Scholarly article on topic 'Necessity of a Dictionary of Contemporary Art in Theory and Practice Concerning Art Education'

Necessity of a Dictionary of Contemporary Art in Theory and Practice Concerning Art Education Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{education / art / contemporary / postmodern / dictionary}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Berna Coşkun Onan

Abstract Technological and scientific developments affecting all disciplines have been infinitely effective in both theoretical studies and application approaches especially among all fields of social sciences beginning from the second half of the 20th century. Reflections of postmodernism, considered as mentality of the era, on educational institutions of social sciences were mentioned as a paradoxical complexity similar to its theoretical applications. Differences in approaches regarding applications by modern and anti-modern viewpoints in education cause an increase in studies focused on theory. In this sense, being places where connection of postmodernism with the art is excessively occurred, higher art education institutions are in interaction with both modern and postmodern structures such as theoretical knowledge acquisition, acquisition of artistic skills based on intellectual foundations and reflecting acquisitions on educational status. For instance, contemporary art courses dealing with today's art with dominance of art historical progress, is important on the one hand in creating application through theoretical foundations and in terms of perceiving how sociological constitutions of periods affect the art; on the other hand in the analysis of similar applications and reflecting theoretical acquisitions on works in studio courses. There are several classes and subject fields supporting each other contents in programs of educational institution of undergraduate level. The purpose of this study is to piece together content similar to a dictionary that may help effective understanding theoretically of the structure of contemporary art related to disciplines such as visual art, linguistics, semiology, sociology and psychology. In this study, which employs qualitative research methods, considering the extent of the scope the study, participants are chosen among instructors of graduate education in the field of art education. Information gathered from the studies of undergraduate instructors is processed using document analysis and data acquisition methods, and finally analysed via concept analysis. Concluding with final commentary on the issue, the research suggests the necessity of such a comprehensive structure, namely a dictionary of contemporary art, for students and instructors of higher education.

Academic research paper on topic "Necessity of a Dictionary of Contemporary Art in Theory and Practice Concerning Art Education"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect PfOCSCl ¡0

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 (2013) 1890 - 1899

Fourth International Conference on New Horizons in Education

Necessity of a dictionary of contemporary art in theory and practice concerning art education*

Berna Co§kun Onan^

Doctoral Student, Anadolu University Yunus Emre Campus, Eski§ehir 26470, Turkey

Abstract

Technological and scientific developments affecting all disciplines have been infinitely effective in both theoretical studies and application approaches especially among all fields of social sciences beginning from the second half of the 20th century. Reflections of postmodernism, considered as mentality of the era, on educational institutions of social sciences were mentioned as a paradoxical complexity similar to its theoretical applications. Differences in approaches regarding applications by modern and anti-modern viewpoints in education cause an increase in studies focused on theory. In this sense, being places where connection of postmodernism with the art is excessively occurred, higher art education institutions are in interaction with both modern and postmodern structures such as theoretical knowledge acquisition, acquisition of artistic skills based on intellectual foundations and reflecting acquisitions on educational status. For instance, contemporary art courses dealing with today's art with dominance of art historical progress, is important on the one hand in creating application through theoretical foundations and in terms of perceiving how sociological constitutions of periods affect the art; on the other hand in the analysis of similar applications and reflecting theoretical acquisitions on works in studio courses. There are several classes and subject fields supporting each other contents in programs of educational institution of undergraduate level. The purpose of this study is to piece together content similar to a dictionary that may help effective understanding theoretically of the structure of contemporary art related to disciplines such as visual art, linguistics, semiology, sociology and psychology. In this study, which employs qualitative research methods, considering the extent of the scope the study, participants are chosen among instructors of graduate education in the field of art education. Information gathered from the studies of undergraduate instructors is processed using document analysis and data acquisition methods, and finally analysed via concept analysis. Concluding with final commentary on the issue, the research suggests the necessity of such a comprehensive structure, namely a dictionary of contemporary art, for students and instructors of higher education.

©2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibilityof The AssociationofScience,EducationandTechnology-TASET,SakaryaUniversitesi, Turkey.

