that teachers are conscious about the role of conveying the value. On the basis of value, the curriculum is insufficient regarding the content and students' personal choices must be respected in value. For the benefit of students' personality developments, the importance of conveying the value and teachers' not conveying personal views and believes are determined.

Another possible result, because the society consists of different family types, conveying the religious values may be reason of the conflict between family and the school. That's why, in teaching the value, the universal values has

to have the priority. Also, it's concluded that students have to get the knowledge of religious values in the later periods and they must choose individually.

Moreover, because of individual's being in society and not demanding any conflicts in society , the school's having the role for being conveyer of the value is another conclusion.

In this century, it is globalizing and getting out of the nations' borders. The universal values are exposed under the shade of the nations' values. Next to the values that we consider as good, day by day , fanaticism, racism, exploitation, egoism, violence are globalizing too. So it is to be determined that what kind of reference should take into consideration in conveying the values. This complexity causes difficulties in living together among the individuals educated by curriculums.

References

Bilhan, S. (1991). Egitim felsefesi. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Yayinlari. Ankara Universitesi Basimevi. Ankara. Buyukduvenci, S. (1991). Egitim felsefesine giri§. Sava§ Yayinlari. Ankara. Kant, i. (2006). Egitim uzerine. iz Yayincilik: istanbul.

Yayla, A. (2004). Etik Egitim Sorunsalina Bir Yakla§im Denemesi. Yayinlanmami§ Doktora Tezi. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Enstitusu.