* This study has been supported and represented by Agency of Scientific Research Projects in Anadolu University in Turkey. T Tel: +0 536 688 8756 e-mail address:onanberna@hotmail.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya Universitesi, Turkey. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.215

Keywords: education; art; contemporary;postmodern; dictionary

1. Introduction

Postmodernism is thought to begin with the end of modernism, namely era of manifestations, a period that started with art impressionism and meant continuous progress in science after the age of enlightenment. It is an understanding and expression method based on the criticism against paradoxes of modernism such as progressive viewpoints, rationalism and being scientific. Within the postmodern art both adopter and critic of modern thinking, theory of gathering from past and combining with the present is applied quite effectively. With the art losing its functionality as a discipline and wrapping up in interdisciplinary function, we may talk about the same context for all fields with horizontal relation in terms of perception of artistic studies and their socialization. Beginning from the second half of the 20th century, technological and scientific developments effecting all disciplines vertically and horizontally have been infinitely effective in both theoretical studies and application approaches especially among all fields of social sciences. As a way of thought and expression of the era, it is possible to speak of postmodernism as a paradoxical complexity stemming from the differences in treatment of artistic applications by modern and anti-modern views within the context of reflections on educational status as a social sciences field. This paradoxical situation causes increase in effort for developing theories on the relationship between art and education. In this sense, being places where connection of postmodernism with the art is excessively occurred, higher education institutions of art education are in interaction with both modern and postmodern structures such as theoretical knowledge acquisition, acquisition of artistic skills based on intellectual foundations and reflecting acquisitions on educational status. For instance, modern art class that deals with today's art with dominance of art historical progress, is important on the one hand in creating application through theoretical foundations and in terms of perceiving how sociological constitutions of periods affect the art, on the other hand in the analysis of similar applications and reflecting theoretical acquisitions on works in studio courses. For this reason, we can say that postmodernism has extensions in both theory and application.

Another vital issue at the point of reflection of postmodernism on education status is the studies that combine cultures with common experiences in a structure. At this point, postmodern expression shows parallelism with subjects of pluralism and liberation of individual that are based on 'culture' fact. Becoming prominent with the devastation of social culture concept, the notion of cultural socialisation (Akay, 2010) has become a frequently encountered situation in fields of art and education along with sociology. Cultures as separate values and as the most important element forming societies come closer during education process. As a result of individuals' understanding of multiculturalism with their distinct cultures and association of these values in educational applications in pluralistic way, we can come across with effects ofmulticulturalism in exhibitions and works.

Together with proliferation of this new way of thinking and perception condition, there arises necessity to define new aesthetic perceptions in terms of perception of art. This means disclaiming current aesthetic understandings, just like experienced during Renaissance period in proliferation and approval of new aesthetic understanding with elements of perspective through denying the limits of iconographic and ideological viewpoints of Middle Ages. Aesthetic understandings of reflective theory popularised with the Renaissance left their place to relationality and positionality with the coming of modernism enabling present postmodern works to have formalist aesthetics and then rich variety in terms of material and formation. At this point, as a result of ontological shift that separated from superficial and imaginative fictions and that urged for a perception of location, eclectic assemblies occurred in objects used in emplacements in addition to superficial and fictive eclecticism. Along with this ontological change in the structure of art object, we need to speak of new aesthetic paradigms in perception of the object and changing definition of artist. Artist has now become a person who is questioning the nature of art just like a philosopher and this thinking reminds of Hegel's thesis end of art. In this

respect, Hegel inserted "art invites us to intellectual thinking; reason for this is not to create a new work ofart but to know in philosophical sense what art is" (Quoted from Hegel: Danto, 2010, p.37).

Considering these changes from the point of criticism of art, works of postmodernism are though not to be explained with words such as reminding and questioning. Even there is a difference between times ofcreation and final product of an artistic work; it seems natural that certain differences among personal perceptions may arise. As can be understood from here, meaning is continuously postponed and never absolute and unique. Explaining this situation within the relation between language, art and postmodernism, Derrida explained all these differences with the concept of 'difference in interpretation' and 'differance' (§aylan, 2002). Conveying all changes in art to individuals through art education plays an important role in the interpretation of contemporary

1.1. ProblemStatus

Included in programs of departments of faculty of educational sciences training art teachers on bachelor's degree and with their contents in parallel with contemporary art, current contemporary art classes and theoretical courses have objectives of comprehending various paradigms of today's art. As a result of technological, sociological and cultural events of last fifty years of the 20th century effecting art infinitely, the art has gained a complex state. This complex structure urges the usage of educational applications gathering several disciplines in class contents and education methods. Because of direct or indirect joining of visuals elements of many disciplines into education environments through art, students have difficulty in making sense of concepts belonging to different disciplines, in connecting them with art and in using those concepts among several dimensions such as artistic applications and criticism. These students experience trouble in conveying these non-current and inadequate information. For instance, recently it is possible to come across with anti-modernist language in many artworks biennials and one should have a sociologically critical point of view in better perception ofthis particular language.

Dictionaries are one of the most important educational materials necessary for creating educational conditions and reconfiguring this information with a social and cognitive understanding. In this context, scanning the related literature, while there exist publications consisting of information about classical and modern periods, technical terms and lives of artists, we have not come across with not any dictionary type publications consisting of information related to postmodern period, certain concepts and lives of artists and also consisting of interdisciplinary terms. For the students who are trying to familiarize with and experience the artworks and artists of current period with the help of course contents, there is an increasing necessity for a dictionary in which they can make sense ofconcepts related to different disciplines.

1.2. Dictionary as an educational material

In terms of constructivism, material designs and education technologies, aimed at reconfiguration of information gather from education environments and outside, were constructed in accordance with a certain book, educational level and location. According to this understanding, learning is "reconfiguration of past understandings of an individual into a more complex and more valid state and internalisation of acquired learnings with various symbols, images, graphics or models" (Sakalli, 2011, p.49). For this reason, students experience problems in interpretation of several concepts when they combine the reflection of social culture into classes and their cognitive experiences. In the face of these problems, constructivist teacher is in the position of directive and guidance counsellor, urging students to question through questions but does not tell what and how to think. In this case, gaining characteristic of an active researcher, the student feel the necessity for materials that show connections with other disciplines for different approaches and that supports making sense of these concepts. While concentrating on reading for ensuring better learning seems a way of first priority, after reading,

it is necessary to conduct activities such as using this knowledge in sentences and real life in practice. Considering the main objective of activities based on reading as understanding the message, at this point the importance of extent of vocabulary emerges. Yilmaz and Kofmar (2009) suggest that "vocabulary is the primary effect on success of a student in understanding what s/he reads", and point out that habit of reading dictionary is one of the various ways of increasing this comprehension. Dictionaries can either comprise of word assets including all words or comprise of all words related to a particular information field (Quoted from Sayali: Yilmaz and Kofmar, 2003). For this reason, they can be utilized as an education material in achieving certain objectives in training.

Dictionary is "a work of art in various qualities and scope that compiles and defines word assets or a certain part of word assets in a language in accordance with an objectives, that exemplifies on the basis of written texts and that sometimes includes grammar explanations" (Kaya, 2007).

When dictionary preparation process is considered in terms of certain discipline and its theoretical and practical paradigms are determined, all the rest subheadings will be integrated with the concept of lexicography. Dictionary preparation purposes are divided into three; training-education oriented, multilingual and scientific-technical dictionaries. In this study, social objectives of lexicography are adopted and a necessity for a dictionary of educational and training purposes is proposed. (Quoted from MapTtraroK: Usta 2010, p.97) In forming the education status, dictionary of contemporary art;

• Since it was prepared oriented to a certain context, as a material it provides students with wide point of view in real life usage.

• It should provide students ofart education opportunity to comprehend situations they may come across with instances outside the class and in real world and to react actively. Since dictionaries are prepared directed towards educational fields, its priority in adoption to real life should come to forefront and accepted as an objective.

• It should assist students and preservice teachers in having a sense ofadequacy and self-confidence with the help ofinterdisciplinary comprehension style rather then temporary knowledge acquisition.

• It may ease training process and enrich the content with visuals and different connections for words that are difficult to comprehend, and keep enthusiasm ofstudents ofart education.

• One ofthe objectives ofdictionary preparation should be its quality as an assistant for students and the society to learn Turkish language better and correctly use it throughout their lives.

• It should support to expand their vocabulary and their art criticism abilities with the words and definition it contains.

• Referring to basic sources, it should teach students where to find required information and resource access in their researches.

In this sense, since materials are not prepared directed towards a target group or a student group, they cannot serve the purpose. Including definitions ofart concepts and terms and having characteristic ofaprimary source as a separate discipline, current dictionaries are class and out of class materials prepared oriented towards supplying students with comprehensive information regarding a certain theoretical and practical field. Dictionaries that aim at explaining word assets of a field and their connections with other fields are called thematic dictionaries. According to Actual Turkish Dictionary of TLA (Turkish Language Association) (2013), theme means major subject, basic motif and staple topic. According to science and art dictionary of TLA (2013), main idea bears the meaning of saturation or unsaturation provided by interaction between a certain pulse and requirement. Related to

training, a syllabus means a thought or a recurring subject adopted in terms of an education unit and an educational activity.

Aksan divides dictionary types into two as per their status whether it i based on alphabetical order or not, and they are called alphabetical dictionaries and concept (concept field) dictionaries (Quoted from Aksan: Mutlu 2009, p.816). From the statements of Mutlu, it can be understood that he suggests a methodological unity for thematic dictionaries in a similar alphabetical order like regular dictionaries have. According to Mutlu, "in thematic dictionaries, basic subject and staple topics (headings) should be determined and words should be organised in lexical and listed entries" (2009, p.817). For instance, while basic headlines for the theme, Turkish, are society, science and technology, universe, art, language and literature, abstract terms and things, subheading for this theme is Art: cinema, archaeology, drawing, sculpture and architecture. In this sense, analysing the related art dictionaries, they may be regarded as prepared in a thematic and alphabetical way, however this theme in question transforms into actual, close to real life and interdisciplinary structure when it comes to contemporary art. It is known that there are many subheadings (of related disciplines) supporting this theme. Some of the subheadings are: linguistics, semeiology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, art history, criticism, psychoanalysis, architecture, public space, technology, museology, aesthetics and artistic application. Since art comes closer to life with postmodernism and continuously in relation with various disciplines, several concepts are added to its word assets. Some of the them are: deferred action, non-centrality, deterritorialisation, deconstruction, simulation, simulacra, appropriation art, parallax, relational aesthetics, meta-instrument, sous-rature, paralogy, metaphor, rhetoric, praxis, axiom, metalanguage, genealogy, society of the spectacle, the law of displacement, artistic aura, reciprocal action, the artist-author, space-time, random materialism, eclecticism, code, codelessness, actionist, installation, video installation, curator, memory, postmodernism, pastiche, parody, uncanny, majority, spatial aesthetics , artefact, text, intertextuality, context, postepistomologic, vulgarized, popularized, supreme, hyper-realism, assemblage, archetype, anthropometric, manifesto, sub-culture, high culture, ready-object, cold art, process art, in situ, happening, conceptualism, serial principle, decollage, famage, material action, making reference, situationism, body art, metaphorical, the art of information, specific object, reductive aesthetic, cultural object, environment, collective memory, to marginalize, multi-cultural, identity oriented art, ironic approach, images of popular culture, graffiti, neo-imagism, the indicator manipulator, social sculpture, decadence, an object of consumption, chromatic, monitor, hybridization, pickup object, rhetoric, not to culture, banality, anthology, catastrophe, fetishism, plain meaning, connotation, synthetic proposition, internalisation, the other, marginalisation, eddy, the neo-geometry... Because of such a discipline variety, it is necessary to apply for primary source and refer to main sources in order to enhance the quality of such an art dictionary with an abundance of concepts. While writing the definitions and explanations of words in thematic dictionaries, it is necessary to benefit from various sources by means of extensive literature review. Literature review, while explaining literary terms, should help readers in understanding depths of terms and in comprehending thanks to several viewpoints ofconcepts.

1.3. Objective oftheresearch

Aim of this study is find answers to following questions regarding preparation of consitutional structure similar to a thematic dictionary as an education material that may help effective comprehension of the structure of today's art in accordance with its relation with branches of science such as visual art, linguistics, semeiology, sociology and psychology:

• For which reasons is there a necessity for a thematic dictionary that can combine concepts from various

disciplines?

• What should this particular dictionary of contemporary art contain different from other art dictionaries?

1.4. Importance ofresearch

Scanning the related literature, there are several dictionaries published in Turkish within the area of art. Through analysing contents of these dictionaries, it can be inserted that these dictionaries contain terms and concepts about various different artistic applications ranging from Mesopotamia art to Fluxus. These comprehensive publications bringing explanations to several understandings, application method, technical materials and terms belonging to history of art meet an important deficit for individuals interested in art. Along with these studies including archaic, traditional, modern and postmodern periods and as a main source for researchers in an inquiry, there are not any dictionaries of contemporary art that contain information and concepts oriented towards providing theory and application unity about today's art. In a survey including visual arts course teacher candidates attending art education on bachelor's degree, Qo^kun Onan (2011) indicated that students experience difficulties in comprehending certain basic concepts used in contemporary art and criticism of art lessons such as minimalism, pop art, curator, postmodernism, fluxus, manifesto, performance, installation, video installation, post, new art objects, kitsch and conceptual art (Co^kun Onan, 2011, s.15).

Because of field reviews, there have not found any publications with contents based of relationship between modern art and other various fields such as linguistics, sociology, psychoanalysis or urban and regional planning. Compiling of Dictionary of Contemporary Art in such a thematic structure and in an alphabetical form is considered to become a assistant source for visual arts preservice teachers and active teachers, instructors in faculty of educational sciences, students of faculty of fine arts and instructors, also all individuals interested in art.

2. Method

Research was conducted based on qualitative research methods. In qualitative researches based on explanatory tradition, main concern is to analyse limited phenomenon and facts in a most possible depth and descriptiveness. In this research, reason of using qualitative methods is to pioneer the hypothesis applications by thoroughly investigating dimensions related to a current theory. Results obtained from this study are expected to provide depth, detail and meaning to qualitative data. In this sense, a researcher analysing a certain situation with a limited number of participants and creating analytical generalization from acquired results may start to develop a theoretical model or to form a theory (Yildirim and §imjek, 2008, p.310).

2.1. Research Pattern

This research is conducted fully with qualitative research methods and data are patterned through analytical research. In accordance with analytical method, two distinct data sets of the research (instructor writings and literature data) were analysed with document analysis-data collection technique. Among research methods, there are also other studies conducted without these two qualitative or quantitative classifications. These are analytical (analyser) studies. "Analytical study is a research type that investigates facts, thoughts, concepts or structures with the help ofdocuments, records, voice records or other media" (Mc. Millan, 2004, p.12).

2.2. Sample

In the research, three different samples were used. Firstly, eight people from different universities were chosen among instructors who serve in different theoretical and practical courses in Fine Arts Education departments and who combine qualities of educator-researcher and artist all together. Reason for creating a sample based on maximum variety is not to generalize but to find out any common or shared facts among these ranging situations and depending on this variety to put forward different dimensions of these facts (Yildirim and §imjek, 2008, s.108). Second sample was form out of 10 sources chosen from theoretical and applied literature of contemporary art with a basis of maximum variety. As a third sample, three art dictionaries published in Turkey were analysed in order to determine the count and ratio ofdetermined concepts. These sources are given in sources section.

2.3. Data collection method

As a main data collection method of the study, document analysis method was used. Document analysis: It is used in qualitative researches when direct observation and discussion are not possible. It includes analysis of other visual materials such as written material and film, video, photograph regarding required fact or facts. Which materials are ofimportance depends on the main problems ofresearch (Yildirim and §im$ek, 2008). In this study, three types of document were analysed with document analysis data collection method. These are art dictionaries, books from different disciplines forming the literature ofcontemporary art and writings of instructors.

• Art Dictionaries: Adnan Turani's Dictionary of Art Terms (With the code A), Nimet Keser's Art Dictionary (With the code N), Metin Sozen and Ugur Tanyeli's Dictionary of Art Concept and Terms (With the code U).

• Writings of instructors: Instructors are asked to fill a form consisting three open ended question such as "About which concepts ofcontemporary art do you experience difficulty in teaching?".

• Literature about disciplines related to contemporary art theory: Art criticism, art, philosophy, art history, types of artistic practice, criticism, sociology, psychology, aesthetics, public space are chosen temporarily in this phase of the research. These fields may be increased in number during preparation and application of dictionary ofcontemporary art. Determined sources are given in Sources sections ofthe study.

2.4. Data analysisprocess

In the research, dictionary indexing technique of lexical unit (m) was chosen arbitrarily as a data analysis unit. Analysis of data was conducted with two basic processes. First process is to find out which concepts include (m) lexical unit in contemporary art theory literature, dictionaries and writings of instructors. Second process is to compare the findings with a table and interpret them. Concepts bearing (m) lexical units are given below. Among these concepts, related concepts that will be possibly included in a dictionary ofcontemporary art are emphasized by underlining. The sample group of terms chosen from dictionaries are given according to alphabetical lexical listing from Turkish dictionaries without translations; main reason for such choice is to interpret statistical data for (m) lexical units in numbers from those dictionaries.

In A dictionary: (chosen from M units in Turkish) mabet, mabeyn, macun, mafa, mafo, madalya, madalyon, maden mavisi, Madonna, Magdalanien Sanati, Magara Devri Sanati, magara tapinagi, mahfe, mahfil, mahmuz, mahya, mahya a^igi, mahya kiremidi, mahya ortusu, mahzen mezar, majolika, makas, maksure, malakari, malikhane, manastir, manastir tonozu, maniyere, maniyerizm, mansard, manzara resmi, markiz, Mars, mask, maske, mastaba, mastar, mastar fekmek, matraka, Moussoleion, Mavi Atli Grubu, mavi fini, mazgal, mazgal di§i, mazgal siperi, meandr, Meduz/Meduza, megalit mezarlari, megaron, menhir, menora, merkezsel yapi, mertek, mescit, metop, mezar hucresi, Mezolitik, mih, Misir dor duzeni, mihenk, mehenk ya da mihenk ta§i, mihrap,

mimarlik, minare, minber, mine, Minerva, minimal sanat, minyatür, mit, mitoloji, mizbah, mobil, mobilya, modelaj, modern, modernizm, modle etme, modülasyon, moloz do^ek, moloz duvar, moloz ta^i, monografi, monogram, monokrom, monolit, monopil, monopter, monotipi, monumental, motif, mozaik, mozaik siva, mucarta, Mudekhar üslubu, muhakkak, mukarnas, mulaj, mum heykel, mumlu boya, mumlu kil, Müdejar üslubu, mühür oyma, müz, müze, müzehhip.

In N dictionary: (chosen from M units in Turkish) macenta, Madonna, maesta, magara resimleri, mail art, majik gerfeklik, maket, mandala, manifesto, maniyere olmak, maniyerizm, Marksist estetik, maruflaj, masssürrealizm, matriks, Mavi Atli Grubu, Mac art, mecaz, medium, mekan, mekanik sanatlar, merdane, metafizik sanat, metaphor, metal uf, metamorfoz, metanimi, mezopotamya sanati, mezotint, misir sanati, mimesis, mine, minimalizm, minyatür, mit, mitoloji, mobil heykel, model, modelaj, modernist sanat, modle etme, modülasyon, modülasyan kadanse, mono baski, monogram, monokrom, monokromatik, monotip baski, monoton akromatik renk, monoton kromatik, montaj, motif, mozaik, mulaj, multimedia, mum, mum yok etme teknigi, mural, mürekkep, Müstakil Ressamlar ve Heykeltra^lar Birligi, müze.

In U dictionary: (chosen from M units in Turkish) mabet, mabeyn, mablak, macellum, macuñ, macun teknigi, mafa, mafo, madalya, madalyon, madirga/matraka, Madonna, maesta, mafraj, mafsal, magribi, mag, magara resmi, magaza, mahalle, mahfe, mahfil, mahmuz, mahrama/makrama, mahya, mahya kiremidi, mahya kiri^i, mahzen, mahzenmezar, mail, majestas domini, majik gerfekfilik, majolica, makam-I ali, makas, makas kiri^i, makat, maket, makili, makina estetigi, makrama, maksem, maksure, makta, mala, malakar, malakari, malta bifkisi, malta ta^i, maltiz, manastir, manastir tonozu, manazir, mandala, mandapa, mandorla, mangal, maniera greca, maniera tedesca, manifesto, manken, mansard fatisi, mansiyon, mantaragaci, mantar dómeme, manueline, maniyerist sanat, manyerizm, manzara bahfesi, manzume, maristan, marketori, markiz, marley, maroken, Mar grubu, marsilya kiremidi, martyria, martyrium, masa, masgala, masif, mask, maskala, maskaron, maske, maslak, mastaba, mastar, mastos, ma^allah, ma^raka, mat, matbah, matrab, matraka, maun, mavi-beyaz fini, Maya sanati, mazgal, meandr, medici vazosu, medine, medrese, medium, mefru^at, megalit, megalitik, megalopolis, megaron, megastrüktür, mekan, mektep, menazir, menevij, mengene, menhir, mensa, mente^e, menzilhane, menzil ta^i, merdiven, merdiven bo^lugu, merdiven kovasi, meremmetfi, meridyen koltuk, merkezi plan, merkezi yapi, mermer, mermer siva, mertebani, mertek, merz, mescid-i cuma, mescit, mesire, mesken, mesmet, me^e, me^k, me^k kagidi, meta, metafizik resim, metop, metraj, metris, metro, metropol, metropoliten, mevlevihane, meydan, meydanlik, meydan odasi, mezar, mezarlik, mezarta^i, Mezopotamya sanati, Misir sanati, miskala, migferli aryballos, mihda, mihenk ta^i, mihrabiye, mihrap, mihrap duvari, mihrapli, mihrap-onü kubbesi, Miken sanati, mikleb, miktal, milli mimari, mimar, mimar fapi, mimar-i sani, mimari, mimariye, mimarlar odasi, mimarlik, min, minai teknik, minare, minber, minder, mine, mineli, minemsi teknik, minimal sanat, minkar, minos sanati, minear, minyatür, minyatürcü, mirkat, miskab, mismar, misra, mistik delta, mi'^ar, mi'tede, mithraeum, mitoloji, mitolojik, mitra, mixed media, mizab, mobil, mobilya, moda, model, model kalibi, modernist, modernizm, modern mimarlik, modern sanat, modlaj, modle, modele etmek, modulor, modül, modüler, modüler koordinasyon, modüler planlama, modül ízgarasi, mo-fang, moloz duvar, moloz ta§, moncuk, monografi, monogram, monokromi, monolit, monolitik, monopil, monopter, monostil, monotip, morbidezza, mortuarium, motel, motif, mound, movimento nucleare, mozaik, mozaik siva, mozarabik sanat, mozeta, mozole, mucarta, muderaj üslubu, mudra, mu-fang, muhaccer, Muhafaza-i Asar-i Atika Encümeni, muhakkak, muhawata, mukarnas, mulaj, mum makasi, mumya, mumya portresi, murakka, murf, musakkafat, musalla, musalla ta^i, musandira, musanna, musattah, musavvir, muskali, mutalla, mutfak, mutulus, muvakkithane, mucahir alan, mücellid, mücevveze, müezzin mahvili, mühendishane-i Berri Hümayun, mühre, mükebbire, mülebbin, mülemma jemse, meülevven jemse, Müstakil Ressamlar ve Heykeltra^lar Birligi, mü^ebbek jemse, mü^refiye, mü^temilet, müze, müzehhep, müzehhip, müzeyyen, müzikalistler.

From the books of contemporary art theory literature, 'm' unit concepts are: mail art, manifesto, manipulation, marginalize (to), Marxism, Marxist aesthetics, mass media, matte key, materialaction, materialism, maximal interpretation, metaphor, meditative, medium, media, media art, media and society, space, illusion of space,

merkezsizle^tirme (decentralized), meta, meta-instrument, metaphor, metaphorical, metonomy, text, intertextuality, mimesis, mimetic, hybridization, and minimalism / minimal art, furniture-sculpture, modeling, modern, modernity, modernism, modern culture, modernist ideology, monatla^tirmak, monitor, monochrome monologue, multi-media, author / artist, mulksuzle^tirme (dispossession), museum.

Concepts with'm' lexical unit chosen from writings of instructors are: manipulation, Marxism, media art, metaphor, modern, montage, mutation, multivision, monochrome, modernism / modern art, modernity, mail art, minimalism / minimal art, moulage.

Table 1. Concept Analysis Table (concepts with'm' lexical unit)

Analysed data set Acquired unit count Common in A dictionary Common in N dictionary Common in U dictionary Total words

Literature data 46 3 10 5 18(5%)

Reviews ofinstructors: 14 2 3 3 10 (%2,7 )

Total 60 5 13 8 360 (%100)

3. Conclusion and Discussion

3.1. Conclusion

• According to analysis results acquired, ten sources chosen as literature were scanned and several concepts that explain, support and concern contemporary art from the point of different disciplines were found. Among these concepts, those starting with'm' unit are found to be 46. Ofthese 46 concepts, their exact match count is 18 with a ratio of5% within the 360 concepts starting with'm' in three dictionaries.

• Concepts instructors inserted with (m) lexical unit were 14 units. Ofthese 14 concepts, their exact match count is 10 with a ratio of2.7% within the 360 concepts starting with'm' in current dictionaries.

• The ratio of including contemporary art terms is 7.7% in these three dictionaries including all concepts from various historical art periods.

3.2. Discussion

• This study suggests that contemporary art class are added to educational programs in order to provide Turkish visual arts preservice teachers with more aesthetic, sociological, philosophical and critical approach to contemporary art and with a closer watch on artistic developments. Because of comprehensive structure of these lessons, additional sources are needed to support both theoretical and practical information of students. Therefore, a dictionary ofcontemporary art is regarded as similar source.

• Total assets of current dictionaries regarding contemporary art are low in quantity with a ratio of 7.7% found through numerical analysis. Similarly, it seems impossible to suggest that current dictionaries help students of higher education in the course of comprehending and self-development regarding contemporary art. Accordingly, a necessity emerges for dictionaries that include information oriented towards theory and practice regarding contemporary art.

• This planned dictionary of contemporary art is thematic since it will include information about art starting from the second halfof20th century to present; it is interdisciplinary since it will have connection with several

fields closely or remotely in relation with contemporary art; and it is alphabetical as an educational material for continuous consult by students ofart.

Sources

Academic and Scientific Sources

Cojkun Onan B. (2011). Resim-l? Ogretmen Adaylarmm Bir Qagda? Sanat Elejtirisi Yontemi Olan Post-Yapisal Elejtiri Ogretimi ifin Hazir Bulunujluk Duzeylerinin Degerlendirilmesi. Ataturk Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, Issue:23.

Danto A. C. (2010). Sanatin Sonundan Sonra: Qagda§ Sanat ve Tarihin Simr Qizgisi. (Qev:Zeynep Demirsu). Istanbul: Ayrmti Publishing. Kaya, N. (2007). Okul Sozluklerinin Degerlendirilmesi (1945-2005). Unpublished Postgraduate Thesis, Marmara University Institute of Education Sciences, Istanbul.

McMillan J. (2004). Educational Research: Fundamentals/or the Consumer (4.bs.). USA: Pearson Press.

Mutlu H. K. (2009). Turkfe Ogretiminde Sozlukfuluk Teknigi Afismdan Tematik Sozlukler. Turkish Studies 4/4. http://www.turkishstudies.net/DergiTamDetav.aspx?ID=831 accessed on 17.06.2013.

Sakalli M. (2011) Egitim Teknolojisinin Kuramsal Temelleri. Uzunboylu H. (ed.) Found in Ogretim Teknolojileri ve Materyal Tasarimi (2. vol.) (Sect:2, pp.24-56).

§aylan G. (2009). Postmodernizm. (4. Edi.). Ankara: imge Publishing.

Tarakfioglu A. O. (2012). Yabanci Dil Ogretiminde Materyal Gelijtirme, Materyal Uyarlama ve Kullammmm Onemi. Sarifoban A. ve Tavil

Z. M. (ed.). Found in Yabanci Dil Ogretiminde Ogretim Teknolojileri ve Materyal Tasarimi (Sect:l, pp. 1-18). Ankara: Am Publishing.

TDK (2013). http://www.tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com gts accessed on 17.06.2013.

Usta, H.i. (2010). Sozlukfuluk ve Sozluk Arajtirmalari. Modern Turkluk Ara^tirmalari Dergisi. Cilt 7, S. 2

Yildirim, A. ve ^imjek, H. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Ara^tirma Yontemleri (7. Edi.). Ankara: Sefkin Publishing,

Yilmaz ve Kofar (2009). ilkogretim Okullari (6., 7., 8. Simflar) ifin Hazirlanan Turkfe Sozluklerin Turkfe Ders Kitaplarmdaki Soz Varligmi Yansitmasi Bakimmdan Degerlendirilmesi. Sakarya Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 18

Inspected Resources

Akay A. (2009). Sanat Tarihi: Siradkp BirDisiplin. (2. Edi.). Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Yaymcilik. Akay A. (2010). Birle^meyen Sentez. Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Publishing.

Antmen A. (2009). Sanatgilardan Yazilar ve Agiklamalarla 20. Yuzyil Bati Sanatinda Akimlar. (2. Edi.). Istanbul: Sel Publishing. Barrett T. (2012). Sanati Ele^tirmek: GunceliAnlamak. (trans: Gokfe Metin) Istanbul: Hayalperest Publishing. Bourriaud N. (2005). lli^kiselEstetik. (trans: Saadet Ozen). Istanbul: Baglam Publishing.

Danto A. C. (2010). Sanatin Sonundan Sonra: Qagdaq Sanat ve Tarihin Simr Qizgisi. (Qev:Zeynep Demirsu). istanbulAynnti Publishing.

Foster H. (2009). Gergegin Geri Donu^u: Yuzyilin SonundaAvangard. (trans: Esin Hojsucu) Istanbul: Ayrmti Publishing.

Keser N. (2009). Sanat Sozlugu. (2.Edi.) Ankara: Utopya Publishing.

Madra B. (2003). tki YildaBirSanat. Bienal Yazilari. Istanbul: Norgunk Publishing.

Sozen M. ve Tanyeli U. (2001). SanatKavramlari ve Terimleri Sozlugu. (6. Edi.). Istanbul. Remzi Publishing. §aylan G. (2009). Postmodernizm. (4. Edi.). Ankara: imge Publishing.

§ahiner R. (2008). Sanatta Postmodern Kirilmalarya da Modernin Yapibozumu. Istanbul. Yeni insan Publishing. Turani A. (2004). Sanat Terimleri Sozlugu. (10. Edi.). Istanbul. Remzi Publishing.